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Implications of a cheliceral axial duplication in Tetragnatha versicolor (Araneae: Tetragnathidae) for arachnid deuterocerebral appendage development.

Dev Genes Evol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 441 Birge Hall, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

The homology of the arachnid chelicera with respect to other head appendages in Panarthropoda has long been debated. Gene expression data and the re-interpretation of early transitional fossils have supported the homology of the deutocerebrum and its associated appendages, implying a homology between primary antennae (mandibulates), chelicerae (euchelicerates), and chelifores (sea spiders). Nevertheless, comparatively little is known about the mechanistic basis of proximo-distal (PD) axis induction in chelicerates, much less the basis for cheliceral fate specification. Read More

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Safety improvements by intelligent connected vehicle technologies: A meta-analysis considering market penetration rates.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Jun 10;159:106234. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Key Laboratory of Road and Traffic Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Tongji University, China.

As the era of intelligent connected vehicles (ICVs) is approaching, a number of studies have investigated the potential benefits of ICVs, including the safety effects. Although previous studies agree that ICVs would significantly improve traffic safety, its quantified safety effects at different stages are still being debated. This study aims to estimate the ICVs' safety effects by market penetration rate (MPR) adopting a meta-analysis approach. Read More

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Molecular-scale spatio-chemical control of the activating-inhibitory signal integration in NK cells.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 11;7(24). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 8410501, Israel.

The role of juxtaposition of activating and inhibitory receptors in signal inhibition of cytotoxic lymphocytes remains strongly debated. The challenge lies in the lack of tools that allow simultaneous spatial manipulation of signaling molecules. To circumvent this, we produced a nanoengineered multifunctional platform with molecular-scale spatial control of ligands, which was applied to elucidate KIR2DL1-mediated inhibition of NKG2D signaling-receptors of natural killer cells. Read More

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Hippo Pathway Counter-Regulates Innate Immunity in Hepatitis B Virus Infection.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:684424. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Whether hepatitis B virus (HBV) activates or represses innate immunity continues to be debated. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 has been identified to recognize HBV particles in human hepatocytes. The Hippo pathway, known for growth control, is suggested to play a vital role in immune regulation. Read More

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Understanding the Pathogenesis of Gestational Hypothyroidism.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 25;12:653407. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Pregnancy is a complex state with many endocrinological challenges to a woman's physiology. Gestational Hypothyroidism (GHT) is an emerging condition where insufficiency of the thyroid gland has developed during pregnancy in a previously euthyroid woman. It is different to overt hypothyroidism, where marked elevation of thyroid-stimulating hormone with corresponding reduction in free thyroxine levels, is well known to cause detrimental effects to both the mother and the baby. Read More

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Moving Pharmacogenetics into Practice: It's All About the Evidence!

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics and Precision Medicine, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, PO Box 100486, Gainesville, FL, USA.

The evidence for pharmacogenetics has grown rapidly in recent decades. However, the strength of evidence required for the clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics is highly debated. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize different perspectives on the evidence required for the clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics. Read More

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Pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: A narrative review.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 May;27(20):2495-2506

Department of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Unit, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo 05403-010, Brazil.

Acute post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP) is a feared and potentially fatal complication that can be as high as up to 30% in high-risk patients. Pre-examination measures, during the examination and after the examination are the key to technical and clinical success with a decrease in adverse events. Several studies have debated on the subject, however, numerous topics remain controversial, such as the effectiveness of prophylactic medications and the amylase dosage time. Read More

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Osmotic stress and vesiculation as key mechanisms controlling bacterial sensitivity and resistance to TiO nanoparticles.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 3;4(1):678. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Université de Lorraine, CNRS, LIEC, Nancy, France.

Toxicity mechanisms of metal oxide nanoparticles towards bacteria and underlying roles of membrane composition are still debated. Herein, the response of lipopolysaccharide-truncated Escherichia coli K12 mutants to TiO nanoparticles (TiONPs, exposure in dark) is addressed at the molecular, single cell, and population levels by transcriptomics, fluorescence assays, cell nanomechanics and electrohydrodynamics. We show that outer core-free lipopolysaccharides featuring intact inner core increase cell sensitivity to TiONPs. Read More

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Developing clinical indicators for oncology: the inaugural cancer care indicator set for the Australian Council on Healthcare Standards.

