42 results match your criteria dcx parameters


Semi-Automated Cell and Tissue Analyses Reveal Regionally Specific Morphological Alterations of Immune and Neural Cells in a Porcine Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model of Stroke.

Front Cell Neurosci 2020 22;14:600441. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Regenerative Bioscience Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States.

Histopathological analysis of cellular changes in the stroked brain provides critical information pertaining to inflammation, cell death, glial scarring, and other dynamic injury and recovery responses. However, commonly used manual approaches are hindered by limitations in speed, accuracy, bias, and the breadth of morphological information that can be obtained. Here, a semi-automated high-content imaging (HCI) and CellProfiler histological analysis method was developed and used in a Yucatan miniature pig permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) model of ischemic stroke to overcome these limitations. Read More

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January 2021

Gold liposomes for brain-targeted drug delivery: Formulation and brain distribution kinetics.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jan 20;120:111652. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi 221005, India. Electronic address:

This work was aimed to formulate transferrin (Tf) receptor targeted gold based theranostic liposomes which contain both docetaxel (DCX) and glutathione reduced gold nanoparticles (AuGSH) for brain-targeted drug delivery and imaging. AuGSH was prepared by reducing chloroauric acid salt using glutathione. The co-loading of DCX and AuGSH into liposomes was achieved by the solvent injection technique, and Tf was post-conjugated on the surface of the liposomes using carboxylated Vit-E TPGS (TPGS-COOH) as a linker. Read More

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January 2021

Behavioral and neurological improvement by Cydonia oblonga fruit extract in chronic immobilization stress rats.

Phytother Res 2021 Apr 17;35(4):2074-2084. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Showa University, Shinagawa-ku, Japan.

It is known that chronic stress is a contributing factor to several physical and mental diseases. In this study, we examined the effect of hydroethanolic extract of Cydonia oblonga fruit (HECO, 300 mg/kg) in chronically immobilized rats on physiological and behavioral parameters by the open field test (OFT), sucrose preference test (SPT), and forced swimming test (FST) and on neurological alterations by analysis of the hippocampal neurogenesis. A daily 6 hr exposure to chronic immobilization stress (CIS) for 21 consecutive days induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in rats' concomitant with decreased weight gain and increased plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels, rats also showed atrophy in the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus and a decreased number of Ki67 and DCX positive cells in the dentate gyrus (DG). Read More

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Attenuation of neurobehavioural abnormalities by papaverine in prenatal valproic acid rat model of ASD.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jan 27;890:173663. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Pharmacology, Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; CNS and CVS Pharmacology, Conscience Research, Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with complex aetiology and phenotypes. Phosphodiesterase-10A (PDE10A) inhibition has shown to provide benefits in various brain conditions. We investigated the role of a PDE10A inhibitor, papaverine on core phenotypes in prenatal-valproic acid (Pre-VPA) model of ASD. Read More

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January 2021

Increased Expression of Y-Encoded Demethylases During Differentiation of Human Male Neural Stem Cells.

Stem Cells Dev 2020 12 5;29(23):1497-1509. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Organismal Biology, EBC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Human neural stem cells (hNSCs) have long been used as an in vitro model to study neurogenesis and as candidates for nervous system therapy. Many parameters have been considered when evaluating the success of transplantation, but sex of donor and recipients is often not discussed. We investigated two commercial NSC lines, the female hNSC-H9 and male hNSC-H14, and we observed faster growth rates in the male cells. Read More

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December 2020

Dim Light at Night Induced Neurodegeneration and Ameliorative Effect of Curcumin.

Cells 2020 09 13;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 13.

Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida UP 201303, India.

It is a well-known fact that following a proper routine light/dark or diurnal rhythm controls almost all biological processes. With the introduction of modern lighting and artificial illumination systems, continuous exposure to light at night may lead to the disruption of diurnal rhythm. However, the effect of light during the night on brain anatomy, physiology, and human body functions is less explored and poorly understood. Read More

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September 2020

Chronic Bumetanide Infusion Alters Young Neuron Morphology in the Dentate Gyrus Without Affecting Contextual Fear Memory.

