15,669 results match your criteria defense life


Bacillus subtilis var. natto increases the resistance of Caenorhabditis elegans to gram-positive bacteria.

J Appl Microbiol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Graduate School of Human Life Science, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan.

Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effect of Bacillus subtilis var. natto on the susceptibility of the model host, Caenorhabditis elegans, to bacterial infection.

Methods And Results: Caenorhabditis elegans worms were fed with a standard food consisting of Escherichia coli OP50 strain (control) or B. Read More

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The MLL3/4 H3K4 methyltransferase complex in establishing an active enhancer landscape.

Biochem Soc Trans 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Taiwan International Graduate Program in Molecular Medicine, National Yang-Ming Chiao-Tung University and Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.

Enhancers are cis-regulatory elements that play essential roles in tissue-specific gene expression during development. Enhancer function in the expression of developmental genes requires precise regulation, while deregulation of enhancer function could be the main cause of tissue-specific cancer development. MLL3/KMT2C and MLL4/KMT2D are two paralogous histone modifiers that belong to the SET1/MLL (also named COMPASS) family of lysine methyltransferases and play critical roles in enhancer-regulated gene activation. Read More

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Insights into the Cultured Bacterial Fraction of Corals.

mSystems 2021 Jun 22:e0124920. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Bacteria associated with coral hosts are diverse and abundant, with recent studies suggesting involvement of these symbionts in host resilience to anthropogenic stress. Despite their putative importance, the work dedicated to culturing coral-associated bacteria has received little attention. Combining published and unpublished data, here we report a comprehensive overview of the diversity and function of culturable bacteria isolated from corals originating from tropical, temperate, and cold-water habitats. Read More

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Visual experience modulates whole-brain connectivity dynamics: A resting-state fMRI study using the model of radiologists.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

School of Electronic Engineering, Xidian University, Shaanxi, China.

Visual expertise refers to proficiency in visual recognition. It is attributed to accumulated visual experience in a specific domain and manifests in widespread neural activities that extend well beyond the visual cortex to multiple high-level brain areas. An extensive body of studies has centered on the neural mechanisms underlying a distinctive domain of visual expertise, while few studies elucidated how visual experience modulates resting-state whole-brain connectivity dynamics. Read More

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Use of magnetic nanotrap particles in capturing Yersinia pestis virulence factors, nucleic acids and bacteria.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Jun 21;19(1):186. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, 20110, USA.

Background: Many pathogens, including Yersinia pestis, cannot be consistently and reliably cultured from blood. New approaches are needed to facilitate the detection of proteins, nucleic acid and microorganisms in whole blood samples to improve downstream assay performance. Detection of biomarkers in whole blood is difficult due to the presence of host proteins that obscure standard detection mechanisms. Read More

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A Bacterial Inflammation Sensor Regulates c-di-GMP Signaling, Adhesion, and Biofilm Formation.

mBio 2021 Jun 22:e0017321. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, USA.

Bacteria that colonize animals must overcome, or coexist, with the reactive oxygen species products of inflammation, a front-line defense of innate immunity. Among these is the neutrophilic oxidant bleach, hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a potent antimicrobial that plays a primary role in killing bacteria through nonspecific oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA. Here, we report that in response to increasing HOCl levels, Escherichia coli regulates biofilm production via activation of the diguanylate cyclase DgcZ. Read More

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Host-pathogen interaction between Asian citrus psyllid and entomopathogenic fungus (Cordyceps fumosorosea) is regulated by modulations in gene expression, enzymatic activity and HLB-bacterial population of the host.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Jun 18:109112. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Ministry of Agriculture Key Lab of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, PR China. Electronic address:

The host-pathogen interaction has been explored by several investigations, but the impact of fungal pathogens against insect resistance is still ambiguous. Therefore, we assessed the enzymatic activity and defense-related gene expression of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) nymphal and adult populations on Huanglongbing-diseased citrus plants under the attack of Cordyceps fumosorosea. Overall, five enzymes viz. Read More

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Immune response gene coexpression network analysis of Arachis hypogaea infected with Aspergillus flavus.