Med J Aust 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

Icon Group, Brisbane, QLD.

Introduction: The Australian Council on Healthcare Standards (ACHS) sponsored an expert-led, consensus-driven, four-stage process, based on a modified Delphi methodology, to determine a set of clinical indicators as quality measures of cancer service provision in Australia. This was done in response to requests from institutional health care providers seeking accreditation, which were additional and complementary to the existing radiation oncology set. The steering group members comprised multidisciplinary key opinion leaders and a consumer representative. Read More

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Facial expression recognition: A meta-analytic review of theoretical models and neuroimaging evidence.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 May 28;127:820-836. Epub 2021 May 28.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Brain Imaging and Connectomics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China; Chinese Institute for Brain Research, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Discrimination of facial expressions is an elementary function of the human brain. While the way emotions are represented in the brain has long been debated, common and specific neural representations in recognition of facial expressions are also complicated. To examine brain organizations and asymmetry on discrete and dimensional facial emotions, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis and meta-analytic connectivity modelling on 141 studies with a total of 3138 participants. Read More

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Spatially explicit analysis identifies significant potential for bioenergy with carbon capture and storage in China.

Nat Commun 2021 05 26;12(1):3159. Epub 2021 May 26.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

As China ramped-up coal power capacities rapidly while CO emissions need to decline, these capacities would turn into stranded assets. To deal with this risk, a promising option is to retrofit these capacities to co-fire with biomass and eventually upgrade to CCS operation (BECCS), but the feasibility is debated with respect to negative impacts on broader sustainability issues. Here we present a data-rich spatially explicit approach to estimate the marginal cost curve for decarbonizing the power sector in China with BECCS. Read More

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How to Assess the Epistemic Wrongness of Sponsorship Bias? The Case of Manufactured Certainty.

Jon Leefmann

Front Res Metr Anal 2021 5;6:599909. Epub 2021 May 5.

Center for Applied Philosophy of Science and Key Qualifications (ZiWiS), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Although the impact of so-called "sponsorship bias" has been the subject of increased attention in the philosophy of science, what exactly constitutes its wrongness is still debated. In this paper, I will argue that neither evidential accounts nor social-epistemological accounts can fully account for the epistemic wrongness of sponsorship bias, but there are good reasons to prefer social-epistemological to evidential accounts. I will defend this claim by examining how both accounts deal with a paradigm case from medical epistemology, recently discussed in a paper by Bennett Holman. Read More

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It is not always a matter of time: Addressing the costs of metaphor and metonymy through a speed-accuracy trade-off study.

Can J Exp Psychol 2021 Jun 20;75(2):189-196. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of German Language and Literature I.

One of the most debated topics in figurative language studies is whether the access to non-literal meanings is direct or indirect. Although models that argue for longer processing times for figurative compared to literal meanings have been largely criticized, figurative language is often associated with increased cognitive work. We investigated whether such greater cognitive work is indicative of more time-consuming processes or rather lower availability of figurative meanings, and whether there are differences between figurative types. Read More

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Host pharmacogenetic factors that may affect liver neoplasm incidence upon using direct-acting antivirals for treating hepatitis C infection.

Heliyon 2021 May 3;7(5):e06908. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Bioinformatics, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology Research Institute, University of Sadat City, Egypt.

Introduction: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) represent a breakthrough in hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment as they directly inhibit HCV nonstructural (NS) proteins (NS3/4A, NS5A, and NS5B). However, ongoing debates exist regarding their relationship with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) whose incidence is widely debated among investigators. This study was conducted to identify host pharmacogenetic factors that may influence HCC incidence upon using HCV DAAs. Read More

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Reliability of cervical vertebral maturation compared to hand-wrist for skeletal maturation assessment in growing subjects: A systematic review.

J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Catanzaro "Magna Graecia", Catanzaro, Italy.

Background: Radiographic methods to assess skeletal maturity (SM) have a key role in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) management, allowing to predict risk of spinal curve progression. Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) has been recently introduced as an alternative tool to assess skeletal maturity; however, its clinical role is still debated.

