16,952 results match your criteria decisions participants

Stand up to action: The postural effect of moral dilemma decision-making and the moderating role of dual processes.

Psych J 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Previous studies have demonstrated the possibility that when people are in standing rather than sitting postures, they have a stronger cognitive control propensity, making them inclined to agree more to sacrificing one innocent person and saving more people. Furthermore, this postural effect can be moderated by dual processes. In three studies, participants read dilemma scenarios followed by a proposed behavior to sacrifice one innocent person and save five or more people. Read More

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Digital Health during COVID-19: Informatics Dialogue with the World Health Organization.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

eHealth Development Association, Amman, Jordan.

Background: On December 16, 2020 representatives of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA), a Non-Governmental Organization in official relations with the World Health Organization (WHO), along with its International Academy for Health Sciences Informatics (IAHSI), held an open dialogue with WHO Director General (WHO DG) Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus about the opportunities and challenges of digital health during the COVID-19 global pandemic.

Objectives: The aim of this paper is to report the outcomes of the dialogue and discussions with more than 200 participants representing different civil society organizations (CSOs).

Methods: The dialogue was held in form of a webinar. Read More

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The multidimensional prognostic index (MPI) for the prognostic stratification of older inpatients with COVID-19: A multicenter prospective observational cohort study.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2021 Apr 5;95:104415. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Primary Care, District 3, ULSS 3, Venice, Italy,; Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, University of Palermo, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: The topic of prognosis in COVID-19 research may be important in adopting appropriate clinical decisions. Multidimensional prognostic index (MPI) is a frailty assessment tool widely used for stratifying prognosis in older people, but data regarding inpatients, affected by COVID-19, are not available.

Objectives: To evaluate whether MPI can predict in-hospital mortality and the admission to intensive care unit (ICU) in older inpatients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection. Read More

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Ten women's decision-making experiences in threatened preterm labour: Qualitative findings from the EQUIPTT trial.

Sex Reprod Healthc 2021 Mar 29;29:100611. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Women and Children's Health, School of Life Course Sciences, King's College London, 10(th) Floor North Wing, St Thomas' Hospital, Westminster Bridge Road, SE1 7EH, United Kingdom.

Background: Clinical triage of women in threatened preterm labour (TPTL) could be improved through utilising the QUiPP App, as symptoms alone are poor predictors of early delivery. As most women in TPTL ultimately deliver at term, they must weigh this likelihood with their own personal considerations, and responsibilities. The importance of personal considerations was highlighted by the 2015 Montgomery ruling, and the significance of shared decision-making. Read More

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Evaluation of the Usability and Acceptability of the InnoWell Platform as Rated by Older Adults: Survey Study.

JMIR Aging 2021 Apr 21;4(2):e25928. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Brain and Mind Centre, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, Australia.

Background: As the global population ages, there is increased interest in developing strategies to promote health and well-being in later life, thus enabling continued productivity, social engagement, and independence. As older adults use technologies with greater frequency, proficiency, and confidence, health information technologies (HITs) now hold considerable potential as a means to enable broader access to tools and services for the purposes of screening, treatment, monitoring, and ongoing maintenance of health for this group. The InnoWell Platform is a digital tool co-designed with lived experience to facilitate better outcomes by enabling access to a comprehensive multidimensional assessment, the results of which are provided in real time to enable consumers to make informed decisions about clinical and nonclinical care options independently or in collaboration with a health professional. Read More

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Changes in public knowledge and perceptions about antibiotic use and resistance in Jordan: a cross-sectional eight-year comparative study.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 19;21(1):750. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of Petra, Amman, Jordan.

Background: Resistance to antibiotics is a growing problem, worldwide and particularly in developing countries like Jordan. Raising public awareness on appropriate antibiotic use is crucial to combat this problem. The current study describes the change in public Knowledge and attitudes towards the use of antibiotics over a period of 8 years. Read More

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Burden of Kidney Disease, Health-Related Quality of Life, and Employment Among Patients Receiving Peritoneal Dialysis and In-Center Hemodialysis: Findings From the DOPPS Program.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Rationale & Objective: Individuals faced with decisions regarding kidney replacement therapy options need information on how dialysis treatments might affect daily activities and quality of life, and what factors might influence the evolution over time of the impact of dialysis on daily activities and quality of life.