Front Neurosci 2020 21;14:514. Epub 2020 May 21.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.

Young neurons in the adult brain are key to some types of learning and memory. They integrate in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus contributing to such cognitive processes following timely developmental events. While experimentally impairing GABAergic transmission through the blockade or elimination of the ionic cotransporter NKCC1 leads to alterations in the proper maturation of young neurons, it is still unknown if the administration of common use diuretic drugs that block the cotransporter, alters the development of young hippocampal neurons and affects DG-related functions. Read More

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Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Exchange Therapy with Artificial CSF Enriched with Mesenchymal Stem Cell Secretions Ameliorates Cognitive Deficits and Brain Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Mice.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;76(1):369-385

The Department of Neurology, The Agnes Ginges Center for Human Neurogenetics, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Background: The high complexity of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the lack of effective treatments point to the need for a broader therapeutic approach to target multiple components involved in the disease pathogenesis.

Objective: To test the efficacy of 'cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exchange therapy' in AD-mice. This novel therapeutic approach we recently proposed is based on the exchange of the endogenous pathogenic CSF with a new and healthy one by drainage of the endogenous CSF and its continuous replacement with artificial CSF (aCSF) enriched with secretions from human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Read More

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Cell proliferation and neurogenesis alterations in Alzheimer's disease and diabetes mellitus mixed murine models.

J Neurochem 2020 09 9;154(6):673-692. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Division of Physiology. School of Medicine, Edificio Andrés Segovia. C/Dr. Marañón 3, 3er piso, (11002) Cadiz. Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz, Spain.

The classic neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are accompanied by other complications, including alterations in adult cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Moreover recent studies have shown that traditional markers of the neurogenic process, such as doublecortin (DCX), may also be expressed in CD8 T cells and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1 ) microglia, in the close proximity to senile plaques, increasing the complexity of the condition. Altered glucose tolerance, observed in metabolic alteratioins, may accelerate the neurodegenerative process and interfere with normal adult cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Read More

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September 2020

Indices of dentate gyrus neurogenesis are unaffected immediately after or following withdrawal from morphine self-administration compared to saline self-administering control male rats.

Behav Brain Res 2020 03 20;381:112448. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Neuroscience and Mahoney Institute for Neurosciences, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Opiates - including morphine - are powerful analgesics with high abuse potential. In rodents, chronic opiate exposure or self-administration negatively impacts hippocampal-dependent function, an effect perhaps due in part to the well-documented opiate-induced inhibition of dentate gyrus (DG) precursor proliferation and neurogenesis. Recently, however, intravenous (i. Read More

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Aged Opossums Show Alterations in Spatial Learning Behavior and Reduced Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus.

Front Neurosci 2019 12;13:1210. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

In many mammalian species including opossums, adult neurogenesis, the function of which is not completely understood, declines with aging. Aging also causes impairment of cognition. To understand whether new neurons contribute to learning and memory, we performed experiments on young and aged laboratory opossums, , and examined the association between spatial memory using the Morris water maze test and the rate of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG). Read More

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November 2019

Effects of long-term exposure to aluminum in the hippocampus in the type 2 diabetes model rats.

Toxicol Res (Camb) 2019 Mar 3;8(2):206-215. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology , College of Veterinary Medicine , and Research Institute for Veterinary Science , Seoul National University , Seoul 08826 , South Korea . Email: ; ; Tel: +82 2 8801264.

We investigated the long-term effects of aluminum (Al) exposure in the hippocampus in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and Zucker lean control (ZLC) rats. Six-week-old ZLC and ZDF rats were randomly divided into Al- and non-Al-groups. They were sacrificed 27 weeks after Al exposure (2000 ppm) through drinking water. Read More

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Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Promotes Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation after Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice.