Objective: This systematic review aimed to investigate the reliability of CVM in the SM assessment of growing subjects, comparing it to hand wrist maturation (HVM). Read More

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Development and validation of a novel prognostic nomogram including tumor deposits could better predict survival for colorectal cancer: a population-based study.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):620

Department of Medical Oncology, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Intervention, Ministry of Education, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background: The number of tumor deposits (TDs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis remains debated. We evaluated whether the number of TDs affects prognosis in stage III CRC patients.

Methods: Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazards models. Read More

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Sodium and Health Outcomes: Ascertaining Valid Estimates in Research Studies.

Curr Atheroscler Rep 2021 May 11;23(7):35. Epub 2021 May 11.

University of California San Diego School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0628, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0628, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The dietary reference intake (DRI) for sodium has been highly debated with persuasive and elegant arguments made for both population sodium reduction and for maintenance of the status quo. After the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC) report was published, controversy ensued, and by Congressional mandate, the sodium DRIs were updated in 2019. The 2019 DRIs defined adequate intake (AI) levels by age-sex groups that are largely consistent with the DRIs for sodium that were published in 2005. Read More

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An international survey on AI in radiology in 1041 radiologists and radiology residents part 2: expectations, hurdles to implementation, and education.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Objectives: Currently, hurdles to implementation of artificial intelligence (AI) in radiology are a much-debated topic but have not been investigated in the community at large. Also, controversy exists if and to what extent AI should be incorporated into radiology residency programs.

Methods: Between April and July 2019, an international survey took place on AI regarding its impact on the profession and training. Read More

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A multimodal approach to cancer-related cachexia: from theory to practice.

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2021 May 27:1-8. Epub 2021 May 27.

Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Verona Hospital Trust, Verona, Italy.

: Cachexia represents a relevant issue in oncological care, which is still lacking effective therapies. Although the incidence of cancer cachexia varies across cancer types, it is responsible for approximately a quarter of cancer-related deaths. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is multifactorial, including weight loss, muscle atrophy and impairment of the pro-/anti-inflammatory balance. Read More

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Fossil-informed models reveal a Boreotropical origin and divergent evolutionary trajectories in the walnut family (Juglandaceae).

Syst Biol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Biology, University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland.

Temperate woody plants in the Northern Hemisphere have long been known to exhibit high species richness in East Asia and North America and significantly lower diversity in Europe, but the causes of this pattern remain debated. Here, we quantify the roles of dispersal, niche evolution, and extinction in shaping the geographic diversity of the temperate woody plant family Juglandaceae (walnuts and their relatives). Integrating evidence from molecular, morphological, fossil, and (paleo)environmental data, we find strong support for a Boreotropical origin of the family with contrasting evolutionary trajectories between the temperate subfamily Juglandoideae and the tropical subfamily Engelhardioideae. Read More

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Revision of the Afrotropical genus Zumpt, 1958, with notes on the morphology of Rhiniidae subfamilies (Diptera, Oestroidea).

Zookeys 2021 22;1033:127-157. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Alicante, Carretera San Vicente del Raspeig s/n, Aptdo 99 E-03080, San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain Universidad de Alicante Alicante Spain.

The taxonomy and diversity of Zumpt, 1958, an exclusive Afrotropical genus, had not been reviewed recently. The genus included six nominal species, but the status of several of them was debated. Identification of most species depends on characters of the male terminalia; females are poorly known and, in several cases, are not adequately diagnosed. Read More

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Impaired cerebral vascular and metabolic responses to parametric N-back tasks in subjective cognitive decline.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 May 5:271678X211012153. Epub 2021 May 5.

Center for MRI Research, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Previous studies reported abnormally increased and/or decreased blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activations during functional tasks in subjective cognitive decline (SCD). The neurophysiological basis underlying these functional aberrations remains debated. This study aims to investigate vascular and metabolic responses and their dependence on cognitive processing loads during functional tasks in SCD. Read More

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Circulating tumor DNA dynamics and recurrence risk in patients undergoing curative intent resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases: A prospective cohort study.

PLoS Med 2021 May 3;18(5):e1003620. Epub 2021 May 3.

