2,965 results match your criteria decrease acetylcholinesterase


Memantine and Its Combination with Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors in Pharmacological Pretreatment of Soman Poisoning in Mice.

Neurotox Res 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Toxicology and Military Pharmacy, Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defence, Trebesska 1575, 500 01, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic.

Nerve agents pose a real threat to both the military and civil populations, but the current treatment of the poisoning is unsatisfactory. Thus, we studied the efficacy of prophylactic use of memantine alone or in combination with clinically used reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (pyridostigmine, donepezil, rivastigmine) against soman. In addition, we tested their influence on post-exposure therapy consisting of atropine and asoxime. Read More

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The State of The Art on Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

J Cent Nerv Syst Dis 2021 7;13:11795735211029113. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Institute for Biomedical Research and Innovation of the National Research Council, Catanzaro, Italy.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic disabling disease that affects the central nervous system. The main consequences of AD include the decline of cognitive functions and language disorders. One of the causes leading to AD is the decrease of neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the brain, in part due to a higher activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme responsible for its degradation. Read More

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Tranilast, a Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 2 Channel (TRPV2) Inhibitor Attenuates Amyloid β-Induced Cognitive Impairment: Possible Mechanisms.

Neuromolecular Med 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Sector 67, S.A.S. Nagar, Mohali, Punjab, 160062, India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the accumulation of β-amyloid and leads to cognitive impairment. Numerous studies have established that neuronal calcium homeostasis is perturbed in AD. Recently, transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) channels, a non-selective calcium-permeable channel, have been investigated in several diseases. Read More

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Ameliorative role of rolipram, PDE-4 inhibitor, against sodium arsenite-induced vascular dementia in rats.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, CNS Research Lab., Pharmacology Division, Faculty of Medicine, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, 147002, India.

Arsenic exposure to the population leads to serious health problems like neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and cardiovascular abnormality. In the present study, the work has been commenced to discover the prospect of rolipram a phosphodiestrase-4 (PDE-4) inhibitor against sodium arsenite (SA)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (EnDF) leading to dementia in rats. Wistar rats were treated with SA (5 mg/kg body weight/day orally) for 44 days for induction of vascular EnDF and dementia. Read More

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A Leaf Extract of Ameliorates Neurobehavioral, Histological and Biochemical Changes in the Hippocampus of Rats with Aluminum Chloride-Induced Alzheimer's Disease.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Jun 11;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

AgroBioSciences, Mohammed VI Polytechnic University, Lot 660-Hay MoulayRachid, Ben-Guerir 43150, Morocco.

Aluminum (Al) is an omnipresent mineral element in the environment. The brain is a central target of Al toxicity, being highly susceptible to oxidative damage. Therefore, recognition of drugs or natural products that guard against Al-mediated neuronal cell death is a powerful strategy for prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Read More

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Dextran Sodium Sulphate-Induced Gastrointestinal Injury Further Aggravates the Impact of Galantamine on the Gastric Myoelectric Activity in Experimental Pigs.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Jun 18;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Toxicology and Military Pharmacy, Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defence, 500 01 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.

Galantamine has been used as a treatment for Alzheimer disease. It has a unique, dual mode of action (inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and allosteric modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors). Nausea (in about 20%), vomiting (10%) and diarrhoea (5-7%) are the most common side effects. Read More

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Baicalein 5,6-Dimethyl Ether Prevents Memory Deficits in the Scopolamine Zebrafish Model by Regulating Cholinergic and Antioxidant Systems.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jun 18;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Biology, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, 700506 Iasi, Romania.

Baicalein 5,6-dimethyl ether, a bioactive flavonoid isolated for the first time from , was explored for its capability to relieve memory deficits and decrease oxidative stress. We examined the neuropharmacological effects of baicalein 5,6-dimethyl ether on scopolamine (Sco)-induced zebrafish () anxiety, amnesia, and brain oxidative stress and attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Anxiety-like behavior, exploratory behavior, and memory performance were measured using novel tank-diving test (NTT), Y-maze, and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. Read More

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Subcommissural Organ-Spondin-Derived Peptide Restores Memory in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Neurosci 2021 14;15:651094. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Axoltis Pharma, Lyon, France.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that affects millions of older people worldwide and is characterized by a progressive deterioration of cognitive functions, including learning and memory. There are currently very few approved treatments (i.e. Read More

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Histological and imunohistochemical alterations of hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in a rat model of Alzheimer like-disease with a preferential role of the flavonoid "hesperidin".

