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Refusal of Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa: Mental Health Professionals' Opinion on Willingness and Role Stress.

Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño, La Rioja, España.

Introduction: The hospitalisation of patients with anorexia nervosa poses an important bioethical quandary and can generate stress for the healthcare professionals. Our goal was to know and analyse the opinion of mental health professionals on some conditions for applying the involuntary hospitalisation of patients with anorexia nervosa.

Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive observational study on a sample of 270 mental health professionals, using an ad hoc questionnaire with scores ranging from 0 to 10. Read More

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Molecular diagnosis in non-small-cell lung cancer: expert opinion on and testing.

J Clin Pathol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, Spain.

The effectiveness of targeted therapies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) depends on the accurate determination of the genomic status of the tumour. For this reason, molecular analyses to detect genetic rearrangements in some genes (ie, , , ) have become standard in patients with advanced disease. Since immunohistochemistry is easier to implement and interpret, it is normally used as the screening procedure, while fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) is used to confirm the rearrangement and decide on ambiguous immunostainings. Read More

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Effects of temporary psychiatric holds on length of stay and readmission risk among persons admitted for psychotic disorders.

Int J Law Psychiatry 2021 May-Jun;76:101695. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Utah, 501 Chipeta Way, Salt Lake City, UT, 84108, USA. Electronic address:

The practice of involuntary psychiatric commitment is central to the acute treatment of persons with severe mental illness and others in psychiatric crisis. Deciding whether a patient should be admitted involuntarily requires weighing respect for autonomy against beneficence, considering the clinical needs of the patient, and navigating ambiguous legal standards. The relative dearth of information about the impact of involuntary commitment on objective patient outcomes complicates matters ethically, legally, and clinically. Read More

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Evidence accumulation under uncertainty - a neural marker of emerging choice and urgency.

Neuroimage 2021 05 19;232:117863. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London WC1 3AR, UK.

To interact meaningfully with its environment, an agent must integrate external information with its own internal states. However, information about the environment is often noisy. In this study, we identify a neural correlate that tracks how asymmetries between competing alternatives evolve over the course of a decision. Read More

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Recovery from misinterpretations during online sentence processing.

J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 2020 Nov 30. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Division of Psychology and Language Sciences.

Misinterpretations during language comprehension are common. The ability to recover from processing difficulties is therefore crucial for successful day-to-day communication. Previous research on the recovery from misinterpretations has focused on sentences containing syntactic ambiguities. Read More

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November 2020

A latent capture history model for digital aerial surveys.

Biometrics 2020 Nov 20. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Statistics, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

We anticipate that unmanned aerial vehicles will become popular wildlife survey platforms. Because detecting animals from the air is imperfect, we develop a mark-recapture line transect method using two digital cameras, possibly mounted on one aircraft, which cover the same area with a short time delay between them. Animal movement between the passage of the cameras introduces uncertainty in individual identity, so individual capture histories are unobservable and are treated as latent variables. Read More

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November 2020

Brightness modulations of our nearest terrestrial planet Venus reveal atmospheric super-rotation rather than surface features.

Nat Commun 2020 11 12;11(1):5720. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Hokkaido Information University, Ebetsu, Japan.

Terrestrial exoplanets orbiting within or near their host stars' habitable zone are potentially apt for life. It has been proposed that time-series measurements of reflected starlight from such planets will reveal their rotational period, main surface features and some atmospheric information. From imagery obtained with the Akatsuki spacecraft, here we show that Venus' brightness at 283, 365, and 2020 nm is modulated by one or both of two periods of 3. Read More

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November 2020

Visual interpretation of [F]Florbetaben PET supported by deep learning-based estimation of amyloid burden.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 04 29;48(4):1116-1123. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Amyloid PET which has been widely used for noninvasive assessment of cortical amyloid burden is visually interpreted in the clinical setting. As a fast and easy-to-use visual interpretation support system, we analyze whether the deep learning-based end-to-end estimation of amyloid burden improves inter-reader agreement as well as the confidence of the visual reading.

Methods: A total of 121 clinical routines [F]Florbetaben PET images were collected for the randomized blind-reader study. Read More

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Is threat detection Black and White? Race effects in threat-related perceptual decision-making.

