262 results match your criteria decades "philosophical"

The discursive transformation of grief throughout history.

Nurs Philos 2021 Apr 24:e12351. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Institute of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

In recent decades, the phenomenon of grief, when you lose a loved one, has been the subject of exploration and discussion among researchers. Because of this, prolonged grief is now recognized as a possible mental disorder as the latest version of the diagnosis manual; 'International Classification of Diseases' (ICD-11) being published in 2018 is featuring a new diagnosis called 'prolonged grief disorder'. The commencement of this new disorder indicates a shift in the way grief is being articulated why the notion of rupture from the French philosopher Michel Foucault is applied as a philosophical approach in this paper. Read More

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The evolution in the surgical management of Peyronie's disease.

Urologia 2021 May 30;88(2):79-89. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Urology, ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco, Luigi Sacco University Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Peyronie's disease (PD) is due to a fibrotic alteration of the tunica albuginea of the penis. It is responsible of penile pain, angulation, and possible erectile dysfunction (ED). Despite almost three centuries have passed since the first description of the disease, etiology still remains uncertain. Read More

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Acting on delusion and delusional inconsequentiality: A review.

Compr Psychiatry 2021 04 1;106:152230. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Art-Therapy, Toulouse University Hospital, France; Philosophical Rationalities and Knowledges Laboratory (ERRAPHIS, EA 3051), Toulouse University, France.

Objectives: Two of Europe's most influential psychopathologists at the start of the twentieth century (Eugen Bleuler and Karl Jaspers) pointed out the fact that patients rarely act according to their delusions. This study proposes an investigation of how this issue is addressed in psychopathological literature.

Methods: This article offers a critical review of psychopathological literature which focuses on the influence of delusional ideation on behaviour. Read More

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Free will and neurosurgical resections of the supplementary motor area: a critical review.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 05 10;163(5):1229-1237. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Clinical Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Research suggests that unconscious activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA) precedes not only certain simple motor actions but also the point at which we become aware of our intention to perform such actions. The extent to which these findings have implications for our understanding of the concepts of free will and personal responsibility has been subject of intense debate during the latest four decades.

Methods: This research is discussed in relation to effects of neurosurgical removal of the SMA in a narrative review. Read More

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Pregnant Females as Historical Individuals: An Insight From the Philosophy of Evo-Devo.

Front Psychol 2020 20;11:572106. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Logic and Philosophy of Science, IAS Research Center for Life, Mind, and Society, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain.

Criticisms of the "container" model of pregnancy picturing female and embryo as separate entities multiply in various philosophical and scientific contexts during the last decades. In this paper, we examine how this model underlies received views of pregnancy in evolutionary biology, in the characterization of the transition from oviparity to viviparity in mammals and in the selectionist explanations of pregnancy as an evolutionary strategy. In contrast, recent evo-devo studies on eutherian reproduction, including the role of inflammation and new maternal cell types, gather evidence in favor of considering pregnancy as an evolved relational novelty. Read More

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January 2021

The Public Health Demand for Revoking Non-Medical Exemptions to Compulsory Vaccination Statutes.

Emma Tomsick

J Law Health 2020 ;34(1):129-154

Cleveland-Marshall College of Law.

In 2019, the United States saw the single largest outbreak of measles in recent history. The measles crisis has prompted state legislative bodies to face a seemingly impossible dilemma: eliminate both religious and philosophical exemptions to mandatory school vaccination statutes or sit by idly and allow measles to continue to run its course. As of June 2019, five states have neither religious nor philosophical exemptions to their mandatory vaccination statutes. Read More

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A Stakeholder Perspective on Ethical Leadership in Sport: Bridging the Gap Between the Normative and Descriptive Lines of Inquiry.

Psychol Belg 2020 Dec 14;60(1):381-395. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Movement and Sports Sciences, Ghent University, BE.

This critical PhD review paper examines existing scholarship on ethical leadership in sport. Following a general trend in business ethics and related fields, ethical leadership has gained considerable research attention in sport over the last decades. Within this growing body of literature, ethical leadership is often presented as part of the desired strategic response of sport organizations to tackle the so-called dark side of sport (i. Read More

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December 2020

Quantifying archaeo-organic degradation - A multiproxy approach to understand the accelerated deterioration of the ancient organic cultural heritage at the Swedish Mesolithic site Ageröd.