J Mol Histol 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic age-related neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of the central cholinergic neurons, inflammation and oxidative stress in the basal forebrain, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Hesperidin (Hesp) is one of the flavonoids havinganti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties in some neurodegerative brain lesions. To investigate the possible neuroprotective role of Hespin an AD-like rat model induced experimentally by Scopolamine (Scop). Read More

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Behavioral and biochemical investigations to explore the efficacy of quercetin and folacin in experimental diabetes induced vascular endothelium dysfunction and associated dementia in rats.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Pharmacology, Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Objectives: Vascular dementia (VaD), being strongly associated with metabolic conditions is a major health concern around the world. Diabetes is a major risk factor for the development of VaD. This study investigates the efficacy of quercetin and folacin in diabetes induced vascular endothelium dysfunction and related dementia. Read More

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Dimeric Tacrine(10)-hupyridone as a Multitarget-Directed Ligand To Treat Alzheimer's Disease.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Jul 22;12(13):2462-2477. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Ningbo Kangning Hospital, Ningbo 315211, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with multiple pathological features. Therefore, a multitarget-directed ligands (MTDLs) strategy has been developed to treat AD. We have previously designed and synthesized dimeric tacrine(10)-hupyridone (A10E), a novel tacrine derivative with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) activation activity, by linking tacrine and a fragment of huperzine A. Read More

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Assessment of Organophosphate Pesticides Exposure in Men with Idiopathic Abnormal Semen Analysis: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study.

Int J Fertil Steril 2021 Jul 22;15(3):219-225. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Pathology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry, India.

Background: Because of the widespread use of organophosphate (OP) pesticides in agriculture, they are major environmental contaminants in developing countries. OP pesticides decrease sperm concentration and affect its quality, viability, and motility. studies have demonstrated the association between abnormal semen analysis and OP pesticides exposure among the high-risk population. Read More

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Acetylcholine Detection Based on pH-Sensitive Liposomes.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 7;6(23):14963-14967. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, College of Energy and Biotechnology, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, 232 Gongneung-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 01811, Republic of Korea.

The pH-sensitive liposomes were employed to amplify the detection of acetylcholine (ACh). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) covalently immobilized on the magnetic particles and the pH-sensitive liposomes encapsulating ferricyanide were added to a cyclic voltammetry cell solution where ACh was distributed. The conversion of ACh into acetic acid seemed to induce the pH decrease that caused the reduction in the electrostatic repulsion between the head groups of weakly acidic 1,2-dipalmitoyl--glycero-3-succinate. Read More

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Pharmacological Screening of L for Memory-Enhancing Effect Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers.

Front Pharmacol 2021 28;12:664832. Epub 2021 May 28.

Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan.

Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. The present study aimed to characterize and then investigate the memory-enhancing potential of methanolic extract in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice. characterization was done by using the GCMS technique. Read More

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Exploring the impacts of microplastics and associated chemicals in the terrestrial environment - Exposure of soil invertebrates to tire particles.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 13;201:111495. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecological Science, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Abrasion of tire wear is one of the largest sources of microplastics to the environment. Although most tire particles settle into soils, studies on their ecotoxicological impacts on the terrestrial environment are scarce. Here, the effects of tire particles (<180 μm) on three ecologically relevant soil invertebrate species, the enchytraeid worm Enchytraeus crypticus, the springtail Folsomia candida and the woodlouse Porcellio scaber, were studied. Read More

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Bifunctional Moderator-Powered Ratiometric Electrochemiluminescence Enzymatic Biosensors for Detecting Organophosphorus Pesticides Based on Dual-Signal Combined Nanoprobes.

Anal Chem 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Key Laboratory of Luminescence Analysis and Molecular Sensing (Southwest University), Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, PR China.

