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Androgen receptor signalling inhibitors: post-chemotherapy, pre-chemotherapy and now in castration sensitive prostate cancer.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

S Kaochar, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, United States.

Based on pioneering work by Huggins, Hodges and others, hormonal therapies have been established as an effective approach for advanced prostate cancer (PC) for the past 8 decades. However, it quickly became evident that androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) via surgical or medical castration accomplishes inadequate inhibition of the androgen receptor (AR) axis, with clinical resistance inevitably emerging due to adrenal and intratumoral sources of androgens and other mechanisms. Early efforts to augment ADT by adding adrenal-targeting agents (aminoglutethimide, ketoconazole) or AR antagonists (flutamide, bicalutamide, nilutamide, cyproterone) failed to achieve overall survival (OS) benefits, although they did exhibit some evidence of limited clinical activity. Read More

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Mini-Review: Regenerating the Corneal Epithelium With Simple Limbal Epithelial Transplantation.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 28;8:673330. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Cornea, Anterior Segment and Uveitis, Dr. Shroff's Charity Eye Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) is an ingenious, low cost and effective technique of limbal stem cell transplantation (LSCT) that is increasingly being undertaken in practice across the world. Since it was first described a decade ago, the technique has been performed in a variety of cases of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) and has underwent several innovative modifications. Published literature on SLET has progressively increased over time and successful outcomes in various clinical scenarios have been reported. Read More

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High-Performance Indium Gallium Tin Oxide Transistors with an AlO Gate Insulator Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition at a Low Temperature of 150 °C: Roles of Hydrogen and Excess Oxygen in the AlO Dielectric Film.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Electronic Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, South Korea.

In this work, high-performance amorphous InGaSnO (-IGTO) transistors with an atomic layer-deposited AlO dielectric layer were fabricated at a maximum processing temperature of 150 °C. Hydrogen (H) and excess oxygen (O) in the AlO film, which was controlled by adjusting the oxygen radical density (P: flow rate of O/[Ar+O]) in the radio-frequency (rf) plasma during ALD growth of AlO, significantly affected the performance and stability of the resulting IGTO transistors. The concentrations of H and O in AlO/IGTO stacks according to P were characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and thermal desorption spectroscopy. Read More

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Evolution of the minimum mortality temperature (1983-2018): Is Spain adapting to heat?

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 27;784:147233. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

National School of Public Health, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to analyze at the level of Spain's 52 provinces province level the temporal evolution of minimum mortality temperatures (MMT) from 1983 to 2018, in order to determine whether the increase in MMT would be sufficient to compensate for the increase in environmental temperatures in Spain for the period. It also aimed to analyze whether the rate of evolution of MMT would be sufficient, were it to remain constant, to compensate for the predicted increase in temperatures in an unfavorable (RCP 8.5) emissions scenario for the time horizon 2051-2100. Read More

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Analytical Methods for Determination of Non-Nutritive Sweeteners in Foodstuffs.

Molecules 2021 May 24;26(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman 55281, Indonesia.

Sweeteners have been used in food for centuries to increase both taste and appearance. However, the consumption of sweeteners, mainly sugars, has an adverse effect on human health when consumed in excessive doses for a certain period, including alteration in gut microbiota, obesity, and diabetes. Therefore, the application of non-nutritive sweeteners in foodstuffs has risen dramatically in the last decade to substitute sugars. Read More

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Effect of the Two-Dimensional Magnetostrictive Fillers of CoFeO-Intercalated Graphene Oxide Sheets in 3-2 Type Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-Based Magnetoelectric Films.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 28;13(11). Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Chemical Engineering (BK21 FOUR Graduate Program), Dong-A University, Busan 49315, Korea.

In the last decade, magnetoelectric (ME) polymer films have been developed by including zero-dimensional or one-dimensional magnetostrictive fillers in a piezoelectric polymer matrix. Existing reports on ME polymer films reveal that the shape of the magnetostrictive fillers is a critical determinant of the polymeric phase conformation, strain transfer between the piezoelectric and magnetostrictive phases, and dipole alignment in the films. In this study, to investigate the effect of two-dimensional (2D) magnetostrictive fillers on piezoelectric, magnetic, and magnetoelectric responses, 3-2 type ME films were prepared using CoFeO-intercalated graphene oxide (CFO-i-GO) fillers and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymers. Read More

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Climate Trends at a Hotspot of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Causes in Nicaragua, 1973-2014.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 19;18(10). Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02118, USA.

