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Intermediate vs Standard-dose Prophylactic Anticoagulation in Patients with COVID-19 Admitted to ICU: Ninety-day Results from the INSPIRATION Trial.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Tehran, Iran (the Islamic Republic of).

Background: Thrombotic complications are considered among the main extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. The optimal type and duration of prophylactic antithrombotic therapy in these patients remain unknown.

Methods: This manuscript reports the final (90-day) results of the Intermediate versus Standard-dose Prophylactic anticoagulation In cRitically-ill pATIents with COVID-19: An opeN label randomized controlled trial (INSPIRATION) study. Read More

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Safety of a Protective Funnel in Primary Breast Augmentation: A Retrospective Analysis of 380 Multicenter Cases in the United States.

Aesthet Surg J 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Background: Protective funnels devices are commonly used to deliver implants in primary breast augmentation (BA) yet there is a paucity of evidence-based data describing their safety in the literature.

Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the safety of protective funnels in primary BA within the first 30-days postoperatively.

Methods: This multi-center, Level 3 study retrospectively reviewed the surgical records of 380 consecutive patients (760 breasts) who underwent primary BA by nine board-certified plastic surgeons using the iNPLANT Funnel (Proximate Concepts LLC, Allendale, NJ, USA) for implant delivery between November 2019 and December 2020. Read More

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Acute kidney injury caused by ammonium acid urate crystals in diabetic ketoacidosis at the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2021 Feb 26;2021. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Endocrinology, Chiba Children's Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

Summary: Ammonium acid urate (AAU) crystals are rare in industrialized countries. Furthermore, the number of children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) who develop severe acute kidney injury (AKI) after hospitalization is small. We encountered two patients with AKI caused by AAU crystals during the recovery phase of DKA upon admission. Read More

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February 2021

Effect of chronic binge-like ethanol consumption on subsequent cocaine reinforcement in rhesus monkeys.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Apr 10;223:108707. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Although most individuals with cocaine use disorder also abuse alcohol, little is known about the behavioral and pharmacological mechanisms that promote co-abuse. For example, it is unclear whether prior experience with alcohol renders individuals more sensitive to cocaine when it is subsequently experienced.

Methods: This study examined the effects of chronic ethanol consumption on subsequent cocaine reinforcement in rhesus monkeys. Read More

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Late-onset and long-lasting immune-related adverse events from immune checkpoint-inhibitors: An overlooked aspect in immunotherapy.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Apr 14;149:153-164. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Oncology, Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland; Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionised cancer therapy but frequently cause immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Description of late-onset and duration of irAEs in the literature is often incomplete.

Methods: To investigate reporting and incidence of late-onset and long-lasting irAEs, we reviewed all registration trials leading to ICI's approval by the US FDA and/or EMA up to December 2019. Read More

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Rare earth real wastewater treatment by pilot scale using new concept continuous treatment process.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 12;279:130523. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Rare earth (RE) containing radioactive species and a variety of toxic pollutants The treatment of real wastewater is very important for environmental protection. In this study, a new concept of continuous process consisting of precipitation, adsorption, and oxidation was developed without the use of chemicals. In the sedimentation step, waste oyster shell(WOS) and a PE tube diffuser(PE250) containing NaS (PE), PE were prepared, which were used to precipitate heavy metals with a removal efficiency of 97% or more. Read More

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis-stimulated whole blood culture to detect host biosignatures for tuberculosis treatment response.

Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2021 Apr 10;128:102082. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

DSI-NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Host markers to monitor the response to tuberculosis (TB) therapy hold some promise. We evaluated the changes in concentration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb)-induced soluble biomarkers during early treatment for predicting short- and long-term treatment outcomes. Read More

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Decreased quality of life and spirometric alterations even after mild-moderate COVID-19.

Respir Med 2021 Apr 14;181:106391. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital General de Zona No.27 Del Instituto Mexicano Del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

Background: The follow-up of recovered COVID-19 patients is still limited. We aimed to evaluate the changes in quality-of-life (QOL) and spirometric alterations in the convalescent phase of 115 patients with at least 30 days post-COVID-19.

