364 results match your criteria deer mountain

Diverse Genotypes and Species of in Wild Rodent Species from the West Coast of the USA and Implications for Raw Produce Safety and Microbial Water Quality.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 17;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

spp. are protozoan parasites that infect perhaps all vertebrate animals, with a subset of species and genotypes that function as food- and waterborne pathogens. The objective of this work was to collate the species and genotypes from common wild rodents on the west coast of the USA and update the information regarding the zoonotic potential of from these ubiquitous wild species. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A pseudomolecule assembly of the Rocky Mountain elk genome.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(4):e0249899. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Ames, Iowa, United States of America.

Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus canadensis) populations have significant economic implications to the cattle industry, as they are a major reservoir for Brucella abortus in the Greater Yellowstone area. Vaccination attempts against intracellular bacterial diseases in elk populations have not been successful due to a negligible adaptive cellular immune response. A lack of genomic resources has impeded attempts to better understand why vaccination does not induce protective immunity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Detection of chronic wasting disease in mule and white-tailed deer by RT-QuIC analysis of outer ear.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7702. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Laboratory of Persistent Viral Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT, USA.

Efforts to contain the spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD), a fatal, contagious prion disease of cervids, would be aided by the availability of additional diagnostic tools. RT-QuIC assays allow ultrasensitive detection of prion seeds in a wide variety of cervid tissues, fluids and excreta. The best documented antemortem diagnostic test involving RT-QuIC analysis targets lymphoid tissue in rectal biopsies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF


J Wildl Dis 2021 Apr;57(2):313-320

Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory, University of Wyoming, 1174 Snowy Range Road, Laramie, Wyoming 82070, USA.

Adenovirus hemorrhagic disease affects primarily mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni), and moose (Alces alces) in their first year of life. The method by which the causative virus, Deer atadenovirus A, is maintained in the environment and transmitted to neonates is unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential transmission of the virus from dam to offspring in Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and elk in western Wyoming, US. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Fatal Events Related to Running Competitions in the Mountains.

Wilderness Environ Med 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Education and Research Department, Isokinetic Medical Group, Bologna, Italy; Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. Electronic address:

Introduction: The few epidemiologic studies published previously about different forms of mountain running (ie, fell running, sky running, and ultratrail running) have not reported on fatal events. This report aims to contribute to the literature on mountain running fatalities, recording and classifying fatal events related to mountain running competitions found in online literature searches over a 12-y period.

Methods: From 2008 to 2019, searches on mountain sport, mountain races, and newspaper websites were periodically performed, looking for fatal events related to running competitions in the mountains. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Gut microbiome composition predicts summer core range size in two divergent ungulates.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2021 04;97(5)

Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Trent University, 2140 East Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B8, Canada.

The gut microbiome of animals vary by age, diet, and habitat, and directly influences an individual's health. Similarly, variation in home ranges is linked to feeding strategies and fitness. Ungulates (hooved mammals) exhibit species-specific microbiomes and habitat use patterns. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Schulz, 1933 (Trichostrongylidae: Haemonchinae) in mountain ecosystems - a potential risk for the Tatra chamois (Blahout, 1971/1972).

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2021 Apr 2;14:117-120. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Research Station and Museum of the Tatra National Park, Tatranská Lomnica 66, 059 60, Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia.

The Asian native is now in Europe, and several dozen years after its introduction, it is a widespread parasite of all wild cervids. For bovids, the nematode is a significant threat to the European bison () population and has also been found in mouflon (). Our study aimed to assess the risk of infection for the endemic subspecies of northern (Alpine) chamois () - the Tatra chamois (. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Drivers of site fidelity in ungulates.

J Anim Ecol 2021 04 9;90(4):955-966. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

U.S. Geological Survey, Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Zoology and Physiology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA.

