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Quantitative Analyses of Foot Processes, Mitochondria, and Basement Membranes by Structured Illumination Microscopy Using Elastica-Masson- and Periodic-Acid-Schiff-Stained Kidney Sections.

Kidney Int Rep 2021 Jul 1;6(7):1923-1938. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Introduction: Foot process effacement and mitochondrial fission associate with kidney disease pathogenesis. Electron microscopy is the gold-standard method for their visualization, but the observable area of electron microscopy is smaller than light microscopy. It is important to develop alternative ways to quantitatively evaluate these microstructural changes because the lesion site of renal diseases can be focal. Read More

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Chronic Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease Progression: Role of Nrf2.

Kidney Int Rep 2021 Jul 4;6(7):1775-1787. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Children's Mercy Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, USA.

Despite recent advances in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD), morbidity and mortality rates in these patients remain high. Although pressure-mediated injury is a well-recognized mechanism of disease progression in CKD, emerging data indicate that an intermediate phenotype involving chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypoxia, senescence, and mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in the etiology, progression, and pathophysiology of CKD. A variety of factors promote chronic inflammation in CKD, including oxidative stress and the adoption of a proinflammatory phenotype by resident kidney cells. Read More

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Southern introgression increases adaptive immune gene variability in northern range margin populations of Fire-bellied toad.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jul 27;11(14):9776-9790. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Unit of Evolutionary Biology/Systematic Zoology Institute of Biochemistry and Biology University of Potsdam Potsdam Germany.

Northern range margin populations of the European fire-bellied toad () have rapidly declined during recent decades. Extensive agricultural land use has fragmented the landscape, leading to habitat disruption and loss, as well as eutrophication of ponds. In Northern Germany (Schleswig-Holstein) and Southern Sweden (Skåne), this population decline resulted in decreased gene flow from surrounding populations, low genetic diversity, and a putative reduction in adaptive potential, leaving populations vulnerable to future environmental and climatic changes. Read More

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Accelerated expansion of pathogenic mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmies in Huntington's disease.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(30)

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853;

Mitochondrial dysfunction is found in the brain and peripheral tissues of patients diagnosed with Huntington's disease (HD), an irreversible neurodegenerative disease of which aging is a major risk factor. Mitochondrial function is encoded by not only nuclear DNA but also DNA within mitochondria (mtDNA). Expansion of mtDNA heteroplasmies (coexistence of mutated and wild-type mtDNA) can contribute to age-related decline of mitochondrial function but has not been systematically investigated in HD. Read More

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Redox Imbalance and Mitochondrial Release of Apoptogenic Factors at the Forefront of the Antitumor Action of Mango Peel Extract.

Molecules 2021 Jul 17;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF), Laboratory of Biochemistry, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy.

Today, an improved understanding of cancer cell response to cellular stress has become more necessary. Indeed, targeting the intracellular pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance triggering the tumor commitment to cell demise could represent an advantageous strategy to develop cancer-tailored therapies. In this scenario, the present study shows how the peel extract of mango-a tropical fruit rich in phytochemicals with nutraceutical properties-can affect the cell viability of three colon cancer cell lines (HT29, Caco-2 and HCT116), inducing an imbalance of cellular redox responses. Read More

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Dietary Restriction for Kidney Protection: Decline in Nephroprotective Mechanisms During Aging.

Front Physiol 2021 6;12:699490. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

A.N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

Dietary restriction (DR) is believed to be one of the most promising approaches to extend life span of different animal species and to delay deleterious age-related physiological alterations and diseases. Among others, DR was shown to ameliorate acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, to date, a comprehensive analysis of the mechanisms of the protective effect of DR specifically in kidney pathologies has not been carried out. Read More

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Transmission Electron Microscopy for Analysis of Mitochondria in Mouse Skeletal Muscle.

Bio Protoc 2018 May 20;8(10):e2455. Epub 2018 May 20.

Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA.

Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the human body and regulates a variety of functions including locomotion and whole-body metabolism. Skeletal muscle has a plethora of mitochondria, the organelles that are essential for aerobic generation of ATP which provides the chemical energy to fuel vital functions such as contraction. The number of mitochondria in skeletal muscle and their function decline with normal aging and in various neuromuscular diseases and in catabolic conditions such as cancer, starvation, denervation, and immobilization. Read More

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Case report: 'AARS2 leukodystrophy'.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2021 Sep 13;28:100782. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase 2 gene () related disease is a rare genetic disorder affecting mitochondrial metabolism, leading to severe cardiac disease in infants or progressive leukodystrophy in young adults. The disease is considered ultra-rare with only 39 cases of AARS2-leukodystrophy previously reported.