An ongoing epidemic of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) afflicts large parts of Central America and is hypothesized to be linked to heat stress at work. Mortality rates from CKDu appear to have increased dramatically since the 1970s. To explore this relationship, we assessed trends in maximum and minimum temperatures during harvest months between 1973 and 2014 as well as in the number of days during the harvest season for which the maximum temperature surpassed 35 °C. Read More

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Biogenic Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles Using Bacterial Strains Isolated from an Antarctic Consortium Associated to a Psychrophilic Marine Ciliate: Characterization and Potential Application as Antimicrobial Agents.

Mar Drugs 2021 May 8;19(5). Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy.

In the last decade, metal nanoparticles (NPs) have gained significant interest in the field of biotechnology due to their unique physiochemical properties and potential uses in a wide range of applications. Metal NP synthesis using microorganisms has emerged as an eco-friendly, clean, and viable strategy alternative to chemical and physical approaches. Herein, an original and efficient route for the microbial synthesis of copper NPs using bacterial strains newly isolated from an Antarctic consortium is described. Read More

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Tisagenlecleucel for treatment of children and young adults with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Jun 1:e29123. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

The treatment landscape for cancer therapy has changed drastically over the past decade. Tisagenlecleucel, the first genetically engineered adoptive cellular therapy approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, has revolutionized this field by demonstrating impressive clinical success in children and young adults with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (r/r B-ALL). Now 3 years since its approval, we have gained a deeper understanding on the basic immunobiology and clinical efficacy of this drug. Read More

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Removal of ibuprofen from aqueous media by adsorption: A comprehensive review.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 19;780:146608. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P. M. B. 5025, Awka, Nigeria. Electronic address:

Ibuprofen (IBP) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug released into the environment through hospital and medical effluents, pharmaceutical wastewater and veterinary use. The aim of this paper is to review the empirical findings on the adsorption of IBP from aqueous media. A preliminary ecotoxicological assessment confirmed the environmental risk of IBP in the aqueous environment. Read More

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Isolating the impact of COVID-19 lockdown measures on urban air quality in Canada.

Air Qual Atmos Health 2021 May 18:1-22. Epub 2021 May 18.

Air Quality Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, Ontario Canada.

We have investigated the impact of reduced emissions due to COVID-19 lockdown measures in spring 2020 on air quality in Canada's four largest cities: Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, and Calgary. Observed daily concentrations of NO, PM, and O during a "pre-lockdown" period (15 February-14 March 2020) and a "lockdown" period (22 March-2 May 2020), when lockdown measures were in full force everywhere in Canada, were compared to the same periods in the previous decade (2010-2019). Higher-than-usual seasonal declines in mean daily NO were observed for the pre-lockdown to lockdown periods in 2020. Read More

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The Past Decade in Courts, What Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery Should Know About Facial Cosmetic Surgery.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Director, Beau Visage Med Spa and Greater Waterbury OMS, Cheshire, CT; Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Surgery, Frank H Netter MD School of Medicine, Quinnipiac University, Hamden, CT; Associate Clinical Professor, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Connecticut, Farmington, CT. Electronic address:

Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine medical malpractice in facial cosmetic surgery procedures to characterize factors that determine legal liability and help make the oral-maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) more comfortable with treating this patient population.

Methods: The Thomson Reuters Westlaw Edge is a subscription-based legal database that contains decisional law and other data from a variety of state and federal court records. The database was queried for medical malpractice cases involving facial surgical cosmetic procedures from 2010 to 2020. Read More

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Tactics, techniques, and challenges in the management of giant choledochal cyst in adolescents and adults: a retrospective cohort study.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India.

Background: Choledochal cyst is a rare congenital anomaly manifesting as cystic dilatation of the biliary tree. This study presents our 5-year experience with giant choledochal cyst in adolescents and adults, focusing primarily on its clinical presentation, operative challenges, and pragmatic solutions.

Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted on 58 adolescent and adult choledochal cyst patients who were managed at a tertiary care hospital. Read More

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Pheochromocytoma: A three-decade clinical experience in a multicenter study.

Rev Clin Esp (Barc) 2021 Jan 25;221(1):18-25. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Servicio de Endocrinología, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, España; Servicio de Endocrinología, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Majadahonda, Madrid, España.