While the tendency to return to previously visited locations-termed 'site fidelity'-is common in animals, the cause of this behaviour is not well understood. One hypothesis is that site fidelity is shaped by an animal's environment, such that animals living in landscapes with predictable resources have stronger site fidelity. Site fidelity may also be conditional on the success of animals' recent visits to that location, and it may become stronger with age as the animal accumulates experience in their landscape. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF


J Zoo Wildl Med 2021 Jan;51(4):825-833

Colorado Parks and Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA.

Alfaxalone has been successfully used intramuscularly (im) combined with medetomidine and azaperone for immobilization of small ungulates. An experimental 40 mg/ml alfaxalone solution (RD0387) was recently formulated for reduced injection volume. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and cardiopulmonary effects of high-concentration alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and azaperone for the intramuscular immobilization of captive Rocky Mountain elk (). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Reindeer Veterinary Care for Small Ruminant Practitioners.

N Isaac Bott

Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2021 Mar 24;37(1):221-236. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Mountain West Animal Hospital Inc, 410 South 450 West, Springville, UT 84663, USA. Electronic address:

There are hundreds of small reindeer operations scattered across the continental United States. These facilities house small groups of reindeer, typically between 2 and 30 animals. Small ruminant practitioners often are called on to help diagnose and treat a variety of conditions in these reindeer herds. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Year-round water management for desert bighorn sheep corresponds with visits by predators not bighorn sheep.

PLoS One 2020 24;15(11):e0241131. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Primero Conservation.org, Pinetop, AZ, United States of America.

Managing water (e.g., catchments) to increase the abundance and distribution of game is popular in arid regions, especially throughout the southwest United States, where biologists often manage water year-round for desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Disappearance of TBEV Circulation among Rodents in a Natural Focus in Alsace, Eastern France.

Pathogens 2020 Nov 10;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife, The French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES), CS 40009, 54220 Malzéville, France.

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) depends mainly on a fragile mode of transmission, the co-feeding between infected nymphs and larvae on rodents, and thus persists under a limited set of biotic and abiotic conditions. If these conditions change, natural TBEV foci might be unstable over time. We conducted a longitudinal study over seven years in a mountain forest in Alsace, Eastern France, located at the western border of known TBEV distribution. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Discovery and comparative genomic analysis of elk circovirus (ElkCV), a novel circovirus species and the first reported from a cervid host.

Sci Rep 2020 11 11;10(1):19548. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

The complete genome sequence of a novel circovirus (elk circovirus (ElkCV) Banff/2019) was determined via high throughput sequencing of liver tissue from a euthanized Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) from Alberta, Canada. The genome is circular and 1,787 nucleotides long, with two major ORFs encoding predicted proteins. Comparative genomic analysis to 4,164 publicly available complete and near complete circovirus genomes showed that ElkCV shares approximately 65% pairwise genome-wide nucleotide identity with the most closely related circovirus species, porcine circoviruses (PCV) 1 and 2 and bat-associated circovirus (BatACV) 11. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Darunavir-Resistant HIV-1 Protease Constructs Uphold a Conformational Selection Hypothesis for Drug Resistance.

Viruses 2020 11 8;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

Multidrug resistance continues to be a barrier to the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection. Darunavir (DRV) is a highly potent protease inhibitor (PI) that is oftentimes effective when drug resistance has emerged against first-generation inhibitors. Resistance to darunavir does evolve and requires 10-20 amino acid substitutions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Functional limb anatomy in a refugee species: The endangered Patagonian huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus).

Werner T Flueck

Anat Histol Embryol 2021 Mar 12;50(2):411-416. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

National Council of Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Early naturalists already considered huemul rare, refuged and a stocky, short-legged mountain deer, 163 years before declared endangered (1972). Anatomically, huemul do not overlap with rock-climbers previously considered analogous, as corroborated in this paper by including additional huemul cases. Assertions that population declines are caused principally via livestock infections remain unfounded. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Characterization of flavivirus infection in salivary gland cultures from male Ixodes scapularis ticks.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 10 5;14(10):e0008683. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Biology of Vector-Borne Viruses Section, Laboratory of Virology, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID/NIH, Hamilton, MT, United States of America.