Emotion 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University.

There is a vast literature base indicating that people respond differently to Black and White individuals based on differential perceptions of threat. As facial affect is a fundamental way that individuals communicate their emotional state, studies have examined differences in how Black and White threatening facial expressions are perceived. However, perceptual decisions regarding threatening and neutral stimuli often occur in familiar contexts or in environments where explicit cues indicate the presence or absence of threat. Read More

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[EDUCATION AND MEDICINE - TWO COMPLIMENTARY PROFESSIONS: WHAT CAN BE LEARNED FROM JANUSZ KORCZAK?]

Harefuah 2020 Apr;159(4):297-299

Ariel University.

Introduction: The comparison between education and medicine is based on the philosophy of Janusz Korczak, who was not only a successful pediatrician, but also an extraordinary educator. In the two orphanages that he directed he focused his interest on those two domains. Both the educator and the physician have two basic roles - to diagnose and to treat/intervene. Read More

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Aggressive Realism: More Efficient Processing of Anger in Physically Aggressive Individuals.

Psychol Sci 2020 05 15;31(5):568-581. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Psychology, Yale University.

Physically aggressive individuals' heightened tendency to decide that ambiguous faces are angry is thought to contribute to their destructive interpersonal behavior. Although this tendency is commonly attributed to bias, other cognitive processes could account for the emotion-identification patterns observed in physical aggression. Diffusion modeling is a valuable tool for parsing the contributions of several cognitive processes known to influence decision-making, including bias, drift rate (efficiency of information accumulation), and threshold separation (extent of information accumulation). Read More

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Differential Effects of Psychotic Illness on Directed and Random Exploration.

Comput Psychiatr 2020 1;4:18-39. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Schizophrenia is associated with a number of deficits in decision-making, but the scope, nature, and cause of these deficits are not completely understood. Here we focus on a particular type of decision, known as the dilemma, in which people must choose between exploiting options that yield relatively known rewards and exploring more ambiguous options of uncertain reward probability or magnitude. Previous work has shown that healthy people use two distinct strategies to decide when to explore: directed exploration, which involves choosing options that would reduce uncertainty about the reward values (information seeking), and random exploration (exploring by chance), which describes behavioral variability that is not goal directed. Read More

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Dissociation between decision making under ambiguity and risk in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2019 12 31;101(Pt A):106548. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Laboratory of Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Psychiatry, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Introduction: Decision making (DM) is one aspect of impulsivity that can be defined by the ability to decide between two or more options in a given situation. To date, there are at least two types of DM that differ in the level of uncertainty, and how much information about consequences is provided. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the two domains of DM - under risk and ambiguous - with a comprehensive evaluation in a group of patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), and correlate with patients' characteristics, clinical variables, and neuropsychological evaluation for executive functions. Read More

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December 2019

Burnout is associated with a depressive interpretation style.

Stress Health 2019 Dec 13;35(5):642-649. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Institute of Work and Organizational Psychology, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

The aim of this 188-participant study (65% female; mean age = 40.31) was to examine whether burnout and depression are associated with similar interpretation biases in the processing of emotional information. Burnout symptoms were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey and depressive symptoms with the 9-item depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire. Read More

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December 2019

Advance care planning in glioblastoma patients: development of a disease-specific ACP program.

Support Care Cancer 2020 Mar 26;28(3):1315-1324. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Neurology, Haaglanden Medical Center, PO BOX 2191, 2501, VC, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Background: It is unknown if the implementation of an advance care planning (ACP) program is feasible in daily clinical practice for glioblastoma patients. We aimed to develop an ACP program and assess the preferred content, the best time to introduce such a program in the disease trajectory, and possible barriers and facilitators for participation and implementation.

Methods: A focus group with health care professionals (HCPs) and individual semi-structured interviews with patients and proxies (of both living and deceased patients) were conducted. Read More

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Am I Disadvantaged? How Applicants Decide Whether to Use the Disadvantaged Status in the American Medical College Application Service.

Acad Med 2019 11;94(11):1766-1773

A.M. Lowrance has worked as a data analyst in medical school admissions and screened applicants since 2013; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7752-3892. M.G. Birnbaum is associate professor of higher education and student affairs leadership, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3694-1235.