Methods: We included patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, available past medical records and at least 30 days after the onset of symptoms. Read More

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Stimulation of sewage sludge treatment by carbon sources and bioaugmentation with a sludge-derived microbial consortium.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 9;783:146989. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Microbiology & Biotechnology, University of Latvia, 1 Jelgavas Str., Riga LV-1004, Latvia. Electronic address:

Recently, sewage sludge (SS) disposal has become one of the greatest global challenges. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of faba bean straw (Straw-B), wheat straw (Straw-W), and wood-chip pellets (WCP) amended to SS, as well as bioaugmentation (BA), on the physicochemical characteristics and structure of the microbial community of the treated SS. Sixteen days of incubation of SS-containing mixtures revealed the highest efficiency of Straw-W(BA) in terms of SS stabilisation, i. Read More

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The effect of warm salt water foot bath on the management of chemotherapy-induced fatigue.

Eur J Oncol Nurs 2021 Apr 3;52:101954. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing, Department of Internal Medical Nursing, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

Purpose: Several studies have shown that the warm water bath can be a beneficial approach in the management of fatigue. This experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effect of warm salt water foot bath in the management of chemotherapy-induced fatigue.

Methods: This randomized controlled trial was perfomed between November 2017-February 2018. Read More

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Prediction of minimum postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) based on eukaryotic community succession on skeletal remains recovered from a lentic environment.

Forensic Sci Int 2021 Apr 14;323:110784. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Forensic Science, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, United States. Electronic address:

Although recent studies explored using microbial succession during decomposition to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) and postmortem submersion interval (PMSI), there is currently no published research using aquatic eukaryotic community succession to estimate the minimum postmortem submersion interval (PMSI). The goals of this study were to determine whether eukaryotic community succession occurs on porcine skeletal remains in a lentic environment, and, if so, to develop a statistical model for PMSI prediction. Fresh porcine bones (rib N = 100, scapula N = 100) were placed in cages (10'' x 10'') attached to floatation devices and submerged in a fresh water lake (Crozet, VA), using waterproof loggers and a YSI Sonde to record temperature and water quality variables, respectively. Read More

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Safety of surgical fertility preservation procedures in children prior to Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of Pediatric Oncology, Dana Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Harvard University Medical School, Boston, MA.

Background: Long-term survival following hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) in childhood continues to improve and patients are thus increasingly faced with the late effects of treatment. Infertility is very common for both males and females following HSCT and is one of the most distressing sequelae. Adoption and surrogate egg or sperm donation are possibilities for some patients but post-HSCT reversal of gonadal failure is not possible. Read More

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Effective HPV vaccination coverage in Australia by number of doses and two-dose spacing: what if one or two doses are sufficient?

Tumour Virus Res 2021 Apr 14:200216. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

VCS Population Health, VCS Foundation, Melbourne, Australia; Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Initially, three-dose schedules were recommended for vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV); subsequently recommendations have been updated to a schedule of two doses delivered at least six (minimum five) months apart for those aged <15 years at dose 1. We aimed to re-estimate effective HPV vaccination coverage in Australia, considering reduced-dose schedules and possible one-dose effectiveness. We also aimed to identify which of the three school visits was most commonly missed amongst two-dose only recipients, to inform optimal timing of visits. Read More

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Special issue "Implications of oxidative stress and redox biochemistry for heart disease and cardioprotection" Takotsubo Syndrome: Impact of Endothelial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Takotsubo Syndrome (TTS) is characterized by a transient left ventricular dysfunction recovering spontaneously within days or weeks. Although the pathophysiology of TTS remains obscure, there is growing evidence suggesting TTS to be associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may be involved in causing transient coronary and peripheral endothelial dysfunction leading to a transient impairment of myocardial contraction due to stunning (apical ballooning). Endothelial dysfunction is mainly caused by decreased vascular and myocardial nitric oxide bioavailability in response to increased ROS production. Read More

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Comparison of different prognostic scores for patients with cirrhosis hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Ann Hepatol 2021 Apr 14:100350. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Hepatology and Liver Transplant Unit, Hospital Universitario Austral, Pilar, Argentina; Latin American Liver Research Educational and Awareness Network (LALREAN), Argentina; Instituto de Efectividad Clínica y Sanitaria, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Introduction And Objectives: Viral infections have been described to increase the risk of decompensation in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to determine the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on outcome of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and to compare the performance of different prognostic models for predicting mortality.