Objective: To analyze the clinical and analytical features, diagnostic tests, therapies, and outcomes of pheochromocytoma (PCC).

Design And Methods: A multicenter retrospective study in surgically treated patients with PCC followed in 3 Spanish tertiary referral hospitals.

Results: A total of 106 patients (61 [57. Read More

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January 2021

Typhoon storm surge in the southeast Chinese mainland modulated by ENSO.

Sci Rep 2021 May 12;11(1):10137. Epub 2021 May 12.

CAS Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, 266071, China.

In the past decade (2010-2019), the annual maximum typhoon storm surge (AMTSS) accounted for 46.6% of the total direct economic loss caused by marine disasters in Chinese mainland, but its prediction in advance is challenging. By analyzing records of 23 tide-gauge stations, we found that the AMTSSs in Shanghai, Zhejiang and Fujian show significant positive correlations with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Read More

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Domoic acid and saxitoxin in seabirds in the United States between 2007 and 2018.

Harmful Algae 2021 03 1;103:101981. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Environmental and Fisheries Science Division, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, 2725 Montlake Blvd. East, Seattle, WA 98112 United States. Electronic address:

As harmful algal blooms (HABs) increase in magnitude and duration worldwide, they are becoming an expanding threat to marine wildlife. Over the past decade, blooms of algae that produce the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX) and documented concurrent seabird mortality events have increased bicoastally in the United States. We conducted a retrospective analysis of HAB related mortality events in California, Washington, and Rhode Island between 2007 and 2018 involving 12 species of seabirds, to document the levels, ranges, and patterns of DA and STX in eight sample types (kidney, liver, stomach, intestinal, cloacal, cecal contents, bile, blood) collected from birds during these events. Read More

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How the use of the artificial intelligence could improve surgical skills in urology: state of the art and future perspectives.

Curr Opin Urol 2021 Jul;31(4):378-384

USC Institute of Urology and Catherine & Joseph Aresty Department of Urology, Keck School of Medicine.

Purpose Of Review: As technology advances, surgical training has evolved in parallel over the previous decade. Training is commonly seen as a way to prepare surgeons for their day-to-day work; however, more importantly, it allows for certification of skills to ensure maximum patient safety. This article reviews advances in the use of machine learning and artificial intelligence for improvements of surgical skills in urology. Read More

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Classification of cardiorespiratory fitness using the six-minute walk test in adults: Comparison with cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

Pulmonology 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Internal Medicine (Pulmonology Division), São Paulo State University (UNESP), Medical School, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil; Angiocorpore Institute of Cardiovascular Medicine, Santos, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: The six-minute walk test (6MWT) distance could facilitate the assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in clinical practice as recommended. We aimed to develop a CRF classification using the 6MWT distance in asymptomatic adults considering the treadmill maximum oxygen uptake (V˙O) as the gold standard method.

Methods: We evaluated V˙O and 6MWT distance in 1295 asymptomatic participants aged 18-80 years (60% women). Read More

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Aerosols optical depth and Ångström exponent over different regions in Garhwal Himalaya, India.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 May 4;193(6):324. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Physics, H N B University, Garhwal (A Central University), 246174 Srinagar, Uttarakhand, India.

Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE) are observed to be important parameters in understanding the status of ambient aerosol concentration over a particular location and depend not only upon the local but also on the large-scale dynamics of the atmosphere. The present article analyses the AOD and AE parameters retrieved with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) instruments onboard satellites, for the upper (Chamoli) and foothill (Dehradun) regions of Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand, India, from 2006 to 2015. Aerosol properties are investigated at monthly, seasonal, and annual scales. Read More

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Manometric changes of the esophagus in morbidly obese patients.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 14;21(6):604. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

5th Clinical Department, Gastroenterology and Internal Medicine Discipline, 'Carol Davila' University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania.

This prospective study aimed to determine the manometric pattern and the prevalence of esophageal dysmotility in 79 morbidly obese patients selected for laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. After clinical evaluation and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, high-resolution esophageal manometry was performed. The esophageal peristalsis, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) basal pressure, and LES relaxation were evaluated. Read More

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Updated analysis of pediatric clinical studies registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, 2008-2019.

BMC Pediatr 2021 04 30;21(1):212. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, West China School of Public Health and West China fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China.