The bifunctional moderator is urgently needed in the field of ratiometric electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensing since it can mediate simultaneously two ECL signals to conveniently realize their opposite change trend. This work designed a novel dual-signal combined nanoprobe with carboxyl-functionalized poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)--(1,4-benzo-{2,1',3}-thiadazole)] nanoparticles (-PFBT NPs) as the anodic ECL probe and -cysteine capped CdS quantum dots (-CdS QDs) as the cathodic ECL probe, which performed a dual-signal output capability without any additional coreactants. More importantly, hydrogen peroxide (HO) produced in situ by enzyme-catalyzed reaction was developed as a bifunctional moderator for simultaneously regulating two signals. Read More

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Imidazole antifungal drug clotrimazole alters the behavior, brain acetylcholinesterase and oxidative stress biomarkers in African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822).

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Jun 11;248:109108. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. Electronic address:

This study was carried out to determine the effect of clotrimazole (CTZ), an imidazole fungicide on behavior, brain acetylcholinesterase, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress parameters in Clarias gariepinus juveniles. Fish were acutely exposed to five nominal concentrations of CTZ and control to assess the behavioral effects on fish. To determine the effects on brain acetylcholinesterase, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress parameters, fish were exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations vis 7. Read More

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Studies on biochemical and synergistic effects of immunosuppressive concentration of imidacloprid with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for enhancement of virulence against vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Jul 23;176:104882. Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Biotechnology, Sri Sankara Arts and Science College, Enathur, Kanchipuram 631 561, Tamil Nadu, India.

In order to increase the virulence of two commonly used entomopathogens namely Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for effective mosquito control programs, we developed new combined formulation by the use of immunosuppressive concentration of imidacloprid. Exposure of sublethal concentration (LC 1.34 ppb) of imidacloprid to second instar larvae for 92 h that differently modulated the larval biochemical markers by decreasing the total protein (20. Read More

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Neuroprotective effects of quercetin produced by an endophytic fungus Nigrospora oryzae isolated from Tinospora cordifolia.

J Appl Microbiol 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Biotechnology, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala, India.

Aims: Alzheimer's disease is considered one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders and dementia is the core symptom of this disease. This study was aimed to test the bioactive compounds produced by endophytic fungus for the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and to identify the compound responsible for this activity.

Methods And Results: Endophytic fungi were isolated from the medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia and screened for AChE inhibition and antioxidant activity. Read More

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Effects of copper on an omnivorous (Astyanax altiparanae) and a carnivorous fish (Hoplias malabaricus): A comparative approach.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 May 25;237:105874. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Physiological Sciences, State University of Londrina (UEL), Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:

Copper is an essential metal for life. However, in excess, it can lead to osmoregulatory disorders and oxidative stress in fish and these effects appear to be species specific. In order to evaluate the effects of copper and to compare the sensitivity of two Neotropical fishes that co-occur in nature as prey (Astyaynax altiparanae) and predator (Hoplias malabaricus), the fish were exposed to three concentrations of Cu (5 μg L, 10 μg L, and 20 μg L) for 96 h. Read More

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Ang(1-7) exerts Nrf2-mediated neuroprotection against amyloid beta-induced cognitive deficits in rodents.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 May 1;48(5):4319-4331. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Division of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, GLA University, Mathura, 281406, India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with cognitive deficits in an individual. Ang(1-7) exhibits neuroprotection against amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and neurotoxicity in experimental conditions. Further, Ang(1-7) also exhibits nrf2-mediated antioxidant activity in experimental conditions. Read More

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Neuroprotective Effect and Antioxidant Potency of Fermented Cultured Wild Ginseng Root Extracts of C.A. Meyer in Mice.

Molecules 2021 May 18;26(10). Epub 2021 May 18.

Research Institute of Biotechnology, HwajinBioCosmetics CO., LTD, Chuncheon 24232, Korea.

Wild ginseng has better pharmacological effects than cultivated ginseng. However, its industrialization is limited by the inability to grow wild ginseng on a large scale. Herein, we demonstrate how to optimize ginseng production through cultivation, and how to enhance the concentrations of specific ginsenosides through fermentation. Read More

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Hydrogen Sulfide Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice by Reducing Apoptosis, Oxidative, and Inflammatory Effects.

Neurotox Res 2021 Aug 22;39(4):1310-1322. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, India.