Study Design: Observational cohort study.

Setting & Participants: 7,771 HD and PD participants from 6 countries participating in the Peritoneal and Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Studies (PDOPPS/DOPPS). Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of a Hyaluronic Acid-Containing Gauze Pad in the Treatment of Chronic Venous or Mixed-Origin Leg Ulcers: A Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Trial.

Wounds 2021 04 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Dermatology, Hospital Saint-Eloi, Montpellier, France.

Introduction: Hyaluronic acid (HA)-containing formulations routinely are utilized along with standard therapy to promote faster healing of chronic wounds; evidence to guide clinical decisions on the use of topical HA in the healing of vascular leg ulcers is limited.

Objective: This study compared the efficacy and safety of an HA-impregnated gauze pad with an identical gauze pad without HA in the treatment of chronic leg ulcers of vascular origin.

Materials And Methods: A prospective, multicenter, multinational, parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, clinical study was conducted between June 13, 2017, and December 31, 2018. Read More

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Informing Women About Overdetection in Breast Cancer Screening: Two-year Outcomes from a Randomized Trial.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Supporting well-informed decisions about breast cancer screening requires communicating that inconsequential disease may be detected, leading to overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Having previously shown that telling women about overdetection improved informed choice, we investigated effects on screening knowledge and participation over 2 years.

Methods: We conducted a community-based, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial in Australia. Read More

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Recruiting Persons with Dementia and Caregivers in a Clinical Trial: Dyads Perceptions.

West J Nurs Res 2021 Apr 17:1939459211008563. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

College of Nursing and Health Professions, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Recruitment for dementia research is challenging and costly. Using Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior we explored attitudes, perceived norms, and perceived behavioral control of persons living with dementia (PLWD) and their caregivers who participated in one clinical trial to better understand factors that influence dyads' decisions to enroll. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 12 PLWD and 9 caregivers and utilized directed content analysis. Read More

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"I'm Going to Stop Myself Before Someone Stops Me": Complicating Narratives of Volitional Substance Use Treatment.

Front Sociol 2021 10;6:619677. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York University, New York, NY, United States.

Often people assume that entry into drug treatment is a voluntary action for persons who use drugs (PWUD). This narrative informs the organizational and regulatory structure of most treatment programs and consequently affects patients' ability to exert agency over their own treatment. Yet, this view ignores the complex interplay between individual and structural factors in peoples' decision-making processes, particularly among people who use drugs who are stigmatized and criminalized. Read More

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February 2021

Maternity Care Preferences for Future Pregnancies Among United States Childbearers: The Impacts of COVID-19.

Front Sociol 2021 18;6:611407. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Anthropology, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, United States.

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted maternity care decisions, including plans to change providers or delivery location due to pandemic-related restrictions and fears. A relatively unexplored question, however, is how the pandemic may shape future maternity care preferences post-pandemic. Here, we use data collected from an online convenience survey of 980 women living in the United States to evaluate how and why the pandemic has affected women's future care preferences. Read More

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February 2021

Compromised Conscience: A Scoping Review of Moral Injury Among Firefighters, Paramedics, and Police Officers.

Front Psychol 2021 31;12:639781. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Heroes in Mind Advocacy and Research Consortium, Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Background: Public Safety Personnel (e.g., firefighters, paramedics, and police officers) are routinely exposed to human suffering and need to make quick, morally challenging decisions. Read More

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"Lights and Shadows": An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of the Lived Experience of Being Diagnosed With Breast Cancer During Pregnancy.

Front Psychol 2021 1;12:620353. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Psychology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy.

Cancer diagnosed during pregnancy is a rare event. The most common type of malignancy diagnosed in pregnant women is breast cancer, whose incidence is expected to raise in the next future due to delayed childbirth, as well as to the increased occurrence of the disease at young age. Pregnant women diagnosed with breast cancer are exposed to multiple sources of stress, which may lead to poorer obstetric outcomes, such as preterm birth and low birth weight. Read More

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Does it make a difference? Exploring the value of combining public health and nursing education.

