15,563 results match your criteria deficits central

Breath-holding as a novel approach to risk stratification in COVID-19.

Crit Care 2021 Jun 14;25(1):208. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham & Women's Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Despite considerable progress, it remains unclear why some patients admitted for COVID-19 develop adverse outcomes while others recover spontaneously. Clues may lie with the predisposition to hypoxemia or unexpected absence of dyspnea ('silent hypoxemia') in some patients who later develop respiratory failure. Using a recently-validated breath-holding technique, we sought to test the hypothesis that gas exchange and ventilatory control deficits observed at admission are associated with subsequent adverse COVID-19 outcomes (composite primary outcome: non-invasive ventilatory support, intensive care admission, or death). Read More

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Spontaneous Hematomyelia Associated with the Use of Non-vitamin K Antagonist.

J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Doctoral Program in Physical Therapy, The Herbert H. and Grace A. Dow College of Health Professions, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan, United States.

Vitamin K antagonists have been frequently prescribed as anticoagulants with the potential side effect of spontaneous hematomyelia with a poor prognosis. However, to our knowledge, there has been no report of spontaneous hematomyelia combined with the use of a non-vitamin K antagonist. A 63-year-old man presented with left leg weakness, impaired sensation, and urinary retention while taking rivaroxaban (non-vitamin K antagonist) for 4 months for atrial fibrillation. Read More

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Cannabidiol attenuates cognitive deficits and neuroinflammation induced by early alcohol exposure in a mice model.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 11;141:111813. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Neurobiology of Behaviour Research Group (GReNeC-NeuroBio), Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain; Neuroscience Research Programme, IMIM-Hospital del Mar Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the umbrella term used to describe the physical and mental disabilities induced by alcohol exposure during development. Early alcohol exposure induces cognitive impairments resulting from damage to the central nervous system (CNS). The neuroinflammatory response accompanied by neurodegenerative mechanisms contribute to those detrimental alterations. Read More

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Remyelination therapies for multiple sclerosis: Optimizing translation from animal models into clinical trials.

Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Departments of Neurology and Neurologic Surgery Mayo Clinic, Rochester Minnesota 55905 USA.

Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Demyelination, the main pathology in MS, contributes to clinical symptoms and long-term neurological deficits if left untreated. Remyelination, the natural repair of damaged myelin by cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage occurs in MS, but eventually fails in most patients as they age. Read More

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Can neuroscience help to understand narcissism? A systematic review of an emerging field.

Personal Neurosci 2021 28;4:e3. Epub 2021 May 28.

Clinical Psychology and Behavioral Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Narcissism is a Janusian personality construct, associated with both grandiose self-assuredness and dominance, as well as vulnerable insecurity and reactivity. Central questions of intra- and interpersonal functioning in narcissism are still a matter of debate. Neuroscience could help to understand the paradoxical patterns of experience and behavior beyond the limitations of self-reports. Read More

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Mapping of the Language Cortex.

Cureus 2021 May 11;13(5):e14960. Epub 2021 May 11.

Neurosurgery, Neuroscience Institute, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, QAT.

Awake craniotomy with intraoperative neurophysiological language mapping (INLM) is an established procedure for patients undergoing surgery to resection tumors in the language cortex area. INLM and continuous neurophysiological monitoring allow assessment of the language function, which is not possible under general anesthesia. INLM of the brain areas provides a helpful tool to the operating surgeon in reducing the risks associated with tumor resection in the motor and language cortex. Read More

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Decreased Exosomal Acetylcholinesterase Activity in the Plasma of Patients With Parkinson's Disease.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 28;13:665400. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Neurology, Veterans Medical Research Institute, Veterans Health Service Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.

Exosomes, which are small extracellular vesicles produced from various cell types, contain a variety of molecular constituents, such as proteins, lipids, and RNA. Recently, exosomal biomarkers have been investigated to probe the understanding and diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders. Previous reports have demonstrated increased exosomal α-synuclein (α-syn) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in comparison to healthy controls (HC). Read More

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The Neural Correlates of Effortful Cognitive Processing Deficits in Schizophrenia: An ERP Study.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 28;15:664008. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Psychiatry, The Affiliated Wuxi Mental Health Center of Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, China.