Background: Since the national clinical trials registry ( ClinicalTrials.gov ) launched in February 2000, more than 360,000 research studies in the United States and over 200 countries have registered. As the characteristics of pediatric clinical studies keep changing over time and the results-reporting mechanism is under evolving, to know about the relevant updates of data elements and the effect of policies on the quality of reporting results is significant. Read More

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Recent Developments in Seafood Packaging Technologies.

Foods 2021 Apr 25;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ioannina, 47100 Arta, Greece.

Seafood products are highly perishable, owing to their high water activity, close to neutral pH, and high content of unsaturated lipids and non-protein nitrogenous compounds. Thus, such products require immediate processing and/or packaging to retain their safety and quality. At the same time, consumers prefer fresh, minimally processed seafood products that maintain their initial quality properties. Read More

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Design a Database of Italian Vascular Alimurgic Flora (AlimurgITA): Preliminary Results.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 10;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Food Sciences University of Molise, 86100 Campobasso, Italy.

Despite the large number of data published in Italy on WEPs, there is no database providing a complete knowledge framework. Hence the need to design a database of the Italian alimurgic flora: AlimurgITA. Only strictly alimurgic taxa were chosen, excluding casual alien and cultivated ones. Read More

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Simulation Study of a Frame-Based Motion Correction Algorithm for Positron Emission Imaging.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;21(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Instituto de Instrumentación para Imagen Molecular (i3M), Centro Mixto CSIC-Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain.

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional non-invasive imaging modality that uses radioactive substances (radiotracers) to measure changes in metabolic processes. Advances in scanner technology and data acquisition in the last decade have led to the development of more sophisticated PET devices with good spatial resolution (1-3 mm of full width at half maximum (FWHM)). However, there are involuntary motions produced by the patient inside the scanner that lead to image degradation and potentially to a misdiagnosis. Read More

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Soil applied potassium improves productivity and fiber quality of cotton cultivars grown on potassium deficient soils.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(4):e0250713. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is considered as the most valuable cash crop of Pakistan. During last decade, its yield has been declined due to various biotic and abiotic factors. Read More

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Phenological and elevational shifts of plants, animals and fungi under climate change in the European Alps.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

UMR CNRS 7058 « Ecologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés » (EDYSAN), Université de Picardie Jules Verne, 1 Rue des Louvels, 80000, Amiens, France.

Mountain areas are biodiversity hotspots and provide a multitude of ecosystem services of irreplaceable socio-economic value. In the European Alps, air temperature has increased at a rate of about 0.36°C decade since 1970, leading to glacier retreat and significant snowpack reduction. Read More

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Experiences of Indian Council of Medical Research with tick-borne zoonotic infections: Kyasanur Forest disease & Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in India with One Health focus.

Indian J Med Res 2021 Mar;153(3):339-347

Division of Epidemiology and Communicable Diseases, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India.

Emergence and re-emergence of several pathogens have been witnessed by this century in the form of outbreaks, epidemics and pandemics. In India, the influencing factor that promotes dissemination of emerging and re-emerging viral infections is the biogeographical zones: a megadiverse country, characterized by varied geographical, climatic conditions and ever-changing socio-economical and geopolitical issues. These influence the movement of humans and animals and add layers of complexity for the identification and timely management of infectious diseases. Read More

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Molecular epidemiology of mosquito-borne viruses at the China-Myanmar border: discovery of a potential epidemic focus of Japanese encephalitis.

Infect Dis Poverty 2021 Apr 26;10(1):57. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research); NHC Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology; WHO Collaborating Centre for Tropical Diseases; National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Shanghai, China.

Background: Mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance can serve as an early warning in evaluating the status of mosquito-borne virus prevalence and thus prevent local outbreaks. Although Tengchong County in Yunnan Province-which borders Myanmar-is abundant and diverse in mosquitoes, very few mosquito-based arbovirus investigations have been conducted in the recent decade. Herein, this study aims to evaluate the presence and the diffusion of mosquito-borne pathogens, currently prevalent in this region. Read More

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A 33-year follow-up after valvular surgery for carcinoid heart disease.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Anesthesiology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

Aims: Valvular surgery has improved long-term prognosis in severe carcinoid heart disease (CaHD). Experience is limited and uncertainty remains about predictors for survival and strategy regarding single vs. double-valve surgery. Read More

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