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Role-Based Framing of Older Adults Linked to Decreased Ageism Over 210 Years: Evidence From a 600-Million-Word Historical Corpus.

Gerontologist 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Background And Objectives: Older adults are exhibiting greater diversity in their aging trajectories. This has led to movements by the World Health Organization and AARP to reframe aging. We compare role-based framing and age-based framing of older adults over 210 years-a time span beyond the reach of traditional methods-and elucidate their respective sentiments and narratives. Read More

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Cardiac-specific deletion of voltage dependent anion channel 2 leads to dilated cardiomyopathy by altering calcium homeostasis.

Nat Commun 2021 07 28;12(1):4583. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Nora Eccles Harrison Cardiovascular Research and Training Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Voltage dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2) is an outer mitochondrial membrane porin known to play a significant role in apoptosis and calcium signaling. Abnormalities in calcium homeostasis often leads to electrical and contractile dysfunction and can cause dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. However, the specific role of VDAC2 in intracellular calcium dynamics and cardiac function is not well understood. Read More

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Early and midterm results of thoracic endovascular aortic repair using a branched endograft for aortic arch pathologies: A retrospective single-center study.

JTCVS Tech 2020 Dec 26;4:17-25. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Zone 0 landing hybrid thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) includes a few moderately invasive surgical procedures. To reduce invasiveness, TEVAR with a branched aortic arch stent-graft can be considered. This study aimed to elucidate the effectiveness of performing TEVAR using a Bolton (Bolton Medical, Inc, Sunrise, Fla) branched endograft by analyzing early and midterm results. Read More

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December 2020

Identification of ferroptosis genes in immune infiltration and prognosis in thyroid papillary carcinoma using network analysis.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jul 27;22(1):576. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Genecology Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, QLD, 4558, Australia.

Background: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid cancer. While many patients survive, a portion of PTC cases display high aggressiveness and even develop into refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma. This may be alleviated by developing a novel model to predict the risk of recurrence. Read More

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Curcumin mediates autophagy and apoptosis in granulosa cells: a study of integrated network pharmacology and molecular docking to elucidate toxicological mechanisms.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2021 Jul 27:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Key Laboratory of Buffalo Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction Technology, Ministry of Agriculture and Guangxi Buffalo Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanning, China.

Curcumin (Cur) is a flavonoid derived from L. that has been shown to have a variety of biological activities, but some previous studies have described its non-negligible negative effects on female reproduction and embryo development. To further explore the toxic stress effect, this study investigated apoptosis and autophagy of healthy buffalo () derived granulosa cells (GCs) exposed to Cur and/or autophagy inhibitors. Read More

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dinF Elicits Nitric Oxide Signaling Induced by Periplanetasin-4 from American Cockroach in Escherichia coli.

Curr Microbiol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

School of Life Sciences, BK21 FOUR KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, Korea.

Modern antibiotics have been developed with the aim of destroying cellular function; however, the risk of antibiotic-resistance is increasing continuously. As a result, antimicrobial peptide (AMP) is considered a novel strategy to substitute traditional drugs. This study focused on revealing the antibacterial mechanism(s) of periplanetasn-4, an AMP identified from Cockroach. Read More

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Heterotopic ossification in mice overexpressing Bmp2 in Tie2+ lineages.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jul 22;12(8):729. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Intercellular Signaling in Cardiovascular Development & Disease Laboratory, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029, Madrid, Spain.

Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling is critical for organismal development and homeostasis. To elucidate Bmp2 function in the vascular/hematopoietic lineages we generated a new transgenic mouse line in which ectopic Bmp2 expression is controlled by the Tie2 promoter. Tie2;Bmp2 mice develop aortic valve dysfunction postnatally, accompanied by pre-calcific lesion formation in valve leaflets. Read More

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Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Deficiency in Gastric Carcinoma: An Adaptive Immune Evasion Strategy Most Common in Microsatellite Instable Tumors.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Departments of Pathology Gastrointestinal Surgery, The University of Tokyo Department of Digestive Surgery, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo Asahi TelePathology Center, Asahi General Hospital, Asahi, Chiba Prefecture, Japan.

Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy is effective only for a subset of patients with gastric cancer. Impaired neoantigen presentation caused by deficiency of human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) has been reported as a common mechanism of immune evasion which is associated with resistance to immune checkpoint blockade. To elucidate the significance of HLA-I deficiency in gastric cancer with special focus on microsatellite instable (MSI) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive tumors, we examined HLA-I expression on tumor cells and correlated the results with clinicopathologic features, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, and degree of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. Read More

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In vitro therapeutic effects of abemaciclib on triple-negative breast cancer cells.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021 Jul 26:e22858. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey.

The cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 have led to a significant improvement in the treatment of hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer. However, the therapeutic potential of abemaciclib in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has not been definitively elucidated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate abemaciclib mediated antiproliferative effects on MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 TNBC and MCF-10A cell line through annexin V, cell cycle, caspase-3, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, acridine orange, and DAPI staining, for the first time. Read More

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Tracing of intracellular pH in cancer cells in response to Taxol treatment.

Cell Cycle 2021 Jul 25:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Privolzhsky Research Medical University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation.

Genetically encoded pH-sensors are the promising instrument for intracellular pH (pHi) registration. In tumor tissue the reversed pH gradient is known to be the important hallmark of cancer and regulator of tumor response on chemotherapy. However the effect of chemotherapeutic drugs on the pHi of tumor cells is largely unknown. Read More

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Role of Metastasis Suppressor KAI1/CD82 in Different Cancers.

J Oncol 2021 9;2021:9924473. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Metastasis is one of the characteristics of malignant tumors and the main cause of death worldwide. The process of metastasis is mainly affected by tumor metastasis genes, tumor metastasis suppressor genes, tumor microenvironment, extracellular matrix degradation, and other factors. Thus, it is essential to elucidate the mechanism of metastasis and find the therapeutic targets in order to prevent the development of malignant tumors. Read More

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Early Palliative Care Consultation in the Burn Unit: A Quality Improvement Initiative to Increase Utilization.

J Burn Care Res 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Surgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine.

Despite significant morbidity and mortality for major burns, palliative care consultation (PCC) is underutilized in this population. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of a protocol using recommended "triggers" for PCC at a single academic burn center. This is a retrospective review of patient deaths over a four-year period. Read More

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ATM/NEMO signaling modulates the expression of PD-L1 following docetaxel chemotherapy in prostate cancer.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Jul;9(7)

The Center for Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

Background: The efficacy of docetaxel-based chemotherapy is limited by the development of drug resistance. Recent studies demonstrated the efficacy of anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) immunotherapies in metastatic prostate cancer. The ataxia telangiectasia mutation (ATM) protein plays a crucial role in maintaining genome stability and function of mitosis. Read More

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Genetic Modeling of the Neurodegenerative Disease Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 1 in Zebrafish.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 8;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Division of Cellular & Molecular Neurobiology, Zoological Institute, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Spielmannstraße 7, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany.

Dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are progredient neurodegenerative diseases commonly affecting the survival of Purkinje cells (PCs) in the human cerebellum. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is caused by the mutated () gene product, in which a polyglutamine stretch encoded by CAG repeats is extended in affected SCA1 patients. As a monogenetic disease with the Atx1-polyQ protein exerting a gain of function, SCA1 can be genetically modelled in animals by cell type-specific overexpression. Read More

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Stable transfection in protist Corallochytriumlimacisporum identifies novel cellular features among unicellular animals relatives.

Curr Biol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra), Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Electronic address:

The evolutionary path from protists to multicellular animals remains a mystery. Recent work on the genomes of several unicellular relatives of animals has shaped our understanding of the genetic changes that may have occurred in this transition. However, the specific cellular modifications that took place to accommodate these changes remain unclear. Read More

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Implications of Frailty in COVID-19.

Cardiol Rev 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

From the Department of Medicine, University of Texas-Houston Departments of Medicine and Cardiology, New York Medical College/Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY.

As the global coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to cause higher mortality and hospitalization rates among older adults, strategies such as frailty screening have been suggested for resource allocation and clinical management. Frailty is a physiologic condition characterized by a decreased reserve to stressors and is associated with disability, hospitalization, and death. Measuring frailty can be a useful tool to determine the risk and prognosis of COVID-19 patients in the acute setting, and to provide higher quality of care for vulnerable individuals in the outpatient setting. Read More

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The efficacy and safety of left atrial low-voltage area guided ablation for recurrence prevention compared to pulmonary vein isolation alone in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation trial: Design and rationale.