Individuals' information processing includes automatic and effortful processes and the latter require sustained concentration or attention and larger amounts of cognitive "capacity." Event-related potentials (ERPs) reflect all neural activities that are related to a certain stimulus. Investigating ERP characteristics of effortful cognitive processing in people with schizophrenia would be helpful in further understanding the neural mechanism of schizophrenia. Read More

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Reversibility of motor dysfunction in the rat model of NGLY1 deficiency.

Mol Brain 2021 Jun 13;14(1):91. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Glycometabolic Biochemistry Laboratory, RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan.

N-glycanase 1 (NGLY1) deficiency is a rare inherited disorder characterized by developmental delay, hypolacrima or alacrima, seizure, intellectual disability, motor deficits, and other neurological symptoms. The underlying mechanisms of the NGLY1 phenotype are poorly understood, and no effective therapy is currently available. Similar to human patients, the rat model of NGLY1 deficiency, Ngly1-/-, shows developmental delay, movement disorder, somatosensory impairment, scoliosis, and learning disability. Read More

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Implicit motor imagery using laterality recognition in functional movement disorders.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Jul 10;89:139-143. Epub 2021 May 10.

Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia; University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; Mater Research, Brisbane, Australia.

Functional movement disorder (FMD) presents as disabling motor symptoms that cannot be explained by organic processes. Despite the lack of lesion or known central nervous system dysfunction, distortion in sensorimotor processing in movement generation and execution is often observed. A person's capacity to judge laterality of a body part requires processing of sensorimotor information. Read More

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Structural white matter alterations in carpal tunnel syndrome: A modified TBSS study.

Brain Res 2021 Jun 8:147558. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Rehabilitation Science, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China; Center of Rehabilitation Medicine, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Functional and structural brain alterations have been noted in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), the most common entrapment peripheral neuropathy. Previous studies were mainly focused on somatosensory cortices. However, the changes of white matter diffusion properties in nonsensorimotor cortices remain uninvestigated. Read More

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Freiburg Neuropathology Case Conference : A 42-year-old Patient with Progressive Neurological Deficits, Multiple Brain Lesions and Accompanying Affection of Peripheral Nerves.

Clin Neuroradiol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Departments of Neuroradiology, Medical Centre, University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Breisacherstr. 64, 79106, Freiburg, Germany.

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Early efficacy of teprotumumab for the treatment of dysthyroid optic neuropathy: A multicenter study.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2021 Sep 14;23:101111. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Byers Eye Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Purpose: To study post-interventional findings in patients with dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) treated with teprotumumab.

Observations: In this multicenter observational Case series patients with DON were treated with teprotumumab, an insulin-like growth factor I receptor inhibitor (10 mg/kg for the first infusion then 20 mg/kg for subsequent infusions, every three weeks for a total 8 infusions). This study included patients with acute and chronic thyroid eye disease (TED) with DON who had failed conventional therapies and were not candidates for surgical decompression. Read More

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September 2021

Microbiota and Microglia Interactions in ASD.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:676255. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Snyder Institute of Chronic Diseases, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious, highly variable neurodevelopmental disorders, commonly characterized by the manifestation of specific behavioral abnormalities, such as stereotypic behaviors and deficits in social skills, including communication. Although the neurobiological basis for ASD has attracted attention in recent decades, the role of microglial cells, which are the main resident myeloid cell population in the brain, is still controversial and underexplored. Microglia play several fundamental roles in orchestrating brain development and homeostasis. Read More

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Case Report: Severe Adolescent Major Depressive Syndrome Turns Out to Be an Unusual Case of Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis.

Front Psychiatry 2021 25;12:679996. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a neuroinflammatory condition mediated by autoantibodies against the GluN1 subunit of the receptor. Clinically, it is characterized by a complex neuropsychiatric presentation with rapidly progressive psychiatric symptoms, cognitive deficits, seizures, and abnormal movements. Isolated psychiatric manifestations of anti-NMDAR encephalitis are rare and usually dominated by psychotic symptoms. Read More

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Role of platelets in the pathogenesis of delayed injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 Jun 10:271678X211020865. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

The Vivian L. Smith Department of Neurosurgery, McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients develop delayed cerebral ischemia and delayed deficits (DCI) within 2 weeks of aneurysm rupture at a rate of approximately 30%. DCI is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality after SAH. The cause of DCI is multi-factorial with contributions from microthrombi, blood vessel constriction, inflammation, and cortical spreading depolarizations. Read More

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13th Post-ECTRIMS Meeting: review of the new developments presented at the 2020 ECTRIMS Congress (II).