Genomics 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Centre for Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Pondicherry University, R. V. Nagar Kalapet, Pondicherry 605014, India. Electronic address:

Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) infection and aflatoxin contamination is a major bottleneck for peanut cultivation and value chain industry. In this study, a transcriptomic network study was conducted by retrieving publically available RNA-seq datasets of resistant and susceptible peanut varieties infected by A. Read More

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CRNDE-h transcript/miR-136-5p axis regulates interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 expression to promote hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation.

Life Sci 2021 Jun 18:119708. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the hepatocyte. Interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 (ILF2) plays a role in the development of HCC. However, the regulatory mechanisms of ILF2 expression in HCC remain unclear. Read More

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Dissecting the Nucleoside Antibiotics as Universal Translation Inhibitors.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City Utah 84103, United States.

ConspectusWithout question, natural products have provided the lion share of leads, if not drugs themselves, for the treatment of bacterial infections. The bacterial arms race, fueled by selection and survival pressures has delivered a natural arsenal of small molecules targeting the most essential of life processes. Antibiotics that target these critical intracellular processes face the formidable defense of both penetrating a bacterial cell membrane and avoiding efflux to exert their effect. Read More

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The bZIP transcription factor GmbZIP15 facilitates resistance against and infection in soybean.

iScience 2021 Jun 24;24(6):102642. Epub 2021 May 24.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Key Lab of Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Ministry of Education, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Haixia Applied Plant Systems Biology, Center for Genomics and Biotechnology, College of Plant Protection, College of Life Sciences, College of Crop Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, Fujian Province, China.

Soybean, one of the most valuable oilseed crops, is under constant pressure from pathogens. bZIP transcription factors (TFs) composing one of the largest TF families in plants have diverse functions. Biochemical and physiological analyses were performed to characterize the regulatory roles of soybean bZIP TF GmbZIP15 in response to pathogens. Read More

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Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits Enzymatic Browning of Fresh-Cut Chinese Water Chestnuts.

Front Nutr 2021 4;8:652984. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, China.

This work investigates the role of hydrogen sulfide (HS) in the browning and regulating the antioxidant defensive system in fresh-cut Chinese water chestnuts. The samples were fumigated with 0, 10, and 15 μl L of HS and stored at 10°C for 8 days. The results indicated that the HS treatment significantly inhibited the browning of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnuts, reduced superoxide anion ( ) production rate and HO content accumulation, promoted the increase of total phenol content, and enhanced activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) ( < 0. Read More

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Exploiting Epigenetic Variations for Crop Disease Resistance Improvement.

Front Plant Sci 2021 4;12:692328. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

College of Life Sciences, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Pathogen infections seriously threaten plant health and global crop production. Epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications, chromatin assembly and remodeling play important roles in transcriptional regulation of plant defense responses and could provide a new direction to drive breeding strategies for crop disease resistance improvement. Although past decades have seen unprecedented proceedings in understanding the epigenetic mechanism of plant defense response, most of these advances were derived from studies in model plants like Arabidopsis. Read More

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Plasmodesmata-Involved Battle Against Pathogens and Potential Strategies for Strengthening Hosts.

Front Plant Sci 2021 3;12:644870. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Adaptation and Improvement, School of Life Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng, China.

Plasmodesmata (PD) are membrane-lined pores that connect adjacent cells to mediate symplastic communication in plants. These intercellular channels enable cell-to-cell trafficking of various molecules essential for plant development and stress responses, but they can also be utilized by pathogens to facilitate their infection of hosts. Some pathogens or their effectors are able to spread through the PD by modifying their permeability. Read More

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Coil Embolization of Post-Traumatic Pseudoaneurysm of the Ascending Aorta.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Jun 21;22:e931844. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Second Department of Clinical Radiology, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw, Poland.

BACKGROUND Traumatic rupture of the ascending aorta is a life-threatening injury, with a survival rate of around 15% to 20%. Treatment with open surgical repair is the criterion standard. However, open surgical repair is associated with high mortality and morbidity in patients with multiple traumas. Read More

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Design, synthesis, studies and evaluation of isatin-pyridine oximes hybrids as novel acetylcholinesterase reactivators.