Purpose: To add to the limited research on the Disadvantaged Status, a component in the American Medical College Application Service (AMCAS) primary application, the authors explored how applicants to a medical school between 2014 and 2016 determined whether they were disadvantaged and whether to apply as such.

Method: The authors used case study methodology to explore the experiences of students at a medical school in the Northeast. The authors derived data from transcripts of semistructured interviews with students and the students' AMCAS applications. Read More

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November 2019

A Generic Human-Machine Annotation Framework Based on Dynamic Cooperative Learning.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2020 Mar 14;50(3):1230-1239. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

The task of obtaining meaningful annotations is a tedious work, incurring considerable costs and time consumption. Dynamic active learning and cooperative learning are recently proposed approaches to reduce human effort of annotating data with subjective phenomena. In this paper, we introduce a novel generic annotation framework, with the aim to achieve the optimal tradeoff between label reliability and cost reduction by making efficient use of human and machine work force. Read More

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Data ambiguity and clinical decision making: A qualitative case study of the use of predictive information technologies in a personalized cancer clinical trial.

Health Informatics J 2019 09 19;25(3):500-510. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

IEO, European Institute of Oncology, IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Personalized medicine aims to tailor the treatment to the specific characteristics of the individual patient. In the process, physicians engage with multiple sources of data and information to decide on a personalized treatment. This article draws on a qualitative case study of a clinical trial testing a method for matching treatments for advanced cancer patients. Read More

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September 2019

Does Patient-centered Care Change Genital Surgery Decisions? The Strategic Use of Clinical Uncertainty in Disorders of Sex Development Clinics.

J Health Soc Behav 2018 12 10;59(4):520-535. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

2 University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Genital surgery in children with ambiguous or atypical genitalia has been marred by controversies about the appropriateness and timing of surgery, generating clinical uncertainty about decision making. Since 2006, medical experts and patient advocates have argued for putting the child's needs central as patient-centered care. Based on audio recordings of 31 parent-clinician interactions in three clinics of disorders of sex development, we analyze how parents and clinicians decide on genital surgery. Read More

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December 2018

Judging the mood of the crowd: Attention is focused on happy faces.

Emotion 2019 Sep 27;19(6):1044-1059. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Institute of Psychology.

Previous research on valence biases in face perception revealed inconsistent findings either proposing angry or happy faces to be detected more efficiently. We argue that the typical experimental task in this field, the face-in-the-crowd (FiC) paradigm, leads to ambiguous results. In the present paper, we introduce a new task, the mood-of-the-crowd (MoC) paradigm that can complement existing FiC findings. Read More

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September 2019

Safety of intermediate left main stenosis revascularization deferral based on fractional flow reserve and intravascular ultrasound: A systematic review and meta-regression including 908 deferred left main stenosis from 12 studies.

Int J Cardiol 2018 Nov;271:42-48

Interventional Cardiology, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Current guidelines recommend intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) or fractional flow reserve (FFR) to decide upon ambiguous left main (LM) disease. However, no study has compared the safety of LM revascularization deferral based on FFR or IVUS.

Methods: MEDLINE/PubMed was systematically screened for studies reporting on deferred treatment of angiographically ambiguous LM based upon FFR or IVUS evaluation. Read More

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November 2018

Testing the Possibility of Model-based Pavlovian Control of Attention to Threat.

J Cogn Neurosci 2019 01 29;31(1):36-48. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Signals for reward or punishment attract attention preferentially, a principle termed value-modulated attention capture (VMAC). The mechanisms that govern the allocation of attention can be described with a terminology that is more often applied to the control of overt behaviors, namely, the distinction between instrumental and Pavlovian control, and between model-free and model-based control. Although instrumental control of VMAC can be either model-free or model-based, it is not known whether Pavlovian control of VMAC can be model-based. Read More

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January 2019

Genetic Counselors' Experience with and Opinions on the Management of Newborn Screening Incidental Carrier Findings.