Infected Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick) transmit a host of serious pathogens via their bites, including Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia microti, and tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs), such as Powassan virus (POWV). Although the role of female I. scapularis ticks in disease transmission is well characterized, the role of male ticks is poorly understood. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Failure To Detect Prion Infectivity in Ticks following Prion-Infected Blood Meal.

mSphere 2020 09 2;5(5). Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska, USA

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging and fatal contagious prion disease that affects cervids, including mule deer, white-tailed deer, black-tailed deer, red deer reindeer, elk, and moose. CWD prions are widely distributed throughout the bodies of CWD-infected animals and are found in the nervous system, lymphoid tissues, muscle, blood, urine, feces, and antler velvet. The mechanism of CWD transmission in natural settings is unknown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Is There a Breach in the Barrier Protecting Humans from Cervid Chronic Wasting Disease?

Dean E Pearson

mBio 2020 09 1;11(5). Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Missoula, Montana, USA

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

A study of kudurs used by wild animals located on the water sources high in REE content in the Caucasus Nature Reserve.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Jan 3;43(1):91-112. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Pacific Geographical Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 7 Radio St., Vladivostok, Russia, 690041.

One of the theories explaining the reasons for geophagy, which was proposed earlier by the authors of the article, consists in the assumption that animals need rare-earth elements (REE). In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the chemical composition of spring waters in the territory of the Caucasus Nature Reserve at three kudurs along the Achipsta River, as well as at the Mamaevsky kudur (southwestern slope of the Pshekish mountain). At the Mamaevsky kudur, we also studied the chemical composition of earth consumed by animals, and the species, age and gender composition, seasonal and daily activity of ungulate animals-visitors of the kudur. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Competition for safe real estate, not food, drives density-dependent juvenile survival in a large herbivore.

Ecol Evol 2020 Jun 9;10(12):5464-5475. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Laboratoire Biométrie & Biologie Évolutive CNRSUMR-CNRS 5558 University Claude Bernard - Lyon I Villeurbanne Cedex France.

Density-dependent competition for food reduces vital rates, with juvenile survival often the first to decline. A clear prediction of food-based, density-dependent competition for large herbivores is decreasing juvenile survival with increasing density. However, competition for enemy-free space could also be a significant mechanism for density dependence in territorial species. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prevalence and Genotypes of Cryptosporidium in Wildlife Populations Co-Located in a Protected Watershed in the Pacific Northwest, 2013 to 2016.

Microorganisms 2020 Jun 17;8(6). Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Western Institute for Food Safety and Security, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Between October 2013 and May 2016, 506 scat samples were collected from 22 species of wildlife located in a protected watershed of a major municipal water supply in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Overall prevalence of in the wildlife scat was 13.8% (70/506), with 15 species of wildlife found positive for . Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mountain goat survival and mortality during a period of increased puma abundance in the Black Hills, South Dakota.

PeerJ 2020 29;8:e9143. Epub 2020 May 29.

South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks, Custer, SD, United States of America.

We investigated survival and cause-specific mortality for a mountain goat () population during a period when the puma () population was growing in the Black Hills, South Dakota, 2006-2018. We obtained survival data from 47 adult goats ( = 33 females,  = 14 males). Annual survival varied from 0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Physiological Stress Reactions in Red Deer Induced by Hunting Activities.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 8;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 8.

University of Coimbra, Centre for Functional Ecology (CFE), Department of Life Sciences, Calçada Martim de Freitas, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal.

Hunting activity is usually seen as a factor capable of causing an intense stress response in wildlife that may lead to short but also long-term stress. In the Lousã Mountain, Portugal, the population of red deer () is the target of intensive seasonal hunting. We collected and measured cortisol (and its metabolites) in three tissues types (blood, feces and hair) from red deer hunted during two hunting seasons to evaluate the stress levels at different time windows. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Epitheliotropic Infections in Wildlife Ruminants From the Central Alps and Stelvio National Park.