Cell Transplant 2019 05 4;28(5):568-584. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

1 Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, P. R. China.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a physical treatment applied during recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). With in vivo and in vitro assays, the present study sought to investigate how rTMS influences neural stem cells (NSCs) after ICH and the possible mechanism. Following a collagenase-induced ICH, adult male C57BL/6 J mice were subjected to rTMS treatment every 24 h for 5 days using the following parameters: frequency, 10 Hz; duration, 2 s; wait time, 5. Read More

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Quercetin promotes learning and memory performance concomitantly with neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult rat dentate gyrus.

Int J Dev Neurosci 2019 May 26;74:18-26. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Applied Cell Sciences, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The decline in neurogenesis is a very critical problem in Alzheimer disease. Different biological activities have been reported for medicinal application of quercetin. Herein, we investigated the neurogenesis potential of quercetin in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease induced by amyloid-beta injection. Read More

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Stroke Accelerates and Uncouples Intrinsic and Synaptic Excitability Maturation of Mouse Hippocampal DCX Adult-Born Granule Cells.

J Neurosci 2019 02 7;39(9):1755-1766. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Hans Berger Department of Neurology,

Stroke robustly stimulates adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. It is currently unknown whether this process induces beneficial or maladaptive effects, but morphological and behavioral studies have reported aberrant neurogenesis and impaired hippocampal-dependent memory following stroke. However, the intrinsic function and network incorporation of adult-born granule cells (ABGCs) after ischemia is unclear. Read More

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February 2019

Inhibition of Notch1 Signaling at the Subacute Stage of Stroke Promotes Endogenous Neurogenesis and Motor Recovery After Stroke.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 7;12:245. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

It is still not clear whether Notch1 signaling inhibition can promote functional outcomes after stroke, given that it plays time-dependent roles in the sequential process of endogenous neurogenesis. The purpose of this study was to identify the appropriate time frame for Notch1 signaling inhibition according to the temporal evolution of Notch1 signaling activation and the responses of neural stem cells (NSCs), in order to target it for therapeutic intervention and stimulate neurorestorative strategies after stroke. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to 90-min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Read More

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Stigmasterol upregulates immediate early genes and promotes neuronal cytoarchitecture in primary hippocampal neurons as revealed by transcriptome analysis.

Phytomedicine 2018 Jul 6;46:164-175. Epub 2018 Apr 6.

Department of Anatomy, Dongguk University Graduate School of Medicine, Gyeongju 38066, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: The hippocampus is a vulnerable brain region that is implicated in learning and memory impairment by two pathophysiological features, that is, neurite regression and synaptic dysfunction, and stigmasterol (ST), a cholesterol-equivalent phytosterol, is known to facilitate neuromodulatory effects.

Purpose: To investigate the neuromodulatory effects of ST on the development of central nervous system neurons and the molecular bases of these effects in primary hippocampal neurons.

Methods: Rat embryonic (E18-19) brain neurons were cultured in the absence or presence of ST (75 µM). Read More

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Effects of Calcium on Drinking Fluorosis-induced Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity Impairment in the Offspring of Rats.

Transl Neurosci 2017 29;8:191-200. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, China.

Objective: This study investigated the effects of calcium on fluorosis-induced impairment in learning and memory of offspring rats. Seventy-five newly weaned female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into five groups as follows: Control group (Control) drank tap water, and ate the normal diet (calcium content of 0.79%); fluoride group (F) drank 100 mg/L NaF solution, and ate the normal diet; low calcium group (LCa) drank tap water, and ate the low calcium diet (calcium content of 0. Read More

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December 2017

Ras-GRF2 regulates nestin-positive stem cell density and onset of differentiation during adult neurogenesis in the mouse dentate gyrus.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2017 12 28;85:127-147. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

Centro de Investigación del Cáncer-Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular del Cáncer (CSIC- Universidad de Salamanca) and CIBERONC, 37007 Salamanca, Spain. Electronic address:

Various parameters of neurogenesis were analyzed in parallel in the two neurogenic areas (the Dentate Gyrus[DG] and the Subventricular Zone[SVZ]/Rostral Migratory Stream[RMS]/Main Olfactory Bulb[MOB] neurogenic system) of adult WT and KO mouse strains for the Ras-GRF1/2 genes (Ras-GRF1-KO, Ras-GRF2-KO, Ras-GRF1/2-DKO). Significantly reduced numbers of doublecortin[DCX]-positive cells were specifically observed in the DG, but not the SVZ/RMS/MOB neurogenic region, of Ras-GRF2-KO and Ras-GRF1/2-DKO mice indicating that this novel Ras-GRF2-dependent phenotype is spatially restricted to a specific neurogenic area. Consistent with a role of CREB as mediator of Ras-GRF2 function in neurogenesis, the density of p-CREB-positive cells was also specifically reduced in all neurogenic regions of Ras-GRF2-KO and DKO mice. Read More

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December 2017

Association of contextual cues with morphine reward increases neural and synaptic plasticity in the ventral hippocampus of rats.

Addict Biol 2017 Nov 22;22(6):1883-1894. Epub 2017 Sep 22.

Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Drug addiction is associated with aberrant memory and permanent functional changes in neural circuits. It is known that exposure to drugs like morphine is associated with positive emotional states and reward-related memory. However, the underlying mechanisms in terms of neural plasticity in the ventral hippocampus, a region involved in associative memory and emotional behaviors, are not fully understood. Read More

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November 2017

Nestin-expressing cell types in the temporal lobe and hippocampus: Morphology, differentiation, and proliferative capacity.

Glia 2018 01 19;66(1):62-77. Epub 2017 Sep 19.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom.

Nestin is expressed in immature neuroepithelial and progenitor cell types and transiently upregulated in proliferative neuroglial cells responding to acute brain injury, including following seizures. In 36 temporal lobe (TLobe) specimens from patients with TLobe epilepsy (age range 8-60 years) we studied the number, distribution and morphology of nestin-expressing cells (NEC) in the pes, hippocampus body, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, temporal cortex and pole compared with post mortem control tissues from 26 cases (age range 12 gestational weeks to 76 years). The proliferative fraction of NEC was evaluated in selected regions, including recognized niches, using MCM2. Read More

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January 2018

Differential Effects of Low- and High-dose Zinc Supplementation on Synaptic Plasticity and Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus of Control and High-fat Diet-fed Mice.

Neurochem Res 2017 Nov 2;42(11):3149-3159. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, South Korea.

In the present study, we investigated the concentration-dependent effect of zinc (Zn) supplementation on the adult hippocampus in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mouse model. Four-weeks after HFD- and control diet (CD)-feeding, mice were provided with low (15 ppm) or high (60 ppm) doses of Zn in their drinking water for additional 4 more weeks along with their respective diets. Compared to the CD-fed mice, HFD-feeding elicited the reduction of neurogenic markers such as nestin, Ki67, doublecortin (DCX), and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in the dentate gyrus. Read More

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November 2017

Advanced structural multimodal imaging of a patient with subcortical band heterotopia.

Epilepsia Open 2016 Dec 3;1(3-4):152-155. Epub 2016 Oct 3.

Department of Neurology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, 3 West Gates Bldg., Philadelphia PA 19104, U.S.A.

Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) is a disorder of neuronal migration most commonly due to mutations of the gene. A range of phenotypes is seen, with most patients having some degree of epilepsy and intellectual disability. Advanced diffusion and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences may be useful in identifying heterotopias and dysplasias of different sizes in drug-resistant epilepsy. Read More

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December 2016

Selective Oestrogen Receptor Agonists Rescued Hippocampus Parameters in Male Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

J Neuroendocrinol 2016 10;28(10)

Laboratory of Neuroendocrine Biochemistry, Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) show pronounced hippocampus alterations, including low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, reduced neurogenesis, astrogliosis and increased aromatase expression. These changes are reverted by treatment with 17β-oestradiol. To determine which oestradiol receptor (ER) type is involved in these neuroprotective effects, we used agonists of the ERα [propylpyrazole triol (PPT)] and the ERβ [diarylpropionitrite (DPN)] given over 2 weeks to 4-month-old male SHR. Read More

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October 2016

Immunohistochemistry of aberrant neuronal development induced by 6-propyl-2-thiouracil in rats.