J Prof Nurs 2021 Mar-Apr;37(2):261-267. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

2300 Pine Street Apt 8A, Philadelphia, PA 19103, United States of America.

Background: Within the evolving United States healthcare system, there is a need to strengthen the public health nursing workforce. Historical and more recent trends within nursing education have demonstrated this need. Nurses who obtain a Master of Public Health (MPH) contribute to this workforce's development. Read More

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December 2020

The Role of Procalcitonin in Antibiotic Decision-Making in Covid-19 Infection.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2021 Apr 19:1-24. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

Objective: To evaluate the role of procalcitonin (PCT) in antibiotic decisions for COVID-19 patients at hospital presentation.

Design, Setting And Participants: Multicenter retrospective observational study of patients 18 years hospitalized due to COVID-19 at the Johns Hopkins Health system. Patients who were transferred from another facility with >24 hours stay and patients who died within 48 hours of hospitalization were excluded. Read More

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Stunting, IQ, and final school attainment in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey birth cohort.

Econ Hum Biol 2021 Apr 7;42:100999. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

USC-Office of Population Studies Foundation, Inc., University of San Carlos, Cebu City, Philippines.

School attainment is an important aspect of human capital, and a key determinant of long-term health and well-being. Early life deprivation and poor nutritional status are well known predictors of school entry and progression. We examine the persistence of early life influences and subsequent socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) across the multiple school continuation decisions that lead to final school attainment. Read More

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Predicting why people engage in pro-sustainable behaviors in Portland Oregon: The role of environmental self-identity, personal norm, and socio-demographics.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 14;289:112538. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Kinesiology, College of Nursing and Health Innovations, The University of Texas at Arlington, TX, USA. Electronic address:

This study aims to identify factors influencing people's participation in frequent and effective pro-sustainable behaviors (PSB) in Portland, Oregon, using value-belief-norm theory and a modified value-identity-personal-norm (VIP) model. Drawing from a resident survey (n = 484) and applying a series of regression and mediation analyses, we tested the power of the VIP model in our sample to examine the influence of values, environmental self-identity, and personal norms on PSB while adjusting for socio-demographic factors. Our study revealed participants who held altruistic values (i. Read More

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Data gaps in electronic health record (EHR) systems: An audit of problem list completeness during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Int J Med Inform 2021 Apr 1;150:104452. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Clinical and Research Informatics Unit, UCL/UCLH NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Institute of Health Informatics, 222 Euston Road, London, NW1 2DA, UK. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the completeness of diagnosis recording in problem lists in a hospital electronic health record (EHR) system during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design: Retrospective chart review with manual review of free text electronic case notes.

Setting: Major teaching hospital trust in London, one year after the launch of a comprehensive EHR system (Epic), during the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. Read More

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A pairwise and network meta-analysis comparing the efficacy and safety of progestogens in threatened abortion.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Progesterone is widely used to prevent threatened miscarriage.

Objective: To determine the efficacy and safety of progestogens in the treatment of threatened miscarriage.

Search Strategy: PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CNKI, CBM, and WanFang databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from the date of inception of the database to August 2020. Read More

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Does participation in ethics discussions have an impact on ethics decision-making? A cross-sectional study among healthcare professionals in paediatric oncology.

Eur J Oncol Nurs 2021 Mar 27;52:101950. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Childhood Cancer Research Unit, Department of Women's & Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Purpose: The overall aim of this study was to describe perceptions of the decision-making process in relation to participation/non-participation in ethics discussions among healthcare professionals in paediatric oncology.

Methods: Healthcare professionals, working at three paediatric units where ethics discussions where performed answered a study-specific questionnaire focusing on perceptions of involvement, influence, responsibility and understanding of ethics decision-making. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, non-parametric paired t-tests and correlation tests. Read More

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Influence of patient immigrant status on physician trainee diabetes treatment decisions: a virtual patient experimental study.