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2021 Dec;36(1):1370-1377

Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx), Institute of CBRN Defense (IDQBRN), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Organophosphorus poisoning caused by some pesticides and nerve agents is a life-threating condition that must be swiftly addressed to avoid casualties. Despite the availability of medical countermeasures, the clinically available compounds lack a broad spectrum, are not effective towards all organophosphorus toxins, and have poor pharmacokinetics properties to allow them crossing the blood-brain barrier, hampering cholinesterase reactivation at the central nervous system. In this work, we designed and synthesised novel isatin derivatives, linked to a pyridinium 4-oxime moiety by an alkyl chain with improved calculated properties, and tested their reactivation potency against paraoxon- and NEMP-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in comparison to the standard antidote pralidoxime. Read More

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December 2021

Genomic insights on DNase production in Streptococcus agalactiae ST17 and ST19 strains.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Jun 17:104969. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

National Reference Laboratory for Sexually Transmitted Infections, Department of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Avenida Padre Cruz, 1649-016 Lisbon, Portugal. Electronic address:

Streptococcus agalactiae evasion from the human defense mechanisms has been linked to the production of DNases. These were proposed to contribute to the hypervirulence of S. agalactiae ST17/capsular-type III strains, mostly associated with neonatal meningitis. Read More

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Combining of transcriptomic and proteomic data to mine immune-related genes and proteins in the liver of Cynoglossus semilaevis challenged with Vibrio anguillarum.

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2021 Jun 8;39:100864. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China. Electronic address:

The liver is a multi-functional organ including metabolism, substance synthesis, detoxification, and various immune functions, and its role in immunity has attracted more and more attention. However, research on the liver immune response of fish infected by pathogenic bacteria is currently lacking. In this study, the transcriptomics and proteomics of the liver of Cynoglossus semilaevis infected with Vibrio anguillarum were analyzed. Read More

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The roles of free iron, heme, hemoglobin, and the scavenger proteins hemopexin and alpha-1-microglobulin in preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction.

J Intern Med 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is a complex pregnancy syndrome characterized by maternal hypertension and organ damage after 20 weeks of gestation and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) and its metabolites heme and iron are highly toxic molecules and several defense mechanisms have evolved to protect the tissue.

Objectives: We will discuss the roles of free iron, heme, Hb, and the scavenger proteins hemopexin and A1M in pregnancies complicated by PE and FGR. Read More

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Large-scale Genome sampling reveals unique immunity and metabolic adaptations in Bats.

Mol Ecol 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA.

Comprising more than 1,400 species, bats possess adaptations unique among mammals including powered flight, unexpected longevity, and extraordinary immunity. Some of the molecular mechanisms underlying these unique adaptations includes DNA repair, metabolism and immunity. However, analyses have been limited to a few divergent lineages, reducing the scope of inferences on gene family evolution across the Order Chiroptera. Read More

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The genomics of mimicry: gene expression throughout development provides insights into convergent and divergent phenotypes in a Müllerian mimicry system.

Mol Ecol 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Biomedical Sciences, University of New Hampshire, USA.

A common goal in evolutionary biology is to discern the mechanisms that produce the astounding diversity of morphologies seen across the tree of life. Aposematic species, those with a conspicuous phenotype coupled with some form of defense, are excellent models to understand the link between vivid color pattern variations, the natural selection shaping it, and the underlying genetic mechanisms underpinning this variation. Mimicry systems in which multiple species share the same conspicuous phenotype can provide an even better model for understanding the mechanisms of color production in aposematic species, especially if comimics have divergent evolutionary histories. Read More

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Antagonism between SUMO1/2 and SUMO3 regulates SUMO conjugate levels and fine-tunes immunity.

J Exp Bot 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Laboratory of Signal Transduction and Plant Resistance, UNESCO-Regional Centre for Biotechnology (RCB), NCR Biotech Science Cluster, 3rd Milestone, Faridabad-Gurgaon Expressway, Faridabad- 121 001, Haryana, India.