Rev Neurol 2021 Jun;72(12):433-442

Hospital Universitario de Cruces, Bilbao, España.

Introduction: For more than a decade, after the ECTRIMS Congress, Spain has hosted the Post-ECTRIMS meeting, where neurologists with expertise in multiple sclerosis (MS) meet to review the new developments presented at the ECTRIMS.

Aim: This article, published in two parts, summarises the presentations of the post-ECTRIMS meeting, held online on 16 and 17 October 2020.

Development: This second part highlights the importance of gender and age in understanding the pathology of the disease and optimising its management. Read More

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Repurposing of Anti-Diabetic Agents as a New Opportunity to Alleviate Cognitive Impairment in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

Front Pharmacol 2021 24;12:667874. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pharmacy, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Cognitive impairment is a shared abnormality between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and many neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia. Emerging evidence suggests that brain insulin resistance plays a significant role in cognitive deficits, which provides the possibility of anti-diabetic agents repositioning to alleviate cognitive deficits. Both preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated the potential cognitive enhancement effects of anti-diabetic agents targeting the insulin pathway. Read More

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Coupling of dynamic microtubules to F-actin by Fmn2 regulates chemotaxis of neuronal growth cones.

J Cell Sci 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Pune, Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411008, India.

Dynamic co-regulation of the actin and microtubule subsystems enables the highly precise and adaptive remodelling of the cytoskeleton necessary for critical cellular processes, like axonal pathfinding. The modes and mediators of this interpolymer crosstalk, however, are inadequately understood. We identify Fmn2, a non-diaphanous related formin associated with cognitive disabilities, as a novel regulator of cooperative actin-microtubule remodelling in growth cones. Read More

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Traumatic brain injury induced by exposure to blast overpressure via ear canal.

Neural Regen Res 2022 Jan;17(1):115-121

Departmant of Otolaryngology and Head Neck Surgery; Department of Neurobiology and Anatomical Sciences, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA.

Exposure to explosive shockwave often leads to blast-induced traumatic brain injury in military and civilian populations. Unprotected ears are most often damaged following exposure to blasts. Although there is an association between tympanic membrane perforation and TBI in blast exposure victims, little is known about how and to what extent blast energy is transmitted to the central nervous system via the external ear canal. Read More

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January 2022

Inhalation Triggers Neuroimmune, Glial, and Neuropeptide Transcriptional Changes.

ASN Neuro 2021 Jan-Dec;13:17590914211019886

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Stark Neurosciences Research Institute, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States.

Increasing evidence associates indoor fungal exposure with deleterious central nervous system (CNS) health, such as cognitive and emotional deficits in children and adults, but the specific mechanisms by which it might impact the brain are poorly understood. Mice were exposed to filtered air, heat-inactivated r (3 × 10 spores), or viable r (3 × 10 spores) via nose-only inhalation exposure 2 times per week for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. Analysis of cortex, midbrain, olfactory bulb, and cerebellum tissue from mice exposed to viable r spores for 1, 2, and 4 weeks revealed significantly elevated pro-inflammatory () and glial activity ( and ) gene expression in several brain regions when compared to filtered air control, with the most consistent and pronounced neuroimmune response 48H following the 4-week exposure in the midbrain and frontal lobe. Read More

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Gut and brain profiles that resemble pre-motor and early-stage Parkinson's disease in methamphetamine self-administering rats.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 May 20;225:108746. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Pharmacology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, 60612, United States; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, 60612, United States; Center for Compulsive Behavior and Addiction, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, 60612, United States.

Introduction: Methamphetamine is a potent psychomotor stimulant, and methamphetamine abusers are up to three times more likely to develop Parkinson's disease (PD) later in life. Prodromal PD may involve gut inflammation and the accumulation of toxic proteins that are transported from the enteric nervous system to the central nervous system to mediate, in part, the degeneration of dopaminergic projections. We hypothesized that self-administration of methamphetamine in rats produces a gut and brain profile that mirrors pre-motor and early-stage PD. Read More

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The efficacy of systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide in modelling pre-motor Parkinson's disease in C57BL/6 mice.