Patients: We performed a prospective cohort study including 2211 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from April 15, 2020 through October 1, 2020 in 38 Hospitals from 11 Latin American countries. Read More

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THE EFFECT OF ERYTHROPOIETIN AND UMBILICAL CORD-DERIVED MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS ON NERVE REGENERATION IN RATS WITH SCIATIC NERVE INJURY.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 Apr 14:101958. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Erciyes University, Faculty of Medicine, 38039, Kayseri, Turkey. Electronic address:

Objective: We aimed to investigate the effects of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells and erythropoietin on nerve regeneration in the sciatic nerve 'crush injury' in a rat model.

Methods: Experimental animals were randomly divided into 5 groups: Crush Injury, Sham, Crush Injury + Erythropoietin, Crush Injury + Mesenchymal Stem Cell, Crush Injury + Erythropoietin + Mesenchymal Stem Cell groups. Crush injury made with bulldog clamp. Read More

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The economic burden of diarrhea in children under five years in Bangladesh.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b).

Background: Diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the under-five children in Bangladesh. Hospitalization for diarrhea can pose a significant burden to the households and health-systems. We aim to estimate the cost-of-illness due to diarrhea from the healthcare facility, caregiver, and societal perspectives in Bangladesh. Read More

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Abnormal Development of Cerebral Arteries and Veins in Offspring of Experimentally Preeclamptic Rats: Potential Role in Perinatal Stroke.

Mech Ageing Dev 2021 Apr 14:111491. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Vermont Larner College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA; Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, University of Vermont Larner College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA; Department of Pharmacology, University of Vermont Larner College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA.

Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, complicates up to 10% of all pregnancies and increases the risk for perinatal stroke in offspring. The mechanism of this increase is unknown, but may involve vascular dysfunction. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of experimental preeclampsia (ePE) on cerebrovascular function in offspring to eludciate a possible mechanism for this association. Read More

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Maternal apical periodontitis increases insulin resistance and modulates the antioxidant defense system in gastrocnemius muscle of adult offspring.

J Endod 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Basic Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Dentistry, Araçatuba, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação Multicêntrico em Ciências Fisiológicas/SBFis, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Dentistry, Araçatuba, Brazil.

Introduction: Maternal apical periodontitis (AP) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) in adult offspring. Oxidative stress has been linked to IR. This study investigated insulin sensitivity (IS) and oxidative stress in the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) of adult offspring of rats with AP. Read More

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Binge sucrose-induced neuroadaptations: A focus on the endocannabinoid system.

Appetite 2021 Apr 14:105258. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Université de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives et Adaptatives (LNCA), Centre de La Recherche Nationale Scientifique, 12 Rue Goethe, F-67000, Strasbourg France. Electronic address:

Binge eating, the defining feature of binge eating disorder (BED), is associated with a number of adverse health outcomes as well as a reduced quality of life. Animals, like humans, selectively binge on highly palatable food suggesting that the behaviour is driven by hedonic, rather than metabolic, signals. Given the links to both reward processing and food intake, this study examined the contribution of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) to binge-like eating in rats. Read More

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Increasing Readiness for Early Integrated Palliative Oncology Care: Development and Initial Evaluation of the EMPOWER 2 Intervention.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Tulane University; University Medical Center New Orleans. Electronic address:

Context: Early integrated palliative care improves quality of life, but palliative care programs are underutilized. Psychoeducational interventions explaining palliative care may increase patients' readiness for palliative care.

Objectives: To (1) collaborate with stakeholders to develop the EMPOWER 2 intervention explaining palliative care, (2) examine acceptability, (3) evaluate feasibility and preliminary efficacy. Read More

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Nutritional value and sensory properties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fillets enriched with sustainable and natural feed ingredients.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Apr 14:112197. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of Aquaculture, Seafood Upgrading and Bioprospection. Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere (IPMA), Lisboa, Portugal.