J Genet Couns 2018 12 23;27(6):1328-1340. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

Newborn screening (NBS) is a public health program whose aim is to identify infants who will be clinically affected with a serious metabolic, genetic, or endocrine disorder; however, the technology utilized by many NBS programs also detects infants who are heterozygous carriers for autosomal recessive conditions. Discussion surrounding disclosure of these incidental carrier findings remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess genetic counselors' attitudes about disclosure of carrier status results generated by NBS and to gather data on their experiences with incidental carrier findings. Read More

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December 2018

Differential response patterns to disgust-related pictures.

Cogn Emot 2018 12 5;32(8):1678-1690. Epub 2018 Jan 5.

a Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy , University of Leipzig , Leipzig , Germany.

In the present study, attentional bias was investigated as a potential predisposing mechanism for the contamination-related subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (C-OC disorder). Fifty healthy participants with varying degrees of subclinical C-OC symptoms performed a visual search task to measure differential attentional biases elicited by neutral, disgust-, and fear-specific pictorial material. Participants had to find a target picture within five neutral distractor pictures randomly presented on different locations in an array. Read More

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December 2018

N170 Reveals the Categorical Perception Effect of Emotional Valence.

Front Psychol 2017 24;8:2056. Epub 2017 Nov 24.

Department of Psychology and Center for Brain and Cognitive Sciences, School of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.

As an important attribute of facial expression, emotional valence has been well explored, but its processing mechanisms remain ambiguous. Investigating the categorical perception (CP) of emotional valence might help uncover the objective basis of the subjective dichotomy of emotional valence and identify the stage at which this processing of valence information might occur. A judgment task was used in the current study with stimuli from the within- or between-category condition, in which participants were required to decide whether two presented faces showed the same emotion. Read More

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November 2017

Lexical ambiguity resolution during sentence processing in Parkinson's disease: An event-related potential study.

PLoS One 2017 5;12(5):e0176281. Epub 2017 May 5.

School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to investigate lexical ambiguity resolution during sentence processing in 16 people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 16 healthy controls. Sentences were presented word-by-word on computer screen, and participants were required to decide if a subsequent target word was related to the meaning of the sentence. The task consisted of related, unrelated and ambiguous trials. Read More

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September 2017

Women at familial risk of breast cancer electing for prophylactic mastectomy: frequencies, procedures, and decision-making characteristics.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2017 Jun 24;295(6):1451-1458. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 440, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Some women of families at high risk of breast cancer (BC) choose prophylactic mastectomy (PM) in spite of ambiguous evidence for survival benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate counselees' characteristics, decisions on PM, and frequencies of different procedures to better understand how to tailor interventions.

Patients And Methods: Eight hundred and forty-nine counselees who attended interdisciplinary consultation for genetic risk adjustment at the University Hospital Heidelberg between July 2009 and July 2011 received a tripartite questionnaire addressing sociodemographic characteristics, psychological parameters, behavioural questions, and medical data. Read More

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'Best interests' in paediatric intensive care: an empirical ethics study.

Arch Dis Child 2017 10 13;102(10):930-935. Epub 2017 Apr 13.

Centre for Ethics in Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Objective: In English paediatric practice, English law requires that parents and clinicians agree the 'best interests' of children and, if this is not possible, that the courts decide. Court intervention is rare and the concept of best interests is ambiguous. We report qualitative research exploring how the best interests standard operates in practice, particularly with decisions related to planned non-treatment. Read More

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October 2017

Probing neural mechanisms underlying auditory stream segregation in humans by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).

Neuropsychologia 2016 Oct 18;91:262-267. Epub 2016 Aug 18.

Special Lab Non-invasive Brain Imaging, Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Brenneckestr. 6, 39118 Magdeburg, Germany.

One hypothesis concerning the neural underpinnings of auditory streaming states that frequency tuning of tonotopically organized neurons in primary auditory fields in combination with physiological forward suppression is necessary for the separation of representations of high-frequency A and low-frequency B tones. The extent of spatial overlap between the tonotopic activations of A and B tones is thought to underlie the perceptual organization of streaming sequences into one coherent or two separate streams. The present study attempts to interfere with these mechanisms by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and to probe behavioral outcomes reflecting the perception of ABAB streaming sequences. Read More

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October 2016