PLoS One 2020 23;15(9):e0239588. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Despite a growing body of evidence concerning accelerated organic degradation at archaeological sites, there have been few follow-up investigations to examine the status of the remaining archaeological materials in the ground. To address the question of archaeo-organic preservation, we revisited the Swedish, Mesolithic key-site Ageröd and could show that the bone material had been subjected to an accelerated deterioration during the last 75 years, which had destroyed the bones in the areas where they had previously been best preserved. To understand why this has happened and to quantify and qualify the extent of the organic degradation, we here analyse the soil chemistry, bone histology, collagen preservation and palaeobotany at the site. Read More

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November 2020

An experimental philosophical bioethical study of how human rights are applied to clitorectomy on infants identified as female and as intersex.

Cult Health Sex 2021 Apr 4;23(4):548-563. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

School of Psychology, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

Clitorectomies performed on the genitals of infants identified as female and as intersex have been described both as similar procedures and as different procedures. The former types of surgery have been recognised more consistently as human rights abuses than the latter in recent decades. We tested social psychological explanations of why human rights are differently recognised when infants are described as 'intersex' or 'female'; 122 laypeople in the UK read one of two near-identical descriptions of clitorectomies performed on intersex or female infants and reported their agreement with 22 items about the human rights of such infants. Read More

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Empirical Evidence for Intraspecific Multiple Realization?

Front Psychol 2020 24;11:1676. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Despite the remarkable advances in behavioral and brain sciences over the last decades, the mind-body (brain) problem is still an open debate and one of the most intriguing questions for both cognitive neuroscience and philosophy of mind. Traditional approaches have conceived this problem in terms of a contrast between physicalist monism and Cartesian dualism. However, since the late sixties, the landscape of philosophical views on the problem has become more varied and complex. Read More

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Neanderthals as familiar strangers and the human spark: How the 'golden years' of Neanderthal research reopen the question of human uniqueness.

Hist Philos Life Sci 2020 Jul 21;42(3):33. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Erasmus School of Philosophy (ESPhil), Erasmus University Rotterdam, Bayle building - Burgemeester Oudlaan 50, 3062 PA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

During the past decades, our image of Homo neanderthalensis has changed dramatically. Initially, Neanderthals were seen as primitive brutes. Increasingly, however, Neanderthals are regarded as basically human. Read More

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Good times bad times: Automated forecasting of seasonal cryptosporidiosis in Ontario using machine learning.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 Jun 4;46(6):192-197. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

École de santé publique - Département de médecine sociale et préventive, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC.

Background: The rise of big data and related predictive modelling based on machine learning algorithms over the last two decades have provided new opportunities for disease surveillance and public health preparedness. Big data come with the promise of faster generation of and access to more precise information, potentially facilitating predictive precision in public health ("precision public health"). As an example, we considered forecasting of the future course of the monthly cryptosporidiosis incidence in Ontario. Read More

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Association of screen time with long-term stress and temperament in preschoolers: results from the DAGIS study.

Eur J Pediatr 2020 Nov 27;179(11):1805-1812. Epub 2020 May 27.

Folkhälsan Research Center, Topeliuksenkatu 20, 00250, Helsinki, Finland.

Screen time is increasing rapidly in young children. The aim of this study was to examine associations of long-term stress and temperament with screen time in Finnish preschool children and the moderating role of socioeconomic status. Cross-sectional DAGIS data were utilized. Read More

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November 2020

The emergence of social gaps in mental health: A longitudinal population study in Sweden, 1900-1959.

PLoS One 2020 30;15(4):e0232462. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

During the recent decades, social inequalities in mental health have increased and are now one of the most persistent features of contemporary society. There is limited knowledge about when this pattern emerged or whether it has been a historically fixed feature. The objective of this study was to assess whether socioeconomic and gender gaps in mental health changed during the period 1900-1959 in Sweden. Read More

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Mind After Uexküll: A Foray Into the Worlds of Ecological Psychologists and Enactivists.

Tim Elmo Feiten

Front Psychol 2020 24;11:480. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Philosophy, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States.

For several decades, a diverse set of approaches to embedded, embodied, extended, enactive and affective cognition has been challenging the cognitivist orthodoxy. Recently, the prospect of a combination of ecological psychology and enactivism has emerged as a promising candidate for a single unified framework that could rival the established cognitivist paradigm as "a working metatheory for the study of minds" (Baggs and Chemero, 2018, p. 11). Read More

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A Philosophical Approach to the Rehabilitation of the Patient with Persistent Pain.