Attachment of SMALL UBIQUITIN-LIKE MODIFIER (SUMO) on target proteins regulates a plethora of cellular processes across eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutants with abnormal SUMO1/2 conjugate levels display for example a dwarf stature, auto-immunity, and altered stress responses to adverse environmental conditions. Since the SUMO pathway is known to autoregulate its biochemical activity (via allosteric interactions), we here assessed whether the emergence of additional SUMO paralogues in Arabidopsis has introduced the capacity of self-regulation by means of isoform diversification in this model plant. Read More

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Life expectancy estimations and determinants of return to work among cancer survivors over a 7-year period.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 18;11(1):12858. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Division of Family Medicine, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, and School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Due to advances in medical science and technology, the number of cancer survivors continues to increase. The workplace needs and employment difficulties cancer survivors face after treatment need to be addressed to protect these individuals' right to work and to maintain the overall labor force of the country. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with a follow-up period from 2004 to 2010. Read More

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The superposition anti-viral activity of porcine tri-subtype interferon expressed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Jun 15;259:109150. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China. Electronic address:

Interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral responses are central to host defense against viral infection. Porcine viral infection has emerged as a serious hazard for the pig industry. The construction of an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that efficiently produces porcine IFN has demonstrated several advantages. Read More

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Factors associated with medical problems among young non-deployed U.S. military working dogs.

Prev Vet Med 2021 May 28;193:105390. Epub 2021 May 28.

U.S. Army Public Health Center, Injury Prevention Program, USA.

The goals of this project were to quantify medical problems among a population of Military Working Dogs (MWDs) and analyze factors associated with common medical conditions. Medical conditions recorded in veterinary Master Problem List (MPL) entries for 774 young, non-deployed, active MWDs were categorized and combined with demographic information to analyze risk factors. Most dogs were male (74%), German Shepherd (39%) or Belgian Malinois (31%) breeds, certified in Explosive Detection (60%), and had a dark coat color (83%). Read More

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OsMTD2-Mediated Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Balance is Essential for Intact Pollen Tube Elongation in Rice.

Plant J 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Graduate School of Biotechnology & Crop Biotech Institute, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 17104, Republic of Korea.

The highly specialized haploid male gametophyte-pollen consist of two sperm cells and a large vegetative cell. Successful fertilization requires proper growth timing and rupture of the pollen tube until it delivers sperm cells, which occur immediately after a pollen grain hydrates. Although, a tight regulation on polar cell wall expansion of the pollen tube is fundamentally important, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown, especially in crop plants. Read More

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Message in a Bubble: Shuttling Small RNAs and Proteins Between Cells and Interacting Organisms Using Extracellular Vesicles.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun;72:497-524

Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology and Center for Plant Cell Biology, Institute for Integrative Genome Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92507, USA; email:

Communication between plant cells and interacting microorganisms requires the secretion and uptake of functional molecules to and from the extracellular environment and is essential for the survival of both plants and their pathogens. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer-enclosed spheres that deliver RNA, protein, and metabolite cargos from donor to recipient cells and participate in many cellular processes. Emerging evidencehas shown that both plant and microbial EVs play important roles in cross-kingdom molecular exchange between hosts and interacting microbes to modulate host immunity and pathogen virulence. Read More

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Increased risk of shoulder calcific tendinopathy in diabetes mellitus: a nationwide, population-based, matched cohort study.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jun 17:e14549. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Tri-Service General Hospital, School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff is a common cause of painful disability in the shoulder with unclear etiology. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with calcific tendinopathy; however, large epidemiological data is lacking. Thus, we conducted a nationwide population-based matched cohort study to investigate the risk for calcific tendinopathy of the shoulder in diabetic patients. Read More

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Genome Scan for Variable Genes Involved in Environmental Adaptations of Nubian Ibex.

J Mol Evol 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Biosciences Eastern and Central Africa - International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI) Hub, Nairobi, Kenya.

The Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) is a wild goat species that inhabits the Sahara and Arabian deserts and is adapted to extreme ambient temperatures, intense solar radiation, and scarcity of food and water resources. To investigate desert adaptation, we explored the possible role of copy number variations (CNVs) in the evolution of Capra species with a specific focus on the environment of Capra nubiana. CNVs are structural genomic variations that have been implicated in phenotypic differences between species and could play a role in species adaptation. Read More

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