J Behav Med 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Psychology, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), 402 North Blackford Street, LD100E, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.

To determine the effect of patient immigrant status on physician trainees' diabetes treatment decisions. Participants were 140 physician trainees ('providers'). Providers viewed videos and vignettes of virtual patients differing in immigrant status (born in Mexico or U. Read More

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Neurophysiological Contributors to Advantageous Risk-Taking: An Experimental Psychopharmacological Investigation.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA.

The ability to learn from experience is critical for determining when to take risks and when to play it safe. However, we know little about how within-person state changes, such as an individual's degree of neurophysiological arousal, may impact the ability to learn which risks are most likely to fail vs. succeed. Read More

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Cultures of Practice: Specialty-Specific Differences in End-of-Life Conversations.

Palliat Med Rep 2021 Mar 24;2(1):71-83. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Surgery, VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Goals of care discussions at the end of life give opportunity to affirm the autonomy and humanity of dying patients. Best practices exist for communication around goals of care, but there is no research on differences in approach taken by different specialties engaging these conversations. To describe the communication practices of internal medicine (IM), emergency medicine (EM), and critical care (CC) physicians in a high-fidelity simulation of a terminally ill patient with stable and defined end-of-life preferences. Read More

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Differential effects of direct and cross examination on mock jurors' perceptions and memory in cases of child sexual abuse.

Psychiatr Psychol Law 2020 19;27(5):778-796. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Psychological Science, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.

When children testify in cases of child sexual abuse (CSA), they often provide minimal responses to attorneys' questions. Thus, how attorneys ask questions may be particularly influential in shaping jurors' perceptions and memory for case details. This study examined mock jurors' perceptions after reading an excerpt of a CSA trial transcript. Read More

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U-Sleep: resilient high-frequency sleep staging.

NPJ Digit Med 2021 Apr 15;4(1):72. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Sleep disorders affect a large portion of the global population and are strong predictors of morbidity and all-cause mortality. Sleep staging segments a period of sleep into a sequence of phases providing the basis for most clinical decisions in sleep medicine. Manual sleep staging is difficult and time-consuming as experts must evaluate hours of polysomnography (PSG) recordings with electroencephalography (EEG) and electrooculography (EOG) data for each patient. Read More

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I felt so much conflict instead of joy: an analysis of open-ended comments from people in British Columbia who declined care recommendations during pregnancy and childbirth.

Reprod Health 2021 Apr 15;18(1):79. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Birth Place Lab, Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, 304-5950 University Blvd, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada.

Background: No Canadian studies to date have examined the experiences of people who decline aspects of care during pregnancy and birth. The current analysis bridges this gap by describing comments from 1123 people in British Columbia (BC) who declined a test or procedure that their care provider recommended.

Methods: In the Changing Childbirth in BC study, childbearing people designed a mixed-methods study, including a cross-sectional survey on experiences of provider-patient interactions over the course of maternity care. Read More

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Antibiotic prescription practices and opinions regarding antimicrobial resistance among veterinarians in Kentucky, USA.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(4):e0249653. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States of America.

Background: Inappropriate antimicrobial use (AMU) is a global concern. Opinions of veterinarians regarding AMU and its role in the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) may influence their prescription practices. It is important to understand these opinions, prescription practices and their potential impact on the development of AMR in order to guide efforts to curb the problem. Read More

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Assessment of Cumulative Incidence and Severity of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Among Participants in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study After 20 Years of Follow-up.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri.

Importance: Ocular hypertension is an important risk factor for the development of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Data from long-term follow-up can be used to inform the management of patients with ocular hypertension.

Objective: To determine the cumulative incidence and severity of POAG after 20 years of follow-up among participants in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study. Read More

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Facial coloration influences social approach-avoidance through social perception.

Cogn Emot 2021 Apr 15:1-16. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina-Aiken, Aiken, SC, USA.

Perceptions of others' social characteristics are essential for guiding social behaviour and decision making. Recent research has demonstrated that increased facial redness facilitates both positive (e.g. Read More

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