24,421 results match your criteria decades life

Biology and ecology of sea catfish (Ariidae) of estuarine, lagoon and coastal ecosystems in West Africa.

J Fish Biol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

IRD, Univ Brest, CNRS, Ifremer, LEMAR, Plouzané, France.

The family Ariidae, sea catfish of the order Siluriformes, is widely distributed throughout the world, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical areas. The three species of Ariidae found on the coasts and estuaries of West Africa are the smoothmouth catfish Carlarius heudelotii (Valenciennes 1840), the rough-head catfish Carlarius latiscutatus (Günther 1864) and the Guinean sea catfish Carlarius parkii (Günther 1864). They have been increasingly exploited by artisanal and industrial coastal fisheries in recent decades, but there is still little information available on their ecology and biology. Read More

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Experimental field evidence shows milkweed contaminated with a common neonicotinoid decreases larval survival of monarch butterflies.

J Anim Ecol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, N1G 2W1.

1. Neonicotinoid insecticides are the most widely used class of insecticides in the world and can have both lethal and sub-lethal effects on non-target organisms in agricultural areas. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) have experienced dramatic declines in recent decades and, given that a large proportion of milkweed on the landscape grows in agricultural areas, there is concern about the negative effects of neonicotinoids on this non-target insect. Read More

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Mature Andean forests as globally important carbon sinks and future carbon refuges.

Nat Commun 2021 04 9;12(1):2138. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Biology Department, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA.

It is largely unknown how South America's Andean forests affect the global carbon cycle, and thus regulate climate change. Here, we measure aboveground carbon dynamics over the past two decades in 119 monitoring plots spanning a range of >3000 m elevation across the subtropical and tropical Andes. Our results show that Andean forests act as strong sinks for aboveground carbon (0. Read More

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Searching for a paradigm shift in the research on the epilepsies and associated neuropsychiatric comorbidities. From ancient historical knowledge to the challenge of contemporary systems complexity and emergent functions.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Apr 6:107930. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Departamento de Psicologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Brazil. Electronic address:

In this review, we will discuss in four scenarios our challenges to offer possible solutions for the puzzle associated with the epilepsies and neuropsychiatric comorbidities. We need to recognize that (1) since quite old times, human wisdom was linked to the plural (distinct global places/cultures) perception of the Universe we are in, with deep respect for earth and nature. Plural ancestral knowledge was added with the scientific methods; however, their joint efforts are the ideal scenario; (2) human behavior is not different than animal behavior, in essence the product of Darwinian natural selection; knowledge of animal and human behavior are complementary; (3) the expression of human behavior follows the same rules that complex systems with emergent properties, therefore, we can measure events in human, clinical, neurobiological situations with complexity systems' tools; (4) we can use the semiology of epilepsies and comorbidities, their neural substrates, and potential treatments (including experimental/computational modeling, neurosurgical interventions), as a source and collection of integrated big data to predict with them (e. Read More

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"Since I'm a little bit more mature": contraception and the arc of time for women in midlife.

Womens Midlife Health 2021 Apr 9;7(1). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, USA.

Background: Contraceptive methods have rapidly evolved over the past several decades, but little research has explored how women interact with contraception over time. Exploring contraceptive beliefs, perceptions, and attitudes of women in midlife can reveal much about how lived experience affects contraceptive decisions and reproductive health choices.

Methods: Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 women between the ages of 40 and 55 who had not reached menopause and did not have a permanent method of sterilization. Read More

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Selenium source and level on performance, selenium retention and biochemical responses of young broiler chicks.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Apr 9;17(1):151. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, 36570900, Brazil.

Background: Selenium (Se) has been recognized as an essential micronutrient for nearly all forms of life. In recent decades, broiler responses to dietary Se supplemental levels and sources have received considerable attention. On environmental grounds, organic trace mineral utilization in practical broiler feeds has been defended due to its higher bioavailability. Read More

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Proteomics and ultrastructural analysis of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval peritrophic matrix.