Toxicol Lett 2016 Nov 21;261:59-71. Epub 2016 Aug 21.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan. Electronic address:

6-Propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism disrupts neuronal/glial development. This study sought to identify the sensitive immunohistochemical parameters of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) following PTU-exposure, as well as their responses in a 28-day toxicity study in adults. In the developmental exposure study, pregnant rats were treated with 0, 1, 3, and 10ppm PTU in drinking water from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21 and pups were examined on PNDs 21 and 77. Read More

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November 2016

The circadecadal rhythm of oscillation of umbilical cord blood parameters correlates with geomagnetic activity - An analysis of long-term measurements (1999-2011).

Chronobiol Int 2016 13;33(9):1136-1147. Epub 2016 Jul 13.

f Department of Medical Sciences, Division of Internal Medicine and Chronobiology Unit , IRCCS "Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza" , S. Giovanni Rotondo (FG) , Italy.

Recently, we have shown that the contents of total nucleated cells (TNCs) and CD34 hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (CD34 HSPCs) as well as the cord blood volume (CBV) in umbilical cord blood (UCB) show a circadecadal (~10 years) rhythm of oscillation. This observation was based on an analysis of 17,936 cord blood donations collected during 1999-2011. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this circadecadal rhythm of oscillation in TNCs, CD34 HSPCs and CBV is related to geomagnetic activity. Read More

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January 2018

Maternal exposure to ochratoxin A targets intermediate progenitor cells of hippocampal neurogenesis in rat offspring via cholinergic signal downregulation and oxidative stress responses.

Reprod Toxicol 2016 10 23;65:113-122. Epub 2016 Jun 23.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan. Electronic address:

To elucidate the developmental exposure effects of ochratoxin A (OTA) on postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis, pregnant SD rats were provided a diet containing 0, 0.12, 0.6, or 3. Read More

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October 2016

Neurobiological changes by cytotoxic agents in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2016 Feb 18;299:19-26. Epub 2015 Nov 18.

Department of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Cognitive deficit is a frequently reported side-effect of adjuvant chemotherapy. A large number of animal studies has been performed to examine the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, however, definite conclusions from these studies are restricted due to differences in experimental set-up. We systematically investigated the effects of 6 cytotoxic agents on various neurobiological parameters. Read More

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February 2016

The Impact of Chronic Early Administration of Psychostimulants on Brain Expression of BDNF and Other Neuroplasticity-Relevant Proteins.

J Mol Neurosci 2015 Oct 8;57(2):231-42. Epub 2015 Jul 8.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, 69978, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Absract: Frequently, healthy individuals, children, and students are using stimulants to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms or to enhance cognitive capacity, attention and concentration. Methylphenidate, the most common treatment for ADHD, similarly to cocaine, blocks the dopamine reuptake, leading to increase in dopamine level in the synaptic cleft. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and other neuroplasticity-relevant proteins have a major role in cellular plasticity during development and maturation of the brain. Read More

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October 2015

Aging increases microglial proliferation, delays cell migration, and decreases cortical neurogenesis after focal cerebral ischemia.

J Neuroinflammation 2015 May 10;12:87. Epub 2015 May 10.

Unidad de Investigación Neurovascular, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Aging is not just a risk factor of stroke, but it has also been associated with poor recovery. It is known that stroke-induced neurogenesis is reduced but maintained in the aged brain. However, there is no consensus on how neurogenesis is affected after stroke in aged animals. Read More

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