Neurotoxicology 2021 Jun 13;85:254-264. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Health and Biomedical Innovation, Clinical and Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, 5000, Australia. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, characterised by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Mounting evidence indicates a crucial role of inflammation and concomitant oxidative stress in the disease progression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the ability of systemically administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce motor and non-motor symptoms of PD, inflammation, oxidative stress and major neuropathological hallmarks of the disease in regions postulated to be affected, including the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, midbrain and cerebellum. Read More

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Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Associated with Ovarian Teratoma in South China-Clinical Features, Treatment, Immunopathology, and Surgical Outcomes of 21 Cases.

Dis Markers 2021 21;2021:9990382. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Gynecology, Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510630, China.

Objective: To study the clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of anti-NMDAR encephalitis and the immunopathology of associated teratomas.

Methods: Twenty-one patients were enrolled in this retrospective study, who were diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis with ovarian teratoma and admitted to two tertiary hospitals in South China from July 2014 to December 2019. The clinical data of patients were reviewed. Read More

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Case Report: Bilateral Palsy of the Vocal Cords After COVID-19 Infection.

Front Neurol 2021 19;12:619545. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department for Otorhinolaryngology, Head- and Neck-Surgery, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, adverse neurological effects have been described. In addition to unspecific neurological symptoms, cranial nerve deficits have appeared as part of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this case report, we describe a 74-year-old patient who developed bilateral paralysis of the vocal cords some weeks following his dismissal in stable condition after COVID-19 pneumonia. Read More

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Early-Stage Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Altered Posterior-Anterior Cerebrum Effective Connectivity in Methylazoxymethanol Acetate Rats.

Front Neurosci 2021 21;15:652715. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

The aim of the current resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to investigate the potential mechanism of schizophrenia through the posterior-anterior cerebrum imbalance in methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) rats and to evaluate the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as an early-stage intervention. The rats were divided into four groups: the MAM-sham group, vehicle-sham group, MAM-rTMS group, and vehicle-rTMS group. The rTMS treatment was targeted in the visual cortex (VC) in adolescent rats. Read More

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A novel inhibitor rescues cerebellar defects in a zebrafish model of Down Syndrome-associated kinase Dyrk1A overexpression.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jun 3:100853. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Zoological Institute, Spielmannstraße 7, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig Germany. Electronic address:

The highly conserved dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A) plays crucial roles during central nervous system development and homeostasis. Furthermore, its hyperactivity is considered responsible for some neurological defects in individuals with Down Syndrome (DS). We set out to establish a zebrafish model expressing human Dyrk1A that could be further used to characterize the interaction between Dyrk1A and neurological phenotypes. Read More

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Histone hypoacetylation contributes to neurotoxicity induced by chronic nickel exposure in vivo and in vitro.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 10;783:147014. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Occupational Health, Army Medical University, 400038 Chongqing, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Nickel (Ni) is a heavy metal that is both an environmental pollutant and a threat to human health. However, the effects of Ni on the central nervous system in susceptible populations have not been well established. In the present study, the neurotoxicity of Ni and its underlying mechanism were investigated in vivo and in vitro. Read More

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Primary Intradural Extramedullary Sporadic Spinal Hemangioblastomas: CASE Report and Systematic Review.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL; Edward Hines Jr V.A. Medical Center, Hines, IL. Electronic address:

Background: Hemangioblastomas are benign vascular neoplasms of the central nervous system that may occur sporadically or in association with Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) disease. A minority of these lesions can occur in the spine, mostly as intramedullary masses. The authors present a rare CASE of primary sporadic spinal hemangioblastoma occurring as an intradural extramedullary (IDEM) lesion. Read More

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Treatment effects of the combination of ceftriaxone and valproic acid on neuronal and behavioral functions in an epilepsy rat model.

Exp Physiol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Psychology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, 40201, ROC.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Imbalance of activities between GABAergic and glutamatergic systems is involved in epilepsy. It is not known whether simultaneously increasing GABAergic and decreasing glutamatergic activity, by valproic acid and ceftriaxone, leads to better seizure control. What is the central question of this study? Ceftriaxone suppressed seizure and cognitive deficits as well as restored neuronal density and number of new born cells in the hippocampus in an epilepsy rat model. Read More

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