10,985 results match your criteria death investigations

The first case of C4-Blast related death in Malaysia: A multidisciplinary approach illustrated with emphasis on conjoint anthropologic and radiologic expertise in forensic identification of skeletal remains.

J Forensic Leg Med 2021 Sep 15;83:102253. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

National Institute of Forensic Medicine (NIFM), Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Malaysia.

Background: Blast related deaths are often shrouded by diagnostic and medicolegal complexities requiring multidisciplinary expertise in order to gauge accurate identification of the victims and document scientific investigations comprehensively. In the advent of more sophisticated technology, anthropologic methods can now be applied into post mortem imaging interpretation. The traditional imaging roles of characterizing osseous fragmentation, detecting and localizing foreign bodies can be expanded to simulate and support physical anthropologic examination to assist in documentation for court proceedings. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Optical Coherence Tomography of Plaque Vulnerability and Rupture: JACC Focus Seminar Part 1/3.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Sep;78(12):1257-1265

Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Plaque rupture is the most common cause of acute coronary syndromes and sudden cardiac death. Characteristics and pathobiology of vulnerable plaques prone to plaque rupture have been studied extensively over 2 decades in humans using optical coherence tomography (OCT), an intravascular imaging technique with micron scale resolution. OCT studies have identified key features of plaque vulnerability and described the in vivo characteristics and spatial distribution of thin cap fibroatheromas as major precursors to plaque rupture. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Breast Cancer in the Caribbean.

Cureus 2021 Aug 9;13(8):e17042. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, CAN.

Breast cancer (BC) is one of the leading causes of death among women globally. In the Caribbean, there is a higher mortality rate compared with North American and European countries which have higher incidence rates. We conducted a literature review to examine the BC dynamic in the Caribbean and determine the areas where further investigations are needed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Disparities in Deceased Organ Donor Research Authorization: Experience at One Organ Procurement Organization and Call for National Conversations.

Kidney Int Rep 2021 Sep 26;6(9):2331-2337. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Introduction: Research with deceased donor organs can provide an important platform for studying interventions to improve organ use and outcomes after authorization from the next-of-kin (NOK) or before death by the decedent (i.e., first-person authorization [FPA]). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Frailty in CKD and Transplantation.

Kidney Int Rep 2021 Sep 9;6(9):2270-2280. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

The population is aging. Although older adults have higher rates of comorbidities and adverse health events, they represent a heterogeneous group with different health trajectories. Frailty, a clinical syndrome of decreased physiological reserve and increased susceptibility to illness and death, has emerged as a potential risk stratification tool in older patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Descriptive Epidemiology of the Tuberculosis Service Delivery Project Beneficiaries in Northwest Syria: 2019-2020.

Front Public Health 2021 27;9:672114. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

WHO Gaziantep Field Presence, Gaziantep, Turkey.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic communicable disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis that thrives in protracted humanitarian crises. It is an important cause of morbidity and mortality burden in the developing world. Globally, TB is the number one cause of death from any single infectious disease agent that plagued an estimated 10 million (range, 8. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

HIF-1 Activation Promotes Luteolysis by Enhancing ROS Levels in the Corpus Luteum of Pseudopregnant Rats.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 1;2021:1764929. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Provincial Key Laboratory for Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Provincial University Key Laboratory of Sport and Health Science, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology for Medicine of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, China.

The increase of oxidative stress is one of the important characteristics of mammalian luteal regression. Previous investigations have revealed the essential role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in luteal cell death during luteolysis, while it is unknown how ROS is regulated in this process. Considering the decrease of blood flow and increase of PGF during luteolysis, we hypothesized that the HIF-1 pathway may be involved in the regulation of ROS in the luteal cell of the late corpus luteum (CL). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Preferred Place of Death in Adult Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Psychol 2021 27;12:704590. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Health Management Research Center, Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Identifying the preferred place of death is a key indicator of the quality of death in cancer patients and one of the most important issues for health service policymakers. This study was done to determine the preferred place of death and the factors affecting it for adult patients with cancer. In this systematic review and meta-analysis study four online databases (PubMed, Scopus, web of science, ProQuest) were searched by relevant keywords. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A self-controlled approach to survival analysis, with application to air pollution and mortality.

Environ Int 2021 Sep 8;157:106861. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, United States.

Background: Many studies have reported that long-term air pollution exposure is associated with increased mortality rates. These investigations have been criticized for failure to control for omitted, generally personal, confounders. Study designs that are robust to such confounders can address this issue. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

The Biological Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs and the Risk of Cardiovascular Events: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Mediators Inflamm 2021 31;2021:7712587. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: To assess the association between the use of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) and the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with systemic inflammatory conditions.

Methods: Eligible cohort studies or randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from inception to January 2021 were included. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cardiovascular outcomes were calculated in the fixed- and random-effects model accordingly. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Proverbs and Aphorisms in Neurorehabilitation: A Literature Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 1;18(17). Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Motion Analysis, Ergonomics, Biomechanics and Motor Control Laboratory (LAMBECOM), Department of Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón, 289122 Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: Brain plasticity is not limited to childhood or adolescence, as originally assumed, but continues into adulthood. Understanding this conceptual evolution about the nervous system, neuroscience and neurorehabilitation, researchers have left different proverbs and aphorisms derived of their investigations that are still used in university and postgraduate training. A proverb is defined as a phrase of popular origin traditionally repeated invariably, in which a moral thought, advice or teaching is expressed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Positive Charges in the Brace Region Facilitate the Membrane Disruption of MLKL-NTR in Necroptosis.