Case Presentation: We present the case of a young man of consanguineous heritage suffering from cognitive decline and progressive spasticity as well as weakness of the proximal musculature. Read More

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September 2021

Modelling of energy metabolism and analysis of pH variations in postmortem muscle.

Meat Sci 2021 Jul 15;182:108634. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, United States of America. Electronic address:

A kinetic model structure was developed to describe the major variations in energy metabolism and to gain further understanding of pH changes in postmortem muscle experimentally observed with an in vitro glycolytic system. Comparison with experiments showed that the model could describe the kinetics of major metabolites and pH under varied conditions. Optimized model parameters definitively and consistently showed the observed effects of mitochondria, indicating a desirable level of model complexity. Read More

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Harnessing the mitochondrial integrity for neuroprotection: Therapeutic role of piperine against experimental ischemic stroke.

Neurochem Int 2021 Jul 18;149:105138. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, 110062, India. Electronic address:

Ischemic stroke (IS) is a rapidly increasing global burden and is associated with severe neurological decline and mortality. There is urgent requirement of the efforts, aimed to identify therapeutic strategies that are effective in clinic to promote significant recovery from IS. Studies have shown that mitochondria mediated neuroprotection can be a competent target against ischemic damage. Read More

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EVOO Polyphenols Relieve Synergistically Autophagy Dysregulation in a Cellular Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 5;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Biomedical, Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University of Firenze, 50134 Firenze, Italy.

(1) Background: Autophagy, the major cytoplasmic process of substrate turnover, declines with age, contributing to proteostasis decline, accumulation of harmful protein aggregates, damaged mitochondria and to ROS production. Accordingly, abnormalities in the autophagic flux may contribute to many different pathophysiological conditions associated with ageing, including neurodegeneration. Recent data have shown that extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenols stimulate cell defenses against plaque-induced neurodegeneration, mainly, through autophagy induction. Read More

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Neuroinflammatory profiles regulated by the redox environment predicted cognitive dysfunction in people living with HIV: A cross-sectional study.

EBioMedicine 2021 Jul 16;70:103487. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, UNMC, Omaha, NE, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), people living with HIV (PLWH) remain at risk for developing neurocognitive impairment primarily due to systemic inflammation that persists despite virologic suppression, albeit the mechanisms underlying such inflammation are poorly understood.

Methods: Herein, we evaluate the predictive capacity of the mitochondrial redox environment on circulating neuro- and T-lymphocyte-related inflammation and concomitant cognitive function in 40 virally-suppressed PLWH and 40 demographically-matched controls using structural equation modeling. We used state-of-the-art systems biology approaches including Seahorse Analyzer of mitochondrial function, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to measure superoxide levels, antioxidant activity assays, and Meso Scale multiplex technology to quantify inflammatory proteins in the periphery. Read More

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Lactate Fluxes and Plasticity of Adipose Tissues: A Redox Perspective.

Front Physiol 2021 30;12:689747. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Institut RESTORE, UMR 1301 INSERM, 5070 CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France.

Lactate, a metabolite produced when the glycolytic flux exceeds mitochondrial oxidative capacities, is now viewed as a critical regulator of metabolism by acting as both a carbon and electron carrier and a signaling molecule between cells and tissues. In recent years, increasing evidence report its key role in white, beige, and brown adipose tissue biology, and highlights new mechanisms by which lactate participates in the maintenance of whole-body energy homeostasis. Lactate displays a wide range of biological effects in adipose cells not only through its binding to the membrane receptor but also through its transport and the subsequent effect on intracellular metabolism notably on redox balance. Read More

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Keeping zombies alive: The ER-mitochondria Ca transfer in cellular senescence.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 Jul 15:119099. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Center for Integrative Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Mayor, Santiago, 8580745, Chile; Geroscience Center for Brain Health and Metabolism, Santiago, 8580745, Chile; Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Novato, CA 94945, USA; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA. Electronic address:

Cellular senescence generates a permanent cell cycle arrest, characterized by apoptosis resistance and a pro-inflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Physiologically, senescent cells promote tissue remodeling during development and after injury. However, when accumulated over a certain threshold as happens during aging or after cellular stress, senescent cells contribute to the functional decline of tissues, participating in the generation of several diseases. Read More

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The Role of Human LRRK2 in Acute Methylmercury Toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Neurochem Res 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, 10461, USA.

Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and its harmful effects on the developing brain continue to be a global environmental health concern. Decline in mitochondrial function is central to the toxic effects of MeHg and pathogenesis of mitochondria-related diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 (Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) mutation is one of the most common genetic risk factors for PD. Read More

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Astaxanthin prevents mitochondrial impairment in the dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cell line exposed to glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity: Role for the Nrf2/HO-1/CO-BR axis.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jul 12:174336. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Grupo de Estudos em Neuroquímica e Neurobiologia de Moléculas Bioativas, Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av. Fernando Corrêa da Costa, 2367, CEP 78060-900, Cuiaba, MT, Brazil. Electronic address:

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been viewed in several diseases, including neurological disorders. In the glutamate (GLU)-mediated excitotoxicity, it has been described mitochondrial impairment, disrupted redox environment, and increased rates of cell death in the affected brain areas. Astaxanthin (AST) is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory xanthophyll that also promotes beneficial mitochondria-related effects in brain cells. Read More

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Pentoxifylline Enhances Antioxidative Capability and Promotes Mitochondrial Biogenesis in D-Galactose-Induced Aging Mice by Increasing Nrf2 and PGC-1 through the cAMP-CREB Pathway.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 22;2021:6695613. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Neurobiology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017, China.

Aging is a complex phenomenon associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential ameliorative effects of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor pentoxifylline (PTX) on the aging process and its underlying mechanisms. We treated D-galactose- (D-gal-) induced aging mice with PTX and measured the changes in behavior, degree of oxidative damage, and mitochondrial ultrastructure and content as well as the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2- (Nrf2-) mediated antioxidant genes and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1-alpha- (PGC-1-) dependent mitochondrial biogenesis genes. Read More

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Coenzyme Q nanodisks counteract the effect of statins on C2C12 myotubes.

Nanomedicine 2021 Jul 10:102439. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Pharmacology, University, of Nevada, Reno, Reno, NV 89557. Electronic address:

Depletion of coenzyme Q (CoQ) is associated with disease, ranging from myopathy to heart failure. To induce a CoQ deficit, C2C12 myotubes were incubated with high dose simvastatin. This resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell viability. Read More

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Aging as a risk factor for cardiac surgery: Blunted ischemic-reperfusion stress response?

Lin Wang Jun Ren

J Card Surg 2021 Jul 11. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Biological aging is commonly associated with compromised cardiovascular function. In particular, cardiac aging is featured by unfavorable left ventricular remodeling, loss of compliance, and poor contractile reserve. Among possible contributing factors for cardiovascular aging, dampened autophagy response has received much attention. Read More

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Human cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury: Blunted stress response with age.

J Card Surg 2021 Jul 11. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

School of Kinesiology and Health Science, Muscle Health Research Centre, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background And Aim: Autophagy is a cytoprotective recycling mechanism, capable of digesting dysfunctional cellular components, and this process is associated with pro-survival outcomes. Autophagy may decline in the aging myocardium, thereby contributing to cardiac dysfunction. However, it remains to be established how autophagy responds to ischemia-reperfusion stress with age. Read More

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Cortisol enhances citrulline synthesis from proline in enterocytes of suckling piglets.

Amino Acids 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Animal Science and Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-2471, USA.

There are marked decreases in plasma concentrations of cortisol and arginine (an essential amino acid for neonates) as well as intestinal citrulline synthesis in piglets during the first 14 days of life. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that increasing plasma cortisol concentrations by cortisol administration may prevent the decline in intestinal citrulline and arginine synthesis from proline, thereby possibly increasing plasma arginine concentration in suckling piglets and their growth. Seven-day-old pigs reared by sows received daily intramuscular injections of hydrocortisone 21-acetate (25 mg/kg) or vehicle solution (saline) (n = 10/group). Read More

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The characteristics and functions of GAPDH S-nitrosylation during controlled aging of elm and Arabidopsis seeds.

J Exp Bot 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, Institute of Tree Development and Genome Editing, College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Tsinghua East Road, Beijing, 100083, China.

Seed aging is the gradual decline in seed vigor, during which programmed cell death (PCD) occurs. The functions of nitric oxide (NO) are exerted through protein S-nitrosylation, a reversible post-translational modification. During seed aging, more than 80 proteins are S-nitrosylated, but the particular role of individual proteins is unknown. Read More

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Ageing mechanisms that contribute to tissue remodeling in lung disease.