Front Vet Sci 2020 30;7:229. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Dipartimento di Medicina Specialistica Diagnostica e Sperimentale, Alma Mater Studiorum, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

The mountain chain of the Alps, represents the habitat of alpine fauna where the red deer () population is the outmost numerous, followed by the chamois () and the alpine ibex () at higher altitudes. Previous reports showed the circulation of epitheliotropic viruses, belonging to the families and , causing skin and mucosal lesions in wild ruminants of the Stelvio National Park, situated in the area. To deepen our knowledge on the natural dynamics of the infections, a passive surveillance on all the cases of proliferative skin and mucosal lesions in wild ruminants was performed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Caribou in the cross-fire? Considering terrestrial lichen forage in the face of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) expansion.

PLoS One 2020 30;15(4):e0232248. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Caribou Program, fRI Research, Hinton, Alberta, Canada.

Mountain pine beetle (MPB) has become an invasive forest pest of mature pine in western North America as it spreads beyond its former endemic range. Management actions such as timber harvest can reduce the spread of MPB but may affect species of conservation concern like woodland caribou. Our goal was to inform MPB management within caribou ranges by exploring the impacts of MPB on caribou habitat-focusing on terrestrial lichens, an important winter food for caribou. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sharing the Ride: Symbionts and Their Interactions.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 8;10:142. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Biology of Vector-Borne Viruses Section, Laboratory of Virology, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT, United States.

The deer tick transmits a variety of disease agents in the United States, spreading the bacteria that causes Lyme borreliosis, the protozoan agent of babesiosis, and viruses such as Powassan. However, a variety of other organisms have also evolved symbiotic relationships with this tick species, and it seems likely that some of these microbes have simultaneously coevolved mechanisms to impact each other and their tick host. The number of organisms identified as symbionts has increased seemingly exponentially with the advent of PCR and next generation sequencing technologies, but convincing arguments have proposed that some of these are of environmental origin, unadapted to surviving the physiological conditions of the tick or that they are artifacts of ultrasensitive detection methods. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Rickettsia parkeri (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) in the Sky Islands of West Texas.

J Med Entomol 2020 09;57(5):1582-1587

Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Texas A&M University, Uvalde, TX.

Rickettsia parkeri, a tick-borne pathogen distributed throughout several countries of the Americas, causes a mild to moderately severe, eschar-associated spotted fever rickettsiosis. Although most U.S. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from Saxony, Germany, and detection of tick-borne encephalitis virus in attached ticks.

Parasitol Res 2020 Apr 24;119(4):1387-1392. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Institute of Animal Hygiene and Veterinary Public Health, University of Leipzig, An den Tierkliniken 1, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Southern Germany is known as tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) risk area; however, the north of the country is almost free of human TBE cases. Due to its location in the transition zone between TBE risk areas and areas with only sporadic cases, Saxony is of importance in the surveillance of TBE. Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), showing high seroprevalence of TBE virus (TBEV) antibodies, are considered to be sentinels for TBE risk assessment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Individual variation creates diverse migratory portfolios in native populations of a mountain ungulate.

Ecol Appl 2020 07 31;30(5):e2106. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Fish and Wildlife Ecology and Management Program, Department of Ecology, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, 59717, USA.

Ecological theory and empirical studies have demonstrated population-level demographic benefits resulting from a diversity of migratory behaviors with important implications for ecology, conservation, and evolution of migratory organisms. Nevertheless, evaluation of migratory portfolios (i.e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Vertebrate scavenger guild composition and utilization of carrion in an East Asian temperate forest.

Ecol Evol 2020 Feb 21;10(3):1223-1232. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Institute of Agriculture Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology Fuchu Japan.

Scavenging is a common feeding behavior by many species that plays an important role in ecosystem stability and function while also providing ecosystem services. Despite its importance, facultative scavenging on large animal carcasses has generally been overlooked in Asian temperate forest ecosystems. The aim of this study was to determine the composition and feeding behavior of the facultative scavenger guild as it relates to sika deer () carcasses in Japanese forests. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2020