Proteome Sci 2021 Apr 9;19(1). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Entomology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China.

Background: The black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) has significant economic potential. The larvae can be used in financially viable waste management systems, as they are voracious feeders able to efficiently convert low-quality waste into valuable biomass. However, most studies on H. Read More

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Life expectancy in adulthood is falling for those without a BA degree, but as educational gaps have widened, racial gaps have narrowed.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544.

A 4-y college degree is increasingly the key to good jobs and, ultimately, to good lives in an ever-more meritocratic and unequal society. The bachelor's degree (BA) is increasingly dividing Americans; the one-third with a BA or more live longer and more prosperous lives, while the two-thirds without face rising mortality and declining prospects. We construct a time series, from 1990 to 2018, of a summary of each year's mortality rates and expected years lived from 25 to 75 at the fixed mortality rates of that year. Read More

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Photodynamic Therapy for Treating Staphylococcus aureus Infections.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Apr 6:102285. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Laboratorio de Microbiología Celular, Instituto de Investigación e Innovación en Salud, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Central de Chile, Lord Cochrane 418, 8330546, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive spherical bacterium that causes various infections that can be superficial or become life-threatening. Besides, S. aureus represents a major producer of healthcare-associated infections. Read More

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Global Burden of Non-communicable Diseases Attributable to Dietary Risks in 1990-2019.

J Hum Nutr Diet 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, the Second Affiliated Hospital of ZheJiang University School of Medicine, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310009, China.

Background: Dietary risks have raised attention around worldwide during the past decades. The aims of this burden-of-disease study were to evaluate the global dietary risks for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) from 1990 to 2019 and quantify their impact on mortality and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Data from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease Study on deaths and DALYs from NCDs attributable to worldwide dietary risks were obtained and underwent deep analysis by year, age, gender, location, leading risks, and leading causes, and their associations were examined. Read More

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Viral gene therapy for paediatric neurological diseases: progress to clinical reality.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Gene Transfer Technology Group, EGA Institute for Women's Health, University College London, London, UK.

In the era of genomic medicine, diagnoses of rare paediatric neurological diseases are increasing. Many are untreatable and life-limiting, leading to an exceptional increase in gene therapy development. It is estimated that 20 gene therapy products will have received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration by 2025. Read More

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The Genetic Basis of Reporter Mouse Strains.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1310:551-564

Department of Medical Science and Asan Medical Institute of Convergence Science and Technology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models have been revolutionizing the biomedical studies on deciphering the physiological roles of genes in vivo. In addition to deactivating a gene in mice, diverse strategies have been created to monitor gene expressions and molecular dynamics of specific proteins in vivo. Although gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells was essential for the precise engineering of the mouse genome over almost three decades, this process is a time-consuming, expensive, and laborious one. Read More

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Addressing the dark matter of gene therapy: technical and ethical barriers to clinical application.

Hum Genet 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, PO BOX 15000, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2, Canada.

Gene therapies for genetic diseases have been sought for decades, and the relatively recent development of the CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing system has encouraged a new wave of interest in the field. There have nonetheless been significant setbacks to gene therapy, including unintended biological consequences, ethical scandals, and death. The major focus of research has been on technological problems such as delivery, potential immune responses, and both on and off-target effects in an effort to avoid negative clinical outcomes. Read More

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The Citizenship Advantage in Psychological Well-being: An Examination of the Hukou System in China.

Demography 2021 Feb;58(1):165-189

RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, USA.

Given that Chinese migrants with rural hukou status are not considered full citizens in their urban destinations, rural-urban hukou conversion signifies full citizenship attainment in urban China. We assess causal effects of three major types of urban hukou attainment-merit-, policy-, and family-based hukou conversion-on migrants' psychological well-being in middle- and later-life. We further examine how hukou matters-how periods and hukou destinations alter the values of specific urban hukou and their psychological health implications for individuals. Read More

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February 2021

Insomnia comorbid to Parkinson's disease Part II: Therapeutic approaches.

Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Université Paul Valéry Montpellier 3, Univ Montpellier, EPSYLON EA 4556, Montpellier, France.

Insomnia is four times more frequent in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) than in the general population. In PD, insomnia is associated with a very significant decrease in quality of life and has deleterious consequences on both patients' and caregivers' health. When insomnia is comorbid to PD, the main therapeutic response is the prescription of benzodiazepines or related drugs. Read More

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A Novel Graphene Quantum Dot-Based mRNA Delivery Platform.

ChemistryOpen 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 9 Kemivägen, Gothenborg, 412 96, Sweden.

During the last decades, there has been growing interest in using therapeutic messager RNA (mRNA) together with drug delivery systems. Naked, unformulated mRNA is, however, unable to cross the cell membrane and is susceptible to degradation. Here we use graphene quantum dots (GQDs) functionalized with polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a novel mRNA delivery system. Read More

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Rescue of a saturation diver, unconscious due to an explosion underwater.

Ajit C Kulkarni

Int Marit Health 2021 ;72(1):46-48

Medical Centre, Mumbai, India.

Evolution of "safe diving practices" introduced by the diving industry and regulatory authorities in the North Sea over the past 3 or 4 decades has improved the safety records of oilfield commercial diving considerably. However, accidents still occur. In an accident occurring underwater, the outcome is often fatal. Read More

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January 2021

Warming resistant corals from the Gulf of Aqaba live close to their cold-water bleaching threshold.

PeerJ 2021 25;9:e11100. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

The Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Global climate change is causing increasing variability and extremes in weather worldwide, a trend set to continue. In recent decades both anomalously warm and cold seawater temperatures have resulted in mass coral bleaching events. Whilst corals' response to elevated temperature has justifiably attracted substantial research interest, coral physiology under cold water stress is relatively unfamiliar. Read More

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Toward a priori noise characterization for real-time edge-aware denoising in fluoroscopic devices.

Biomed Eng Online 2021 Apr 7;20(1):36. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, University of Naples Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125, Naples, Italy.

Background: Low-dose X-ray images have become increasingly popular in the last decades, due to the need to guarantee the lowest reasonable patient's exposure. Dose reduction causes a substantial increase of quantum noise, which needs to be suitably suppressed. In particular, real-time denoising is required to support common interventional fluoroscopy procedures. Read More

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How I treat primary ITP in adult patients who are unresponsive to or dependent on corticosteroid treatment.

Blood 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mississippi, United States.

Approximately 80% of adult patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) fail or become dependent on corticosteroids and require second-line therapy. Several new and effective therapies have been introduced during the last decade and our understanding of disease burden and its effect on quality of life has expanded. It is now recommended that splenectomy, the standard second-line therapy for decades, be delayed for at least 12-24 months allowing more patients to achieve remission on medical therapies before considering surgery. Read More

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The Role of Raman Spectroscopy Within Quantitative Metabolomics.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Systems Biology, Institute of Systems, Molecular, and Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, United Kingdom; email:

Ninety-two years have passed since the discovery of the Raman effect, and there are currently more than 25 different types of Raman-based techniques. The past two decades have witnessed the blossoming of Raman spectroscopy as a powerful physicochemical technique with broad applications within the life sciences. In this review, we critique the use of Raman spectroscopy as a tool for quantitative metabolomics. Read More

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"If We Turned Our Backs, They Would Ignore Our Wishes": Bereaved Family Perceptions of Concordance of Care at the End of Life.