Declines across global fishery stocks forced aquaculture feed manufacturers to search for new and sustainable components. Therefore, the aim of study was assessing nutritional value and sensory properties of meat of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fed for 116 days with two blends. Read More

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Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congener 180 (PCB 180) Regulates Mitotic Clonal Expansion and Enhances Adipogenesis through Modulation of C/EBPβ SUMOylation in Preadipocytes.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Apr 14:112205. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Eco-Toxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. Electronic address:

PCB 180 is a typical non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB). It is one of the most prevalent PCB-congeners found in human adipose tissue. However, the role of PCB 180 in obesity remains poorly understood. Read More

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A morphovolumetric analysis of aneurysm sac evolution after elective endovascular abdominal aortic repair.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Objectives: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac shrinkage after endovascular repair (EVAR) has been regarded as positive marker of EVAR success durability. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphovolumetric changes of the AAA sac during follow-up after elective EVAR, and to analyze sac shrinkage related variables.

Methods: This is a single center, retrospective, observational cohort study from a tertiary referral university hospital. Read More

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Modulation of autophagy and transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 channels by montelukast in a rat model of hemorrhagic cystitis.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 14:119507. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Aims: Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a major urotoxic complication of cyclophosphamide (CPA) therapy. This study investigated the uroprotective effect of montelukast on CPA-induced HC, compared to the efficacy of 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate sodium (MESNA).

Main Methods: Male albino rats were pretreated with MESNA (40 mg/kg/day, IP) or montelukast (10 mg/kg/day, orally) for three days then received a single dose of CPA (200 mg/kg, IP), 1 h after the last dose, and compared to CPA-treated rats receiving drug vehicle. Read More

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Association of Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 R561H genotypes with delayed parasite clearance in Rwanda: an open-label, single-arm, multicentre, therapeutic efficacy study.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Malaria Branch, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States; US President's Malaria Initiative, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kigali, Rwanda. Electronic address:

Background: Partial artemisinin resistance is suspected if delayed parasite clearance (ie, persistence of parasitaemia on day 3 after treatment initiation) is observed. Validated markers of artemisinin partial resistance in southeast Asia, Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 (Pfkelch13) R561H and P574L, have been reported in Rwanda but no association with parasite clearance has been observed. We aimed to establish the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine and genetic characterisation of Pfkelch13 alleles and their association with treatment outcomes. Read More

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Temporal trends and patient characteristics associated with 30-day hospital readmission rates after a first acute myocardial infarction.

Am J Med 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Meyers Primary Care Institute, Worcester, MA 01655; Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, 01655.

Background: Limited data exists about relatively recent trends in the magnitude and characteristics of patients who are re-hospitalized after hospital admission for an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study examined trends in the frequency and socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients readmitted to the hospital within 30 days after an initial acute myocardial infarction.

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 3,116 individuals who were hospitalized for a validated first acute myocardial infarction in six study periods between 2003 and 2015 at the three major medical centers in central Massachusetts. Read More

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Neonates with Right Aortic Arch Requiring Arch Reconstruction: A Single-Institution Experience.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Background: Reconstruction of a right aortic arch (RAA) is rarely required in the newborn period and has rarely been reported.

Methods: All patients who underwent a RAA repair in the neonatal period from a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome measures included survival, complications, and reintervention. Read More

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Risk Factors for Perioperative Morbidity in Adults Undergoing Cardiac Surgery at Children's Hospitals.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Increasing numbers of adult with congenital heart disease (ACHD) undergo cardiac surgery in children's hospitals, yet surgical outcomes data are limited. We sought to better understand the impact of preoperative risk factors on postoperative complications and cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) length of stay (LOS).

Methods: Surgical CICU admissions for patients > 18 years in the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium registry (8/2014-1/2019; 34 hospitals) were included. Read More

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Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the respiratory syncytial virus prefusion F subunit vaccine DS-Cav1: a phase 1, randomised, open-label, dose-escalation clinical trial.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Multiple active vaccination approaches have proven ineffective in reducing the substantial morbidity and mortality caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in infants and older adults (aged ≥65 years). A vaccine conferring a substantial and sustainable boost in neutralising activity is required to protect against severe RSV disease. To that end, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of DS-Cav1, a prefusion F subunit vaccine. Read More

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