Molecules 2021 Aug 27;26(17). Epub 2021 Aug 27.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.

Necroptosis is a type of programmed cell death executed through the plasma membrane disruption by mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL). Previous studies have revealed that an N-terminal four-helix bundle domain (NBD) of MLKL is the executioner domain for the membrane permeabilization, which is auto-inhibited by the first brace helix (H6). After necroptosis initiation, this inhibitory brace helix detaches and the NBD can integrate into the membrane, and hence leads to necroptotic cell death. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mathematical modelling of SARS-CoV-2 infection of human and animal host cells reveals differences in the infection rates and delays in viral particle production by infected cells.

J Theor Biol 2021 Sep 6:110895. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Institut Pasteur, Viral Populations and Pathogenesis Unit, Department of Virology, CNRS UMR 3569, Paris F-75015, France.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a causative agent of COVID-19 disease, poses a significant threat to public health. Since its outbreak in December 2019, Wuhan, China, extensive collection of diverse data from cell culture and animal infections as well as population level data from an ongoing pandemic, has been vital in assessing strategies to battle its spread. Mathematical modelling plays a key role in quantifying determinants that drive virus infection dynamics, especially those relevant for epidemiological investigations and predictions as well as for proposing efficient mitigation strategies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

SAR study of small molecule inhibitors of the programmed cell death-1/programmed cell death-ligand 1 interaction.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Biological/Pharmacological Research Laboratories, Central Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Japan Tobacco Inc, Takatsuki, Osaka, Japan.

The development of small molecule inhibitors of programmed cell death-1/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) has drawn research interest for the treatment of cancer. Recently we reported the discovery of a novel dimeric core small molecule PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor. In an effort to discover more potent inhibitors, we further explored the dimeric core scaffold. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Gut Microbiota and Alzheimer's Disease: Experimental Evidence and Clinical Reality.

Curr Alzheimer Res 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Central Research Cell, MM Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Maharishi Markandeshwar (Deemed to be) University, Mullana, Haryana. India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive death of neuronal cells in the regions of the brain concerned with memory and cognition, and is the major cause of dementia in the elderly population. Various molecular mechanisms, metabolic risk factors and environmental triggers contributing to the genesis and progression of AD are under intense investigations. The present review has dealt with the impact of a highly discussed topic of gut microbiota affecting the neurodegeneration in the AD brain. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Technical and interpretive pitfalls of postmortem CT: Five examples of errors revealed by autopsy.

J Forensic Sci 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Chiba University Center for Education and Research in Legal Medicine, Chiba, Japan.

Image acquisition of dead bodies, particularly using postmortem computed tomography (PMCT), has become common in forensic investigations worldwide. Meanwhile, in countries such as Japan which have an extremely low rate of autopsy, PMCT is being increasingly used in the clinical field to certify the cause of death (COD) without performing an autopsy or toxicological tests, even in cases of unnatural death. Additionally, these PMCT images are predominantly interpreted by clinical personnel such as emergency physicians or clinicians who are not trained in PMCT interpretation and who work for the police, that is, the so-called police doctors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Harnessing TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis Pathway for Cancer Immunotherapy and Associated Challenges.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:699746. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Toxicology and Chemotherapy Unit (G401), German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.

The immune cytokine tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has attracted rapidly evolving attention as a cancer treatment modality because of its competence to selectively eliminate tumor cells without instigating toxicity . TRAIL has revealed encouraging promise in preclinical reports in animal models as a cancer treatment option; however, the foremost constraint of the TRAIL therapy is the advancement of TRAIL resistance through a myriad of mechanisms in tumor cells. Investigations have documented that improvement of the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and survival or proliferation involved signaling pathways concurrently suppressing the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins along with down-regulation of expression of TRAILR1 and TRAILR2, also known as death receptor 4 and 5 (DR4/5) are reliable for tumor cells resistance to TRAIL. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Concise Review: Considering Optimal Temperature for Short-Term Storage of Epithelial Cells.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 18;8:686774. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Transplantation of novel tissue-engineered products using cultured epithelial cells is gaining significant interest. While such treatments can readily be provided at centralized medical centers, delivery to patients at geographically remote locations requires the establishment of suitable storage protocols. One important aspect of storage technology is temperature. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sestrin2 protects dendrite cells against ferroptosis induced by sepsis.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Sep 4;12(9):834. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Emergency, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050000, People's Republic of China.

Ferroptosis is a nonapoptotic form of programmed cell death triggered by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) depended on iron overload. Although most investigations focus on the relationship between ferroptosis and cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and ischemia/reperfusion injury, research on ferroptosis induced by immune-related inflammatory diseases, especially sepsis, is scarce. Sestrin2 (Sesn2), a highly evolutionary and stress-responsive protein, is critically involved in defense against oxidative stress challenges. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Novel insights into RIPK1 as a promising target for future Alzheimer's disease treatment.