J Palliat Med 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Division of General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, School of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

The key to high-quality care at the end of life is goal-concordant care, defined as care that is consistent with patient wishes. To characterize decedent wishes for care at the end of life and to examine next of kin narratives of their loved ones' perceptions of whether wishes were honored. Mortality follow-back survey and in-depth interviews. Read More

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A Review of Cancer Immunotherapy Toxicity: Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

J Med Toxicol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Cook County Health, Department of Emergency Medicine, Division of Medical Toxicology, 1950 W Polk Street, 7th Floor, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA.

Cancer immunotherapy, which leverages features of the immune system to target neoplastic cells, has revolutionized the treatment of cancer. The use of these therapies has rapidly expanded in the past two decades. Immune checkpoint inhibitors represent one drug class within immunotherapy with its first agent FDA-approved in 2011. Read More

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Advances in nano-biomaterials and their applications in biomedicine.

Yogita Patil-Sen

Emerg Top Life Sci 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

The Sterile Services Decontamination Unit, Wrightington, Wigan and Leigh Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, National Health Service, Bolton BL6 4SB, U.K.

Nano0technology has received considerable attention and interest over the past few decades in the field of biomedicine due to the wide range of applications it provides in disease diagnosis, drug design and delivery, biomolecules detection, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Ultra-small size and large surface area of nanomaterials prove to be greatly advantageous for their biomedical applications. Moreover, the physico-chemical and thus, the biological properties of nanomaterials can be manipulated depending on the application. Read More

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Remodelling structure-based drug design using machine learning.

Emerg Top Life Sci 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai 410210, India.

To keep up with the pace of rapid discoveries in biomedicine, a plethora of research endeavors had been directed toward Rational Drug Development that slowly gave way to Structure-Based Drug Design (SBDD). In the past few decades, SBDD played a stupendous role in identification of novel drug-like molecules that are capable of altering the structures and/or functions of the target macromolecules involved in different disease pathways and networks. Unfortunately, post-delivery drug failures due to adverse drug interactions have constrained the use of SBDD in biomedical applications. Read More

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Leishmaniasis: where are we and where are we heading?

Parasitol Res 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology, Warangal, Telangana, 506004, India.

Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease in humans caused by the bite of a parasite-infected sandfly. The disease, widely referred to as "poor man's disease," affects millions of people worldwide. The clinical manifestation of the disease depends upon the species of the parasite and ranges from physical disfigurement to death if left untreated. Read More

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Liver transplantation for rare liver diseases and rare indications for liver transplant.

Transl Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 5;6:27. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, Hepatobiliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation Unit, Padova University Hospital, Padova, Italy.

Liver transplantation (LT) is currently considered the gold standard treatment for end-stage liver failure. Compared to the first decades of its use, LT is associated with lower comorbidity and mortality, with a 5-year survival over 70%. Worldwide, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma represent the major indications to LT. Read More

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Evolution in the Presentation, Treatment, and Outcomes of Patients with Acute Mesenteric Ischemia.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Objectives: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a life-threatening condition associated with dismal outcomes. This study sought to evaluate the evolution of presentation, treatment, and outcomes of AMI over the past two decades.

Methods: AMI patients presenting at a single institution were reviewed (1993-2016). Read More

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Optimization of a Diet for the Greater Wax Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Using Full Factorial and Mixture Design.

J Econ Entomol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7613, Raleigh, NC 27695-7613, USA.

Diet optimization is an important process to increase the efficiency of rearing insects and can be used to develop high-quality insects with specific fitness and life-history traits. Galleria mellonella (L.), the greater wax moth, is widely used in research, microbiology assays, as pet food, and host for biological control agents. Read More

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Blood Pressure in Young Adults and Cardiovascular Disease Later in Life.

Yuichiro Yano

Am J Hypertens 2021 Apr;34(3):250-257

Center for Novel and Exploratory Clinical Trials, Yokohama City University, Kanagawa, Japan.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality has declined markedly over the past several decades among middle-age and older adults in the United States. However, young adults (18-39 years of age) have had a lower rate of decline in CVD mortality. This trend may be related to the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) having increased among young US adults. Read More

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