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Trifluoromethyl derivatives of pentagon-fused C: C(CF) ( = 10, 12, 14, 16).

Dalton Trans 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Leninskie gory, Russia.

The carbon cage of buckminsterfullerene Ih-C60, obeying the Isolated-Pentagon Rule (IPR), can be transformed to the non-IPR C2v-1809C60 cage by a single Stone-Wales rearrangement (SWR) in the course of high-temperature chlorination of C60 with SbCl5. The following high-temperature trifluoromethylation of the chlorination products with CF3I afforded non-IPR CF3 derivatives, 1809C60(CF3)n. X-ray diffraction studies of 1809C60(CF3)n (n = 10, 12, 14, 16) revealed that the sites of pentagon-pentagon fusions on the carbon cage are preferentially occupied by CF3 groups. Read More

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The use of multiplexing to identify cytokine and chemokine networks in the immune-inflammatory response to trauma.

Antioxid Redox Signal 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States;

Significance: The immune-inflammatory responses that follow trauma contribute to clinical trajectory and patient outcomes. While remarkable advances have been made in trauma services and injury management, clarity on how the immune system in humans responds to trauma is lagging behind. Recent Advances : Multiplexing platforms have transformed our ability to analyze comprehensive immune mediator responses in human trauma. Read More

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Mapping PedsQL™ Generic Core Scales to EQ-5D-3L utility scores in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients.

Eur J Health Econ 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

Purpose: To develop a mapping algorithm for generating EQ-5D-3L utility scores from the PedsQL Generic Core Scales (PedsQL GCS) in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT).

Methods: The algorithm was developed using data from 345 TDT patients. Spearman's rank correlation was used to evaluate the conceptual overlap between the instruments. Read More

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Optimal inflammatory bowel disease management during the global coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Digestive Diseases Institute, Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, Digestive Diseases and Surgery Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio University of Chicago Medicine Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Chicago, Illinois Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review aims to summarize the current evidence regarding the risks and implications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and discuss optimal management of IBD during this pandemic.

Recent Findings: Patients with IBD are not at increased risk of COVID-19 but several risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 infection) have been identified, such as active IBD, obesity, and corticosteroid use. COVID-19 outcomes are similar among patients with IBD and the overall population. Read More

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Phase relations and thermoelasticity of magnesium silicide at high pressure and temperature.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(14):144701

Department of Materials Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan.

Within the exploration of sustainable and functional materials, narrow bandgap magnesium silicide semiconductors have gained growing interest. Intriguingly, squeezing silicides to extreme pressures and exposing them to non-ambient temperatures proves fruitful to study the structural behavior, tune the electronic structure, or discover novel phases. Herein, structural changes and thermoelastic characteristics of magnesium silicides were probed with synchrotron x-ray diffraction techniques using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell and large volume press at high pressure and temperature and temperature-dependent synchrotron powder diffraction. Read More

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Transformation of TiO (nano)particles during sewage sludge incineration.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 5;411:124932. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Titanium dioxide (TiO) (nano)particles are produced in large quantities and their potential impacts on ecosystems warrants investigations into their fate after disposal. TiO particles released into wastewater are retained by wastewater treatment plants and accumulate in digested sludge, which is increasingly incinerated in industrialized countries. Therefore, we investigated the changes of the Ti-speciation during incineration of as-received sludge and of sludge spiked with anatase (d=20-50 nm) or rutile (d=200-400 nm) using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Read More

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A Novel Formulation of Trace Ratio Linear Discriminant Analysis.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Apr 15;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

The linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method needs to be transformed into another form to acquire an approximate closed-form solution, which could lead to the error between the approximate solution and the true value. Furthermore, the sensitivity of dimensionality reduction (DR) methods to subspace dimensionality cannot be eliminated. In this article, a new formulation of trace ratio LDA (TRLDA) is proposed, which has an optimal solution of LDA. Read More

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NAFLD-Associated HCC: Progress and Opportunities.

J Hepatocell Carcinoma 2021 8;8:223-239. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Due to an increase in the obesity-associated metabolic syndrome of epidemic proportions, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in western countries. This presents added challenges, as NAFLD-associated HCC tends to present at an advanced stage in older patients with co-morbidities. Their prognosis is generally poor with the benefits of standard therapies less certain. Read More

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Random intercept and linear mixed models including heteroscedasticity in a logarithmic scale: Correction terms and prediction in the original scale.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(4):e0249910. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Departamento de Matemáticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, Mexico.

Random intercept models are linear mixed models (LMM) including error and intercept random effects. Sometimes heteroscedasticity is included and the response variable is transformed into a logarithmic scale, while inference is required in the original scale; thus, the response variable has a log-normal distribution. Hence, correction terms should be included to predict the response in the original scale. Read More

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Prototype-Based Multisource Domain Adaptation.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Apr 14;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Unsupervised domain adaptation aims to transfer knowledge from labeled source domain to unlabeled target domain. Recently, multisource domain adaptation (MDA) has begun to attract attention. Its performance should go beyond simply mixing all source domains together for knowledge transfer. Read More

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Assessing Indoor Dust Interference with Human Nuclear Hormone Receptors in Cell-Based Luciferase Reporter Assays.

Environ Health Perspect 2021 Apr 14;129(4):47010. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), organophosphate esters (OPEs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are hormone-disrupting chemicals that migrate from building materials into air and dust.

Objectives: We aimed to quantify the hormonal activities of 46 dust samples and identify chemicals driving the observed activities.

Methods: We evaluated associations between hormonal activities of extracted dust in five cell-based luciferase reporter assays and dust concentrations of 42 measured PFAS, OPEs, and PBDEs, transformed as either raw or potency-weighted concentrations based on Tox21 high-throughput screening data. Read More

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Mobile application for monitoring behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in patients with moderate to severe dementia.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Brain and Mind Wellness Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Aim: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common in patients with moderate-severe dementia and have negative impacts on both patients and caregivers. There is a lack of a tool for caregivers to monitor patients' BPSD by themselves. This study aimed to develop and validate a mobile application for caregivers to use in monitoring BPSD. Read More

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Jaya Ant lion optimization-driven Deep recurrent neural network for cancer classification using gene expression data.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, GMR Institute of Technology, GMR Nagar, Razam, Andhra Pradesh, 532127, India.

Cancer is one of the deadly diseases prevailing worldwide and the patients with cancer are rescued only when the cancer is detected at the very early stage. Early detection of cancer is essential as, in the final stage, the chance of survival is limited. The symptoms of cancers are rigorous and therefore, all the symptoms should be studied properly before the diagnosis. Read More

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In vivo FRET-FLIM reveals ER-specific increases in the ABA level upon environmental stresses.

Plant Physiol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Design for Plant Cell Factory of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Department of Biology, School of Life Science, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is essential for regulating plant growth and various stress responses. ABA-mediated signaling depends on local ABA levels rather than overall cellular ABA concentration. Whereas cellular concentration of ABA can be detected using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based ABA probes, direct imaging of subcellular ABA levels remains unsolved. Read More

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Dnmt3a deficiency in the skin causes focal, canonical DNA hypomethylation and a cellular proliferation phenotype.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Section of Stem Cell Biology, Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110

DNA hypomethylation is a feature of epidermal cells from aged and sun-exposed skin, but the mechanisms responsible for this methylation loss are not known. Dnmt3a is the dominant de novo DNA methyltransferase in the skin; while epidermal Dnmt3a deficiency creates a premalignant state in which keratinocytes are more easily transformed by topical mutagens, the conditions responsible for this increased susceptibility to transformation are not well understood. Using whole genome bisulfite sequencing, we identified a focal, canonical DNA hypomethylation phenotype in the epidermal cells of Dnmt3a-deficient mice. Read More

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Evolution of surgical management for phaeochromocytoma over a 17-year period: an Australian perspective.

ANZ J Surg 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of General Surgery, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Minimally invasive adrenalectomy and advances in anaesthetic techniques have transformed surgery for phaeochromocytoma. This 17-year review describes the evolution of phaeochromocytoma care in our unit.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort review of all patients who underwent adrenalectomy for phaeochromocytoma from 2000 to 2016. Read More

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Plasma Biomarkers of Risk of Tuberculosis Recurrence in HIV Co-Infected Patients From South Africa.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:631094. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), Durban, South Africa.

There is an urgent need to identify immunological markers of tuberculosis (TB) risk in HIV co-infected individuals. Previously we have shown that TB recurrence in HIV co-infected individuals on ART was associated with markers of systemic inflammation (IL-6, IL1β and IL-1Rα). Here we examined the effect of additional acute inflammation and microbial translocation marker expression on risk of TB recurrence. Read More

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Single Versus Multi-channel Dispersion Analysis of Ultrasonic Guided Waves Propagating in Long Bones.

Ultrason Imaging 2021 Apr 12:1617346211006660. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Electronic Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Ultrasonic guided wave techniques have been applied to characterize cortical bone for osteoporosis assessment. Compared with the current gold-standard X-ray-based diagnostic methods, ultrasound-based techniques pose some advantages such as compactness, low cost, lack of ionizing radiation, and their ability to detect the mechanical properties of the cortex. Axial transmission technique with a source-receiver offset is employed to acquire the ultrasound data. Read More

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Concentrations of serum hydroxycotinine for US adult smokers aged ≥ 20 years by type of smoker.

Authors:
Ram B Jain

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

, Dacula, GA, USA.

Cross-sectional survey data (N = 3264) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2013-2018 were used to investigate how serum hydroxycotinine concentrations vary among US adult smokers aged ≥ 20 years by smoker type. Those reporting using tobacco products during the last 5 days were classified as smokers. Smokers were classified as being cigarette only smokers, cigar only smokers, cigar and cigarette smokers, dual cigarette and e-cigarette smokers, e-cigarette only smokers, smokeless tobacco only users, and all other smokers. Read More

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Quantitative risk assessment of storm surge using GIS techniques and open data: A case study of Daya Bay Zone, China.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 8;289:112514. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Marine Geological Resources/College of Marine Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074, China. Electronic address:

Storm surge is a natural disaster, often causing economic damage and loss of human life in the coastal communities. In recent decades, with more people attracted to coastal areas, the potential economic losses resulted from storm surges are increasing. Therefore, it is important to make risk assessments to identify areas at risk and design risk reduction strategies. Read More

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CDISC-compliant Clinical Trial Imaging Management System with Automatic Verification and Data Transformation: focusing on Tumor Response Assessment Data in Clinical Trials.

J Biomed Inform 2021 Apr 8:103782. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Clinical Platform Research Institute, C&R Research, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: Major issues in imaging data management of tumor response assessment in clinical trials include high human errors in data input and unstandardized data structures, warranting a new breakthrough IT solution. Thus, we aim to develop a Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC)-compliant clinical trial imaging management system (CTIMS) with automatic verification and transformation modules for implementing the CDISC Study Data Tabulation Model (SDTM) in the tumor response assessment dataset of clinical trials.

Materials And Methods: In accordance with various CDISC standards guides and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guidelines, the overall system architecture of CDISC-compliant CTIMS was designed. Read More

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Genetic manipulation and immortalized culture of ex vivo primary human germinal center B cells.

Nat Protoc 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Next-generation sequencing has transformed our knowledge of the genetics of lymphoid malignancies. However, limited experimental systems are available to model the functional effects of these genetic changes and their implications for therapy. The majority of mature B-cell malignancies arise from the germinal center (GC) stage of B-cell differentiation. Read More

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Chlamydomonas POLQ is necessary for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Biology, Experimental Biophysics, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany, D-10099.

The use of CRISPR/Cas endonucleases has revolutionized gene editing techniques for research on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. To better utilize the CRISPR/Cas system, it is essential to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the DNA repair pathways involved in genome editing. In this study, we have analyzed contributions from canonical KU80/KU70-dependent non-homologous end-joining and polymerase theta (POLQ)-mediated end-joining on SpCas9-mediated untemplated mutagenesis and homology-directed repair/gene inactivation in Chlamydomonas. Read More

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Hierarchical mixed-model expedites genome-wide longitudinal association analysis.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Research Centre for Aquatic biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, People's Republic of China.

A hierarchical random regression model (Hi-RRM) was extended into a genome-wide association analysis for longitudinal data, which significantly reduced the dimensionality of repeated measurements. The Hi-RRM first modeled the phenotypic trajectory of each individual using a RRM and then associated phenotypic regressions with genetic markers using a multivariate mixed model (mvLMM). By spectral decomposition of genomic relationship and regression covariance matrices, the mvLMM was transformed into a multiple linear regression, which improved computing efficiency while implementing mvLMM associations in efficient mixed-model association expedited (EMMAX). Read More

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A hybrid multi-objective whale optimization algorithm for analyzing microarray data based on Apache Spark.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2021 25;7:e416. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Faculty of Computers and Information, Assiut University, Egypt.

A microarray is a revolutionary tool that generates vast volumes of data that describe the expression profiles of genes under investigation that can be qualified as Big Data. Hadoop and Spark are efficient frameworks, developed to store and analyze Big Data. Analyzing microarray data helps researchers to identify correlated genes. Read More

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An integrated approach for spatial distribution of potentially toxic elements (Cu, Pb and Zn) in topsoil.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7806. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Inorganic Geochemistry, Centre for Environmental Geochemistry, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, UK.

In this study, statistical analysis and spatial distribution were performed to compare raw data and centred log-ratio (clr) transformed data of three copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) potentially toxic elements (PTEs) concentration for 550 surface soil samples in Khuzestan plain. The results of both approaches showed that classical univariate analysis and compositional data analysis are essential to find the real structure of data and clarify its different aspects. Results also indicated that spatial distributions of raw data and clr-transformed data were completely different in three studied metals. Read More

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C-terminal and intact FGF23 in kidney transplant recipients and their associations with overall graft survival.

BMC Nephrol 2021 Apr 8;22(1):125. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Fifth Department of Medicine (Nephrology/ Endocrinology/ Rheumatology), University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a risk factor for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and progression of chronic kidney disease. Limited data exist comparing the association of either c-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23) or intact FGF23 (iFGF23) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with overall (all-cause) graft loss.

Methods: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study in 562 stable kidney transplant recipients. Read More

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Tolerability and antitumor activity of cemiplimab, a human monoclonal anti-PD-1, as monotherapy in patients with pretreated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): Data from the Phase 1 NSCLC expansion cohort.

Lung Cancer 2021 Mar 4;155:151-155. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Tarrytown, NY, USA.

Objectives: Blockade of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) has transformed the treatment of NSCLC. In a first-in-human, Phase 1, dose escalation and cohort expansion study, cemiplimab, a monoclonal antibody directed against PD-1, was evaluated for the treatment of patients with advanced solid tumors (NCT02383212). Here, we report results in patients with advanced NSCLC from the dose expansion cohort. Read More

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Integrated Analysis of mRNA-mA-protein Profiles Reveals Novel Insights into the Mechanisms for Cadmium-induced Urothelial Transformation.

Biomarkers 2021 Apr 8:1-23. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Geratology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China, 510080.

This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying Cd-induced urothelial transformation, using multi-omics analyses (transcriptome, epitranscriptome, and proteome). Transcriptomics analysis was performed to estimate the expression of genes, methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis was used to detect mA modification, while proteomics analysis was used to identify differentially expressed proteins. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were subjected to Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis. Read More

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