The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: In patients with resectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM), the role of pre- and postoperative systemic therapy continues to be debated. Previous studies have shown that circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis, as a marker of minimal residual disease, is a powerful prognostic factor in patients with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Serial analysis of ctDNA in patients with resectable CRLM could inform the optimal use of perioperative chemotherapy. Read More

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Ethics review of big data research: What should stay and what should be reformed?

BMC Med Ethics 2021 04 30;22(1):51. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Health Ethics and Policy Lab, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zürich, Hottingerstrasse 10 (HOA), 8092, Zürich, Switzerland.

Background: Ethics review is the process of assessing the ethics of research involving humans. The Ethics Review Committee (ERC) is the key oversight mechanism designated to ensure ethics review. Whether or not this governance mechanism is still fit for purpose in the data-driven research context remains a debated issue among research ethics experts. Read More

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Mast Cells and Skin and Breast Cancers: A Complicated and Microenvironment-Dependent Role.

Cells 2021 Apr 23;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada.

Mast cells are important sentinel cells in host defense against infection and major effector cells in allergic disease. The role of these cells in cancer settings has been widely debated. The diverse range of mast cell functions in both immunity and tissue remodeling events, such as angiogenesis, provides multiple opportunities for mast cells to modify the tumor microenvironment. Read More

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The Role of Polymeric Coatings for a Safe-by-Design Development of Biomedical Gold Nanoparticles Assessed in Zebrafish Embryo.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milan, Italy.

In the biomedical field, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have attracted the attention of the scientific community thanks to their high potential in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The extensive use of GNPs led researchers to investigate their toxicity, identifying stability, size, shape, and surface charge as key properties determining their impact on biological systems, with possible strategies defined to reduce it according to a Safe-by-Design (SbD) approach. The purpose of the present work was to analyze the toxicity of GNPs of various sizes and with different coating polymers on the developing vertebrate model, zebrafish. Read More

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Manmade Electromagnetic Fields and Oxidative Stress-Biological Effects and Consequences for Health.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 6;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Laenggassstrasse 124, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland.

Concomitant with the ever-expanding use of electrical appliances and mobile communication systems, public and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the extremely-low-frequency and radiofrequency range has become a widely debated environmental risk factor for health. Radiofrequency (RF) EMF and extremely-low-frequency (ELF) MF have been classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), potentially leading to cellular or systemic oxidative stress, was frequently found to be influenced by EMF exposure in animals and cells. Read More

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Methodological Issue of Mitochondrial Isolation in Acute-Injury Rat Model: Asphyxia Cardiac Arrest and Resuscitation.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 12;8:666735. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

The Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research at Northwell, Manhasset, NY, United States.

Identification of the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction is key to understanding the pathophysiology of acute injuries such as cardiac arrest (CA); however, effective methods for measurement of mitochondrial function associated with mitochondrial isolation have been debated for a long time. This study aimed to evaluate the dysregulation of mitochondrial respiratory function after CA while testing the sampling bias that might be induced by the mitochondrial isolation method. Adult rats were subjected to 10-min asphyxia-induced CA. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of renal denervation for hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis.

Int J Hyperthermia 2021 ;38(1):732-742

Interdisciplinary Center of Sleep Medicine, Charite-University Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Renal denervation (RDN) is a new treatment for hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its efficacy is still debated. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of RDN for hypertension in patients with CKD.

Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Ovid databases were searched for relevant studies published. Read More

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January 2021

Sodium arsenite induces spatial learning and memory impairment associated with oxidative stress and activates the Nrf2/PPARγ pathway against oxidative injury in mice hippocampus.

Toxicol Res (Camb) 2021 Mar 17;10(2):277-283. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Key Laboratory of Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases of Ministry of Education, Gannan Medical University, Number 1 Yixueyuan Road, Ganzhou 341000, China.

Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous environmental and industrial toxin with known correlates of oxidative stress and cognitive deficits in the brain. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcriptional factor that represents a central cellular antioxidant defense mechanism and transcribes many antioxidant genes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) is a well-known nuclear receptor to regulate lipid metabolism in many tissues, and it has been also associated with the control of oxidative stress, neuronal death, neurogenesis and differentiation. Read More

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