Philip R Appel

Am J Clin Hypn 2020 Apr;62(4):330-343

MedStar National Rehabilitation Hospital, Washington DC, USA.

The use of hypnosis to promote hypnoanalgesia has a long history and has been written about anecdotally as well as having been researched in the last several decades. Research has been both clinical in nature and, in the laboratory, trying to understand the brain physiology and processes involved. This article is not about a review of the research. Read More

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[From why to what for : On the relevance of a philosophical-existentialistic approach in the treatment of patients with chronic pain].

Schmerz 2020 Aug;34(4):326-331

, Hofgasse 2a, 78337, Öhningen, Deutschland.

Background: People have the need to find explanations for the events that occur in their lives. This is especially true when it comes to experiences that impact a person's entire existence and endanger their self-esteem and sense of identity. Chronic pain is one such experience. Read More

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Løgstrup's thinking: a contribution to ethics in physiotherapy.

Physiother Theory Pract 2020 Mar 13:1-13. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

School of Clinical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.

Ethics is ever-present in all aspects of human interaction and, in any physiotherapy situation there is an inherent claim to act and care for the patient in the best possible way. The physiotherapy profession is provided with rules, guidelines and codes to support and ensure ethical professional conduct. In recent decades however, physiotherapy literature has emphasized how ethical agency is immersed in clinical reasoning in each particular situation, in the doing of physiotherapy. Read More

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Unifying the essential concepts of biological networks: biological insights and philosophical foundations.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2020 04 24;375(1796):20190314. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Max-Planck-Institut for Metabolism Research, Translational Neurocircuitry, Cologne, Germany.

Over the last decades, network-based approaches have become highly popular in diverse fields of biology, including neuroscience, ecology, molecular biology and genetics. While these approaches continue to grow very rapidly, some of their conceptual and methodological aspects still require a programmatic foundation. This challenge particularly concerns the question of whether a generalized account of explanatory, organizational and descriptive levels of networks can be applied universally across biological sciences. Read More

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From inert matter to the global society life as multi-level networks of processes.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2020 04 24;375(1796):20190329. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Complex Systems Institute of Paris Île-de-France, CNRS, Paris, Île-de-France, France.

A few billion years have passed since the first life forms appeared. Since then, life has continued to forge complex associations between the different emergent levels of interconnection it forms. The advances of recent decades in molecular chemistry and theoretical biology, which have embraced complex systems approaches, now make it possible to conceptualize the questions of the origins of life and its increasing complexity from three complementary notions of closure: processes closure, autocatalytic closure and constraints closure. Read More

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The Morality of War: A Review and Research Agenda.

Hanne M Watkins

Perspect Psychol Sci 2020 03 31;15(2):231-249. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst.

What is judged as morally right and wrong in war? I argue that despite many decades of research on moral psychology and the psychology of intergroup conflict, social psychology does not yet have a good answer to this question. However, it is a question of great importance because its answer has implications for decision-making in war, public policy, and international law. I therefore suggest a new way for psychology researchers to study the morality of war that combines the strengths of philosophical just-war theory with experimental techniques and theories developed for the psychological study of morality more generally. Read More

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Abortion Providers on Politically Engaging Patients.

Womens Health Issues 2020 Mar - Apr;30(2):106-112. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Advancing New Standards in Reproductive Health (ANSIRH), University of California San Francisco, Oakland, California.

Background: For decades, abortion providers have lamented the lack of patients' voices in the abortion rights movement. Given the millions of women who have received abortions, the absence of this large constituency, providers assert, has been politically costly. Underlying this disappointment is a parallel question that reflects a philosophical divide among abortion providers: are attempts to politically engage abortion patients a desired or appropriate element of care?

Methods: We interviewed providers from 14 abortion clinics, representing a range of approaches to care, patient volume, and geographic locations. Read More

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Whole-brain death and integration: realigning the ontological concept with clinical diagnostic tests.

Daniel P Sulmasy

Theor Med Bioeth 2019 Oct;40(5):455-481

Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University, Healy 419, 3700 O Street NW, Washington, DC, 20057, USA.

For decades, physicians, philosophers, theologians, lawyers, and the public considered brain death a settled issue. However, a series of recent cases in which individuals were declared brain dead yet physiologically maintained for prolonged periods of time has challenged the status quo. This signals a need for deeper reflection and reexamination of the underlying philosophical, scientific, and clinical issues at stake in defining death. Read More

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October 2019

Series of forms, visual techniques, and quantitative devices: ordering the world between the end of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Marco Tamborini

Hist Philos Life Sci 2019 Oct 26;41(4):49. Epub 2019 Oct 26.

Institut für Philosophie, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Karolinenplatz 5, 64289, Darmstadt, Germany.

In this paper, I investigate the variety and richness of the taxonomical practices between the end of the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries. During these decades, zoologists and paleontologists came up with different quantitative practices in order to classify their data in line with the new biological principles introduced by Charles Darwin. Specifically, I will investigate Florentino Ameghino's mathematization of mammalian dentition and the quantitative practices and visualizations of several German-speaking paleontologists at the beginning of the twentieth century. Read More

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October 2019

Critique of the concept of motivation and its implications for healthcare practices.

Philos Ethics Humanit Med 2019 10 22;14(1):14. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Department of Preventive Medicine, University of São Paulo Medical School, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455, 2° andar, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Motivation is a crucial and widespread theme within medicine. From clinical to surgical scenarios, acquiescence in taking a pill or coming to a consultation is imperative for medical treatment to thrive. The "decade of the brain" gave practitioners substantial neuroscientific data on human behavior, helped to explain why people do what they do and created the concept of "motivated brain". Read More

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October 2019

From Roots to Results: A Qualitative Case Study of the Evolution of a Public Health Leadership Institute Building Capacity in Collaborating for Equity and Justice.

Health Educ Behav 2019 10;46(1_suppl):33S-43S

Tom Wolff & Associates, Leverett, MA, USA.

Policy, systems, and environmental change are now widely accepted as critical to sustaining improvements in community health. Evidence suggests that such systems-level change is most effective when driven by community-based partnerships. Yet, after more than three decades of building community-based partnership work, health inequities have continued to deepen. Read More

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October 2019

Value-entanglement and the integrity of scientific research.

Stud Hist Philos Sci 2019 06 25;75:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 25.

Lyman Briggs College, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, and Department of Philosophy, Michigan State University, USA.

Throughout much of the 20th century, philosophers of science maintained a position known as the value-free ideal, which holds that non-epistemic (e.g., moral, social, political, or economic) values should not influence the evaluation and acceptance of scientific results. Read More

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'Rethinking "Disease": a fresh diagnosis and a new philosophical treatment'.

J Med Ethics 2019 09 2;45(9):579-588. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Department of Philosophy, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Despite several decades of debate, the concept of disease remains hotly contested. The debate is typically cast as one between naturalism and normativism, with a hybrid view that combines elements of each staked out in between. In light of a number of widely discussed problems with existing accounts, some theorists argue that the concept of disease is beyond repair and thus recommend eliminating it in a wide range of practical medical contexts. Read More

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September 2019

Humanism in Medicine: What Does It Mean and Why Is It More Important Than Ever?

Acad Med 2019 08;94(8):1074-1077

G.E. Thibault is immediate past president, Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation, New York, New York, and Daniel D. Federman Professor of Medicine and Medical Education Emeritus, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Humanism has been at the core of the medical profession since its inception, and it has been a foundation throughout modern history for political and community values. But today, countries and leaders are increasingly adopting antihumanistic policies and positions. In this Invited Commentary, the author probes whether humanism in medicine can survive in the current culture. Read More

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Neighborhoods, Work, and Health: Forging New Paths Between Social Determinism and Well-Being.

Paul E Terry

Am J Health Promot 2019 06 12;33(5):646-651. Epub 2019 May 12.

Editor in Chief, The American Journal of Health Promotion, Senior Fellow, The Health Enhancement Research Organization (HERO).

Tribalism in America and our polarized body politic has, sadly, become part of our daily digest. Is it possible that place-based discrimination will be shown to be an even more powerful impediment to our collective well-being than other formidable health influencers like race or income? If so, how would such a social diagnosis inform strategic planning in health promotion? Waddell and Reed wrote about "possible causal pathways" that show the interaction effects, both positive and negative, between work, health, and well-being. That businesses have focused on individual choices, rather than social influences, is not merely a philosophical leaning of the private sector. Read More

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