Ageing Res Rev 2021 Jul 6;70:101405. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia; Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton Heights, NSW, Australia; Providence Health Care Research Institute, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Age is a major risk factor for chronic respiratory diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and certain phenotypes of asthma. The recent COVID-19 pandemic also highlights the increased susceptibility of the elderly to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a diffuse inflammatory lung injury with often long-term effects (ie parenchymal fibrosis). Collectively, these lung conditions are characterized by a pathogenic reparative process that, rather than restoring organ function, contributes to structural and functional tissue decline. Read More

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Caveolin-1, a Novel Player in Cognitive Decline.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Anesthesiology & Center for Brain Science, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Cognitive decline (CD), which related to vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and diabetes mellitus, is a growing health concern that has a great impact on the patients' quality of life. Although extensive efforts, the mechanisms of CD are still far from being clarified, not to mention the effective treatment and prevention strategies. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a trans-membrane protein, is a major component of the caveolae structure and scaffolding proteins. Read More

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TOMM40 '523' poly-T repeat length is a determinant of longitudinal cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease.

NPJ Parkinsons Dis 2021 Jul 7;7(1):56. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Perron Institute for Neurological and Translational Science, Nedlands, WA, Australia.

The translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 (TOMM40) '523' polymorphism has previously been associated with age of Alzheimer's disease onset and cognitive functioning in non-pathological ageing, but has not been explored as a candidate risk marker for cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, this longitudinal study investigated the role of the '523' variant in cognitive decline in a patient cohort from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative. As such, a group of 368 people with PD were assessed annually for cognitive performance using multiple neuropsychological protocols, and were genotyped for the TOMM40 '523' variant using whole-genome sequencing data. Read More

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TFEB protein expression is reduced in aged brains and its overexpression mitigates senescence-associated biomarkers and memory deficits in mice.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Jun 10;106:26-36. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Immunology and Nano-Medicine, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Identification of molecules and molecular pathways that can ameliorate aging-associated decline in cognitive function is crucial. Here we report that the protein levels of transcription factor EB (TFEB) were markedly reduced in both the cytosolic and nuclear fractions of the frontal cortex and hippocampus at 18-months of age relative to 6 months in the normal male wild-type mice. In the transgenic mice with ectopic expression of flag-TFEB in neurons, we observed that the levels of actin-normalized PGC1α and mtTFA were significantly increased in both the cortex and the hippocampus. Read More

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A High Fat/Cholesterol Diet Recapitulates Some Alzheimer's Disease-Like Features in Mice: Focus on Hippocampal Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Background: Ample evidence from clinical and pre-clinical studies suggests mid-life hypercholesterolemia as a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) at a later age. Hypercholesterolemia induced by dietary habits can lead to vascular perturbations that increase the risk of developing sporadic AD.

Objective: To investigate the effects of a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD) as a risk factor for AD by using a rodent model of AD and its correspondent control (healthy animals). Read More

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Matrisome, innervation and oxidative metabolism affected in older compared with younger males with similar physical activity.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Jul 4. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Human and Animal Physiology, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Due to the interaction between skeletal muscle ageing and lifestyle factors, it is often challenging to attribute the decline in muscle mass and quality to either changes in lifestyle or to advancing age itself. Because many of the physiological factors affecting muscle mass and quality are modulated by physical activity and physical activity declines with age, the aim of this study is to better understand the effects of early ageing on muscle function by comparing a population of healthy older and young males with similar physical activity patterns.

Methods: Eighteen older (69 ± 2. Read More

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Nrf2 activation induces mitophagy and reverses Parkin/Pink1 knock down-mediated neuronal and muscle degeneration phenotypes.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jul 3;12(7):671. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, 15784, Greece.

The balanced functionality of cellular proteostatic modules is central to both proteome stability and mitochondrial physiology; thus, the age-related decline of proteostasis also triggers mitochondrial dysfunction, which marks multiple degenerative disorders. Non-functional mitochondria are removed by mitophagy, including Parkin/Pink1-mediated mitophagy. A common feature of neuronal or muscle degenerative diseases, is the accumulation of damaged mitochondria due to disrupted mitophagy rates. Read More

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Age-related decline in murine heart and skeletal muscle performance is attenuated by reduced Ahnak1 expression.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association (MDC), Berlin, Germany.

Background: Aging is associated with a progressive reduction in cellular function leading to poor health and loss of physical performance. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the hallmarks of aging; hence, interventions targeting mitochondrial dysfunction have the potential to provide preventive and therapeutic benefits to elderly individuals. Meta-analyses of age-related gene expression profiles showed that the expression of Ahnak1, a protein regulating several signal-transduction pathways including metabolic homeostasis, is increased with age, which is associated with low VO and poor muscle fitness. Read More

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