Hydrogen sulfide (HS) is reported to have a neuroprotective activity; however, the role of HS in neuroinflammation-induced neuronal damage is ambiguous. Here, we aimed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms for the neuroprotective effect of NaHS, a known HS donor, against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory impairment (MI). All the treatments were administered for 28 days, and LPS (0. Read More

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Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Provides Protection Against Alzheimer's Disease-Induced Learning and Memory Impairments in Rats.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 13;15:2013-2024. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130041, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Recent evidence has highlighted the anti-inflammatory properties of the constituent of Green Tea Polyphenols (GTP), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) which has been suggested to exert a neuroprotective effect on Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current study aimed to elucidate the effect of EGCG on memory function in rats with AD.

Methods: AD rat models were initially established through an injection with Aβ 25-35 solution, followed by gavage with EGCG at varying doses to determine the effect of EGCG on learning and cognitive deficits in AD. Read More

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Repeated endosulfan exposure induces changes in neurochemicals, decreases ATPase transmembrane ionic-pumps, and increased oxidative/nitrosative stress in the brains of rats: Reversal by quercetin.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Jun 26;175:104833. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Neuropharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Neurochemical and ATPase deregulations play important role in toxicant-induced neurodegeneration. Previous studies have shown that loss of ATPase ionic-pumps alters neurochemical balance via increased ammonia, oxidative and nitrosative stress. Thus, this study investigated the ameliorative potentials of quercetin on neurochemical, ATPase changes, hyperammonemia and oxidative/nitrosative status in the brains of Wistar rats exposed to endosulfan, a known toxic environmental pesticide that is casually used in many developing countries. Read More

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Combination of donepezil and gallic acid improves antioxidant status and cholinesterases activity in aluminum chloride-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Biochemistry, Landmark University, PMB, Omu-aran, 1001, Nigeria.

The present study compared the effect of donepezil only and combination of donepezil and gallic acid on oxidative status and cholinesterase activity in the brain of Wistar rats administered AlCl for 60 days. Twenty-eight rats (180 - 200 g) were arbitrarily distributed into four groups of seven animals apiece. Group 1 served as normal control and received distilled water throughout the study. Read More

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Developmental neurotoxicity of antimony (Sb) in the early life stages of zebrafish.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 8;218:112308. Epub 2021 May 8.

Key Laboratory for Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Vascular Implants, Bioengineering College of Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, China. Electronic address:

Accumulating studies have revealed the toxicity of antimony (Sb) to soil-dwelling and aquatic organisms at the individual level. However, little is known about the neurotoxic effects of antimony and its underlying mechanisms. To assess this issue, we investigated the neurotoxicity of antimony (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/L) in zebrafish embryos. Read More

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Pesticide exposure and adverse health effects associated with farmwork in Northern Thailand.

J Occup Health 2021 Jan;63(1):e12222

School of Health Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand.

Objectives: To assess pesticide exposure and understand the resultant health effects of agricultural workers in Northern Thailand.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. We quantified exposure to pesticides, including chlorpyrifos, methomyl, and metalaxyl, by air sampling and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Read More

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January 2021

N-Acetylcysteine Ameliorates Neurotoxic Effects of Manganese Intoxication in Rats: A Biochemical and Behavioral Study.

Neurochem Res 2021 Aug 5;46(8):1953-1969. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Biophysics, Basic Medical Sciences Block II, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014, India.

Clinical and experimental evidences reveal that excess exposure to manganese is neurotoxic and leads to cellular damage. However, the mechanism underlying manganese neurotoxicity remains poorly understood but oxidative stress has been implicated to be one of the key pathophysiological features related to it. The present study investigates the effects associated with manganese induced toxicity in rats and further to combat these alterations with a well-known antioxidant N-acetylcysteine which is being used in mitigating the damage by its radical scavenging activity. Read More

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DNA damage and biochemical responses in estuarine bivalve Donax incarnatus (Gmelin, 1791) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of an organophosphate pesticide monocrotophos.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 May 3;193(6):317. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Zoology, Goa University, University Road, Taleigao, Goa, 403206, India.

Monocrotophos (MCP) is a highly toxic and broad-spectrum pesticide extensively used for agricultural and household purposes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxicity and alterations in the biochemical and physiological conditions induced by monocrotophos in a non-target organism, an estuarine bivalve, Donax incarnatus. The bivalves were exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations (6. Read More

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