Clin Cardiol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan.

Recurrence rates of atrial fibrillation (AF) after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) are higher in patients with a left atrial low-voltage area (LVA) than those without. However, the efficacy of LVA guided ablation is still unknown. The purpose of this study-the Efficacy and Safety of Left Atrial Low-voltage Area Guided Ablation for Recurrence Prevention Compared to Pulmonary Vein Isolation Alone in Patients with Persistent Atrial Fibrillation trial (SUPPRESS-AF trial)-is to elucidate whether LVA guided ablation in addition to PVI is superior to PVI alone in patients with persistent AF. Read More

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ABO phenotype and clinical correlates of COVID-19 severity in hospitalized patients.

Future Sci OA 2021 Sep 12;7(8):FSO735. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Hematology & Oncology, Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

Aim: This study investigates the association between ABO blood phenotype and COVID-19 severity, measured by intensive care unit admission, need for intubation, hospitalization length and death. It further explores clinical predictors of COVID-19 severity within a primarily Hispanic demographic in San Diego County.

Materials & Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 942 total patients, 473 with available blood type, hospitalized at five Scripps Health hospitals with COVID-19. Read More

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September 2021

Deubiquitinating enzyme USP30 negatively regulates mitophagy and accelerates myocardial cell senescence through antagonism of Parkin.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Jul 21;7(1):187. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Key Laboratory of Basic Pharmacology of Ministry of Education and Joint International Research Laboratory of Ethnomedicine of Ministry of Education, Zunyi Medical University, 563000, Zunyi, P. R. China.

Cell senescence is associated with age-related pathological changes. Increasing evidence has revealed that mitophagy can selectively remove dysfunctional mitochondria. Overexpression of ubiquitin-specific protease 30 (USP30) has been documented to influence mitophagy and deubiquitination of mitochondrial Parkin substrates. Read More

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Unbalanced expression of membrane-bound and soluble programmed cell death 1 and programmed cell death ligand 1 in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

Clin Immunol 2021 Jul 18;229:108800. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Division of Immunology, Pediatric Translational Medicine Institute, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127, China; Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127, China. Electronic address:

The study aimed to investigate the soluble programmed death-1 (sPD-1) and its ligand (sPD-L1) levels in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) patients and elucidate its underlying immunomodulatory mechanisms. Plasma levels of sPD-1, sPD-L1 and related cytokines and proteins were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Luminex. The effects of PD-1/PD-L1 signal on mDC (myeloid dendritic cell) and IL-6 secretion were measured using flow cytometry. Read More

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[Avoidability of fetal deaths: reflections on the Brazilian List of Avoidable Causes of Deaths through interventions by the Brazilian Unified National Health System].

Cad Saude Publica 2021 19;37(7):e00265920. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brasil.

Although the Brazilian List of Avoidable Causes of Deaths (LBE in Portuguese), in its version for children under 5 years of age (LBE < 5), does not include stillbirths, some studies have used the list with or without adaptations. We present a proposal for adaptation of the LBE for stillbirths (LBE-OF in Portuguese) and the results of its application to stillbirths in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2018, compared to the results with LBE < 5. We reviewed the categories from the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) in the LBE < 5 and reassigned them in the avoidability groups, according to time of death in relation to delivery and the causes consistent with stillbirths. Read More

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and study on prevention of myocardial ischemic injury by taurine.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jun;9(12):984

School of Basic Medicine, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang, China.

Background: Myocardial ischemia (MI) often causes angina, arrhythmia, and cardiac insufficiency, sometimes resulting in death. Ischemia-induced myocardial tissue damage is attributed to the hypoxic damage of myocardial cells producing apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Taurine has been shown to improve MI, but its mechanism is largely unknown. Read More

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OAS1/RNase L executes RIG-I ligand-dependent tumor cell apoptosis.

Sci Immunol 2021 Jul;6(61)

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, 80337 Munich, Germany.

Cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA is sensed by RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), leading to induction of type I interferons (IFN-Is), proinflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis. Here, we elucidate signaling mechanisms that lead to cytokine secretion and cell death induction upon stimulation with the bona fide RIG-I ligand 5'-triphosphate RNA (3p-RNA) in tumor cells. We show that both outcomes are mediated by dsRNA-receptor families with RLR being essential for cytokine production and IFN-I-mediated priming of effector pathways but not for apoptosis. Read More

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Third-generation sequencing and metabolome analysis reveal candidate genes and metabolites with altered levels in albino jackfruit seedlings.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jul 16;22(1):543. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

College of Coastal Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Ocean University, 524088, Zhanjiang, People's Republic of China.

Background: Most plants rely on photosynthesis; therefore, albinism in plants with leaves that are white instead of green causes slow growth, dwarfing, and even death. Although albinism has been characterized in annual model plants, little is known about albino trees. Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is an important tropical fruit tree species. Read More

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Prognostic role of programmed cell death ligand-1 expression in head and neck cancer treated with programmed cell death protein-1/programmed cell death ligand-1 inhibitors: A meta-analysis based on clinical trials.

J Cancer Res Ther 2021 Jul;17(3):676-687

Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China; Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Key Laboratory of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Diagnosis and Therapy; Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: The purpose of our meta-analysis is to clarify whether the biomarker of programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) could predict the treatment efficacy and prognosis of programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients.

Materials And Methods: We performed the article search in four main online databases. The search deadline was September 8, 2020. Read More

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CD11bCTLA4 myeloid cells are a key driver of tumor evasion in colorectal cancer.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Jul;9(7)

Department of Immune Medicine, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan

Background: Tumor metastasis is the major cause of death of colorectal cancer (CRC), and metastatic CRC remains incurable in many cases despite great advances in genetic and molecular profiling, and clinical development of numerous drugs, including immune checkpoint inhibitors. Thus, more effective treatments are urgently needed for the patients in clinical settings.

Methods: We used mouse CRC metastasis models that murine Colon26 cells were subcutaneously and intravenously implanted and attempted to elucidate the tumor biological and immunological mechanisms underlying cancer metastasis. Read More

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Seeing stars: Development and function of retinal astrocytes.

Dev Biol 2021 Jul 11;478:144-154. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Departments of Neurobiology, Ophthalmology, and Cell Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, 27710, USA. Electronic address:

Throughout the central nervous system, astrocytes adopt precisely ordered spatial arrangements of their somata and arbors, which facilitate their many important functions. Astrocyte pattern formation is particularly important in the retina, where astrocytes serve as a template that dictates the pattern of developing retinal vasculature. Thus, if astrocyte patterning is disturbed, there are severe consequences for retinal angiogenesis and ultimately for vision - as seen in diseases such as retinopathy of prematurity. Read More

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HTLV-1 associated acute adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia presenting as acute liver failure in Micronesian: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jul;100(28):e26236

University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Department of Medicine Honolulu, Hawaii.

Rationale: Malignant infiltration accounts for 0.5% of acute liver failure cases, with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma the predominant cause. Adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia (ATLL) is a rarer source of acute hepatitis, with only 3 cases reported and all resulting in immediate deterioration with death. Read More

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Failure to rescue: variation in mortality after cardiac surgery.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Objectives: Measures to prevent surgical complications are critical components of optimal patient care, and adequate management when complications occur is equally crucial in efforts to reduce mortality. This study aims to elucidate clinical realities underlying in-hospital variations in failure to rescue (FTR) after cardiac surgery.

Methods: Using a statewide database for a quality improvement program, we identified 62 450 patients who had undergone adult cardiac surgery between 2011 and 2018 in 1 of the 33 Michigan hospitals performing adult cardiac surgery. Read More

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Atherogenic Dyslipidemia on Admission Is Associated With Poorer Outcome in People With and Without Diabetes Hospitalized for COVID-19.

Diabetes Care 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

Objective: Identifying metabolic factors associated with critical disease can help to improve management of patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). High triglycerides and low HDL levels characterize the atherogenic dyslipidemia closely related to insulin resistance and diabetes. We examined associations of atherogenic dyslipidemia detected on admission with outcome of COVID-19 during hospitalization. Read More

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