Pharmacol Ther 2021 Sep 2:107979. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Bioactive Natural Product Research and State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an intractable neurodegenerative disease showing a clinical manifestation with memory loss, cognitive impairment and behavioral dysfunction. The predominant pathological characteristics of AD include neuronal loss, β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and hyperphosphorylated Tau induced neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), while considerable studies proved these could be triggered by neuronal death and neuroinflammation. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) is a serine/threonine kinase existed at the cross-point of cell death and inflammatory signaling pathways. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Stability investigations of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes immediately after death in a pig model support the applicability of postmortem hepatic CYP quantification.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2021 Oct;9(5):e00860

Department of Forensic Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Quantification of drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms using LC-MS/MS has been proposed as a potential way of estimating antemortem CYP levels using postmortem tissue, but the postmortem stability of CYP proteins is incompletely investigated. If one can use data obtained from the analysis of postmortem specimens to inform physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models this greatly increases the access to rare specimens among special subpopulations. In this study, we developed and validated an LC-MS/MS method for targeted CYP protein quantification in a porcine animal model to study postmortem stability. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Neurodegenerative disorders and the current state, pathophysiology and management of Parkinson's disease.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Drosophila Transgenic Laboratory, Section of Genetics, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002, Uttar Pradesh, India.

In last few decades major knowledge has been gained about pathophysiological aspects and molecular pathways behind Parkinson's disease (PD). Based on neurotoxicological studies and postmortem investigations, now there is a general concept that how environmental toxicants (neurotoxins, pesticides insecticides) and genetic factors (genetic mutations in PD-associated proteins) cause depletion of dopamine from substantia nigra pars compacta region of midbrain and modulate cellular processes leading to pathogenesis of PD. α-Synuclein, a neuronal protein accumulation in oligomeric form, called protofibrils is associated with cellular dysfunction and neuronal death thus possibly contributing to PD propagation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Cardiovascular disease related circulating biomarkers and cancer incidence and mortality: is there an association?

Cardiovasc Res 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Aims: Recent studies suggest an association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer incidence/mortality, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these associations are unclear. We aimed to examine biomarkers previously associated with CVD and study their association with incident cancer and cancer-related death in a prospective cohort study.

Methods And Results: We used a proteomic platform to measure 71 cardiovascular biomarkers among 5,032 participants in the Framingham Heart Study who were free of cancer at baseline. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution: An ecological study of its effect on COVID-19 cases and fatality in Germany.

Environ Res 2021 Aug 28;204(Pt A):111948. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Institute of Public Economics, University of Muenster, Wilmergasse 6-8, 48143, Muenster, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: COVID-19 is a lung disease, and there is medical evidence that air pollution is one of the external causes of lung diseases. Fine particulate matter is one of the air pollutants that damages pulmonary tissue. The combination of the coronavirus and fine particulate matter air pollution may exacerbate the coronavirus' effect on human health. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Universal lifelong fungal prophylaxis and risk of coccidioidomycosis in lung transplant recipients living in an endemic area.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Midwestern University College of Pharmacy, Glendale, AZ, USA.

Background: Lung transplant recipients residing in the endemic region are vulnerable to severe morbidity and mortality from Coccidioides. As infection risk persists beyond the first post-transplant year, investigations evaluating extended prophylaxis durations are needed. The purpose of this study is to assess the incidence of coccidioidomycosis among lung transplant recipients receiving universal lifelong azole antifungal prophylaxis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Microbial community succession on submerged vertebrate carcasses in a tidal river habitat: Implications for aquatic forensic investigations.

J Forensic Sci 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA.

Death investigations in aquatic ecosystems are challenging due to abiotic and biotic factors that may influence the estimation of a postmortem submersion interval (PMSI). In this study, we examined bacterial changes throughout the decomposition process on porcine carcasses submerged in a tidal-influenced river and identified predictors of epinecrotic community succession. Fetal porcine (Sus scrofa) carcasses (N = 6) were submerged with epinecrotic samples collected every 3 days (6 collections) over a period of 19 days (~7415 accumulated degree hours (ADH)). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tuberculosis detection in chest X-ray using Mayfly-algorithm optimized dual-deep-learning features.

J Xray Sci Technol 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

St. Joseph's College of Engineering, OMR, Chennai, India.

World-Health-Organization (WHO) has listed Tuberculosis (TB) as one among the top 10 reasons for death and an early diagnosis will help to cure the patient by giving suitable treatment. TB usually affects the lungs and an accurate bio-imaging scheme will be apt to diagnose the infection. This research aims to implement an automated scheme to detect TB infection in chest radiographs (X-ray) using a chosen Deep-Learning (DL) approach. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) in a pregnant woman.

Autops Case Rep 2021 20;11:e2021313. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

Viral or bacterial co-infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported in the literature. However, the knowledge on Aspergillus co-infection among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has been seen in critically ill COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which has raised concerns about the worsening disease course of COVID-19 and increasing mortality. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF