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Does Fish Oil Reduce the Risk of Cardiovascular Events and Death? Recent Level 1 Evidence Says Yes: PRO: Fish Oil is Useful to Prevent or Treat Cardiovascular Disease.

Mo Med 2021 May-Jun;118(3):214-218

Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, Missouri.

Over the past decade there has been a considerable debate whether fish oil supplementation works to prevent and/or treat cardiovascular disease. This is due to the fact that previous studies testing fish oil in Italy and Japan found significant reductions in all-cause mortality, sudden cardiac death, and cardiovascular events, whereas more recent studies have in general been considered negative. We will discuss the reasons for these discrepancies and pave a better path forward when it comes to interpreting studies testing fish oil for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disease. Read More

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STING Contributes to Host Defense Against Pneumonia Through Suppressing Necroptosis.

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:636861. Epub 2021 May 31.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

STING (Stimulator of interferon genes) is known as an important adaptor protein or direct sensor in the detection of nucleotide originating from pathogens or the host. The implication of STING during pulmonary microbial infection remains unknown to date. Herein, we showed that STING protected against pulmonary infection by suppressing necroptosis. Read More

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Integrin αβ Targeting DGEA-Modified Liposomal Doxorubicin Enhances Antitumor Efficacy against Breast Cancer.

Mol Pharm 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery System of the Education Ministry and Sichuan Province, Sichuan Engineering Laboratory for Plant-Sourced Drug and Sichuan Research Center for Drug Precision Industrial Technology, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, P.R. China.

Breast cancer was the leading cause of newly diagnosed cases of tumors in 2020, ranking as the second highest cause of female death. Chemotherapy remains the conventional treatment of choice for breast tumors in most clinical cases. However, it is often accompanied by a poor prognosis and severe side effects, resulting from an insufficient accumulation of the drug at tumor sites and an unsystematic distribution of the drug across the body. Read More

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Inhaled bronchodilators use and clinical course of adult inpatients with Covid-19 pneumonia in Spain: A retrospective cohort study.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jun 12:102007. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Pneumology Department, La Paz University Hospital, IdiPAZ, Madrid.

Background: In the current coronavirus health crisis, inhaled bronchodilators(IB) have been suggested as a possible treatment for patients hospitalized. Patients with evidence of Covid-19 pneumonia worldwide have been prescribed these medications as part of therapy for the disease, an indication for which this medications could be ineffective taken on account the pathophysiology and mechanisms of disease progression.

Objective: The main objective was to evaluate whether there is an association between IB use and length of stay. Read More

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An innovative training based on robotics for older people with subacute stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Jun 14;22(1):400. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Clinical Unit of Physical Rehabilitation, IRCCS INRCA, Ancona, Italy.

Background: Stroke is a leading cause of disability, injury, and death in elderly people and represents a major public health problem with substantial medical and economic consequences. The incidence of stroke rapidly increases with age, doubling for each decade after age 55 years. Gait impairment is one of the most important problems after stroke, and improving walking function is often a key component of any rehabilitation program. Read More

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Evaluation of sodium orthovanadate as a radioprotective agent under total-body irradiation and partial-body irradiation conditions in mice.

Int J Radiat Biol 2021 Jun 14:1-32. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba, Japan.

Our previous study indicated that sodium orthovanadate (vanadate), a strong inhibitor of p53, effectively suppressed the lethality from the hematopoietic (HP) and gastrointestinal (GI) syndromes after 12 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI) in mice. This conclusion, however, was inconsistent with the fact that p53 plays a radioprotective role in the intestinal epithelium. The death after TBI of around 12 Gy was attributed to a combined effect of HP and GI syndromes. Read More

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The epidemiology, diagnosis and management of scrub typhus disease in China.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Jun 14:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

Thirty-nine years ago, scrub typhus (ST), a disease, was not among the China's notifiable diseases. However, ST has reemerged to become a growing public health issue in the southwest part of China. The major factors contributing to an increased incidence and prevalence of this disease include rapid globalization, urbanization, expansion of humans into previously uninhabited areas, and climate change. Read More

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Chemoradiation induces upregulation of immunogenic cell death-related molecules together with increased expression of PD-L1 and galectin-9 in gastric cancer.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12264. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Gastrointestinal Tract Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan.

Surgery alone or combined with chemo- and/or radiation therapy remains the primary treatment for gastric cancer (GC) to date and immunotherapeutic tools such as monoclonal antibodies are only slowly being implemented. This is partly due to the fact that the immune microenvironment in GC during chemoradiation and other treatment modalities is still poorly understood. 7 gastric cancer (GC) cell lines were tested for their response to chemoradiation using 5-FU in combination with X-ray irradiation. Read More

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Development and validation of consensus machine learning-based models for the prediction of novel small molecules as potential anti-tubercular agents.

Mol Divers 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Medical Sciences, Adamas University, Kolkata, West Bengal, 700126, India.

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease and the leading cause of death globally. The rapidly emerging cases of drug resistance among pathogenic mycobacteria have been a global threat urging the need of new drug discovery and development. However, considering the fact that the new drug discovery and development is commonly lengthy and costly processes, strategic use of the cutting-edge machine learning (ML) algorithms may be very supportive in reducing both the cost and time involved. Read More

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Micronucleus Formation Induced by Glyphosate and Glyphosate-Based Herbicides in Human Peripheral White Blood Cells.

Front Public Health 2021 24;9:639143. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.

Glyphosate is the most commonly used herbicide around the world, which led to its accumulation in the environment and consequent ubiquitous human exposure. Glyphosate is marketed in numerous glyphosate-based herbicide formulations (GBHs) that include co-formulants to enhance herbicidal effect of the active ingredient, but are declared as inert substances. However, these other ingredients can have biologic activity on their own and may interact with the glyphosate in synergistic toxicity. Read More

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International consensus on minimum preclinical testing requirements for the development of innovative therapies for children and adolescents with cancer.

Mol Cancer Ther 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Eli Lilly (United States).

Cancer remains the leading cause of disease-related death in children. For the many children who experience relapses of their malignant solid tumors, usually after very intensive first-line therapy, curative treatment options are scarce. Preclinical drug testing to identify promising treatment elements that match the molecular make-up of the tumor is hampered by the fact that 1) molecular genetic data on pediatric solid tumors from relapsed patients and thus our understanding of tumor evolution and therapy resistance are very limited to date and 2) for many of the high-risk entities, no appropriate and molecularly well characterized patient-derived models and/or genetic mouse models are currently available. Read More

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What Are the Functional Outcomes and Pain Scores after Medial Clavicle Fracture Treatment?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 06 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

D. Zhang, B. Earp, Hand and Upper Extremity Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Medial clavicle fractures are uncommon, occurring in older and multiply injured patients. The management of these fractures and the factors that predispose toward poor outcomes are controversial. Furthermore, the functional outcomes of treatment are not well characterized or correlated with fracture patterns. Read More

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Automated tumor proportion scoring for PD-L1 expression based on multistage ensemble strategy in non-small cell lung cancer.

J Transl Med 2021 Jun 7;19(1):249. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Pathology, Molecular Pathology Research Center, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730, China.

Introduction: Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression is a promising biomarker for identifying treatment related to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Automated image analysis served as an aided PD-L1 scoring tool for pathologists to reduce inter- and intrareader variability. We developed a novel automated tumor proportion scoring (TPS) algorithm, and evaluated the concordance of this image analysis algorithm with pathologist scores. Read More

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Evaluation of Intra-Articular Amikacin Administration in an Equine Non-inflammatory Joint Model to Identify Effective Bactericidal Concentrations While Minimizing Cytotoxicity.

Front Vet Sci 2021 21;8:676774. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, United States.

Septic arthritis causes significant morbidity and mortality in veterinary and human clinical practice and is increasingly complicated by multidrug-resistant infections. Intra-articular (IA) antibiotic administration achieves high local drug concentrations but is considered off-label usage, and appropriate doses have not been defined. Using an equine joint model, we investigated the effects of amikacin injected at three different doses (500, 125, and 31. Read More

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Effect of Blood Transfusion on Short- and Long-Term Outcomes in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Undergoing Free Flap Reconstruction.

Front Surg 2021 18;8:666768. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Head and Neck Thyroid, Henan Cancer Hospital, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

To analyze the short- and long-term effect of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) in patients undergoing surgical treatment for oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Patients undergoing free flap reconstruction were retrospectively enrolled and divided into two groups based on the implementation of PBT. Flap revision, surgical site infection (SSI), flap failure, overall survival (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) were compared between the two groups. Read More

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The interplay between SUMOylation and phosphorylation of PKCδ facilitates oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

FEBS J 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Tumor Microenvironment and Inflammation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025, China.

Although the increase in the number of identified posttranslational modifications (PTMs) has substantially improved our knowledge about substrate site specificity of single PTMs, the fact that different types of PTMs can crosstalk and act in concert to exert important regulatory mechanisms for protein function has not gained much attention. Here, we show that PKCδ is SUMOylated at lysine 473 in its C-terminal catalytic domain, and the SUMOylation increases PKCδ stability by repressing its ubiquitination. In addition, we uncover a functional interplay between the phosphorylation and SUMOylation of PKCδ, which can strengthen each other through recruiting SUMO E2/E3 ligases and the PKCδ kinase, respectively, to the PKCδ complexes. Read More

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The association between severe or death COVID-19 and solid organ transplantation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Transplant Rev (Orlando) 2021 May 21;35(3):100628. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Geriatric Cardiology, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences Sichuan Translational Medicine Research Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Background: The effect of solid organ transplantation (SOT) on the severity and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remained controversial. There is still no consensus on whether solid organ transplantation (SOT) recipients with COVID-19 are at greater risk of developing severe or fatal COVID-19. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the association between SOT, severe COVID-19 illness, and mortality. Read More

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Modeling reveals no direct role of the extent of HBV DNA integrations on the outcome of infection.

Authors:
Ashish Goyal

J Theor Biol 2021 Jun 1;526:110793. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, United States.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) with its high prevalence and death toll is one of the most important infectious diseases to study. Yet, there is very little progress in the development of within-host models for HBV, which has subsequently hindered our understanding of this virus. The uncertainty around the proliferation of infected hepatocytes has been studied but never in association with other important biological continuous events such as integrations and superinfections. Read More

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Korea Heart Disease Fact Sheet 2020: Analysis of Nationwide Data.

Korean Circ J 2021 Jun;51(6):495-503

Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Objectives: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. To provide an overview of the temporal trends in the burden of CVD, the Korean Society of Cardiology has published the Korea Heart Disease Fact Sheet in 2020.

Methods: We analyzed anonymized data of the Causes of Death Statistics, National Health Insurance Claims Database, and Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess mortality, hospitalizations, and risk factors for CVD. Read More

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Building epidemic models for living populations and computer networks.

Sci Prog 2021 Apr-Jun;104(2):368504211017800

Kalabak Mah., Urla, Izmir, Turkey.

Accurate modeling of viral outbreaks in living populations and computer networks is a prominent research field. Many researchers are in search for simple and realistic models to manage preventive resources and implement effective measures against hazardous circumstances. The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic has revealed the fact about deficiencies in health resource planning of some countries having relatively high case count and death toll. Read More

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Epigenetic Therapies for Heart Failure: Current Insights and Future Potential.

Vasc Health Risk Manag 2021 24;17:247-254. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences (DAMSS), University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Naples, 80138, Italy.

Despite the current reductionist approach providing an optimal indication for diagnosis and treatment of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), there are no standard pharmacological therapies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Although in its infancy in cardiovascular diseases, the epigenetic-based therapy ("epidrugs") is capturing the interest of physician community. In fact, an increasing number of controlled clinical trials is evaluating the putative beneficial effects of: 1) direct epigenetic-oriented drugs, eg, apabetalone, and 2) repurposed drugs with a possible indirect epigenetic interference, eg, metformin, statins, sodium glucose transporter inhibitors 2 (SGLT2i), and omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in both HFrEF and HFpEF, separately. Read More

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'Good' and 'Bad' deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic: insights from a rapid qualitative study.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 06;6(6)

Anthropology, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK.

Dealing with excess death in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic has thrown the question of a 'good or bad death' into sharp relief as countries across the globe have grappled with multiple peaks of cases and mortality; and communities mourn those lost. In the UK, these challenges have included the fact that mortality has adversely affected minority communities. Corpse disposal and social distancing guidelines do not allow a process of mourning in which families and communities can be involved in the dying process. Read More

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Identification of Three Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Model Bacterial Plant Pathogen 3937.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 31;22(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Bacterial Molecular Genetics, University of Gdańsk, 80-309 Gdańsk, Poland.

Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are genetic elements usually encoding two proteins: a stable toxin and an antitoxin, which binds the toxin and neutralizes its toxic effect. The disturbance in the intracellular toxin and antitoxin ratio typically leads to inhibition of bacterial growth or bacterial cell death. Despite the fact that TA modules are widespread in bacteria and archaea, the biological role of these systems is ambiguous. Read More

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Exploratory Data Analysis of Cell and Mitochondrial High-Fat, High-Sugar Toxicity on Human HepG2 Cells.

Nutrients 2021 May 19;13(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

CNC-Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, CIBB-Centre for Innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology, University of Coimbra, UC-Biotech, Biocant Park, 3060-197 Cantanhede, Portugal.

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), one of the deleterious stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, remains a significant cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the current work, we used an exploratory data analysis to investigate time-dependent cellular and mitochondrial effects of different supra-physiological fatty acids (FA) overload strategies, in the presence or absence of fructose (F), on human hepatoma-derived HepG2 cells. We measured intracellular neutral lipid content and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, mitochondrial respiration and morphology, and caspases activity and cell death. Read More

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The Prognostic Correlation of Heart Rate Variability at Diagnosis with Survival of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 May 17;11(5). Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Gastroenterology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 200349 Craiova, Romania.

Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) indices have been shown to be associated with prognosis in various types of cancer. This study aims to assess the ability of these indices to predict survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after diagnosis.

Methods: We retrospectively collected data from 231 patients diagnosed with HCC between January 2014 and March 2018. Read More

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Variants in Gene Cause Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy.

Genes (Basel) 2021 May 22;12(6). Epub 2021 May 22.

Cardiology Unit, Department of Emergency and Critical Care, Tor Vergata Hospital, 00133 Rome, Italy.

Background: Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a disease of the cardiac muscle, characterized by frequent ventricular arrhythmias and functional/ structural abnormalities, mainly of the right ventricle. To date, 20 different genes have been associated with ACM and the majority of them encode for desmosomal proteins. In this study, we describe the characterization of two novel variants in gene, segregating in two ACM families. Read More

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New Insights into the Therapeutic Applications of CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing in Breast Cancer.

Genes (Basel) 2021 May 12;12(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmacotherapeutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah P.O. Box 27272, United Arab Emirates.

Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer globally and is among the leading causes of death in women. Its heterogenic nature is a result of the involvement of numerous aberrant genes that contribute to the multi-step pathway of tumorigenesis. Despite the fact that several disease-causing mutations have been identified, therapy is often aimed at alleviating symptoms rather than rectifying the mutation in the DNA sequence. Read More

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Application of In silico Methods in the Design of Drugs for Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Curr Top Med Chem 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (DIPSAR), New Delhi, India.

Neurodegenerative diseases are complex disorders that cause neuron loss, brain aging and ultimately lead to death. These diseases are difficult to treat because of the complex nature of the nervous system and the available medicines are not able to heal them effectively. This fact implies the needs for novel therapeutics to be designed that are ready to stop or a minimum of retard the neurodegeneration process. Read More

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Incorporating support vector machine with sequential minimal optimization to identify anticancer peptides.

BMC Bioinformatics 2021 May 29;22(1):286. Epub 2021 May 29.

School of Life and Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518172, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Background: Cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide. To treat cancer, the use of anticancer peptides (ACPs) has attracted increased attention in recent years. ACPs are a unique group of small molecules that can target and kill cancer cells fast and directly. Read More

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