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A multiphase texture-based model of active contours assisted by a convolutional neural network for automatic CT and MRI heart ventricle segmentation.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Aug 31;211:106373. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Departamento de Procesamiento de Señales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

Background: Left and right ventricle automatic segmentation remains one of the more important tasks in computed aided diagnosis. Active contours have shown to be efficient for this task, however they often require user interaction to provide the initial position, which drives the tool substantially dependent on a prior knowledge and a manual process.

Methods: We propose to overcome this limitation with a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to reach the assumed target locations. Read More

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Mode-assisted joint training of deep Boltzmann machines.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 24;11(1):19000. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.

The deep extension of the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM), known as the deep Boltzmann machine (DBM), is an expressive family of machine learning models which can serve as compact representations of complex probability distributions. However, jointly training DBMs in the unsupervised setting has proven to be a formidable task. A recent technique we have proposed, called mode-assisted training, has shown great success in improving the unsupervised training of RBMs. Read More

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September 2021

Power Profile of Top 5 Results in World Tour Cycling Races.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Sep 24:1-7. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Purpose: This study evaluated the power profile of a top 5 result achieved in World Tour cycling races of varying types, namely: flat sprint finish, semi-mountain race with a sprint finish, semi-mountain race with uphill finish, and mountain races (MT).

Methods: Power output data from 33 professional cyclists were collected between 2012 and 2019. This large data set was filtered so that it only included top 5 finishes in World Tour races (18 participants and 177 races). Read More

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September 2021

Determining the ideal osteotomy for stemless total shoulder replacement - a cadaveric study.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, UK.

Hypothesis: To determine the angle of osteotomy that produces a circular humeral cut surface.

Methods: 49 cadaveric shoulders, from 25 cadavers, underwent sequential humeral head osteotomy from 180 degrees (vertical, in line with the humeral diaphyseal shaft) in 10-degree increments, until the rotator cuff insertion was encountered. At each stage the antero-posterior and the supero-inferior distances were recorded. Read More

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September 2021

Ecological Filtering and Exaptation in the Evolution of Marine Snakes.

Am Nat 2021 Oct 23;198(4):506-521. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

AbstractConvergent evolution is often attributed to adaptation of form to function, but it can also result from ecological filtering, exaptation, or nonaptation. Testing among these possibilities is critical to understanding how and why morphological similarities emerge independently in multiple lineages. To address this challenge, we combined multiple preexisting phylogenetic methods to jointly estimate the habitats and morphologies of lineages within a phylogeny. Read More

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October 2021

Assessment of Prediction Methods for Protein Structures Determined by NMR in CASP14: Impact of AlphaFold2.

Proteins 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Dept of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA.

NMR studies can provide unique information about protein conformations in solution. In CASP14, three reference structures provided by solution NMR methods were available (T1027, T1029, and T1055), as well as a fourth data set of NMR-derived contacts for an integral membrane protein (T1088). For the three targets with NMR-based structures, the best prediction results ranged from very good (GDT_TS = 0. Read More

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September 2021

Genomic diversity and breed composition of Vietnamese smallholder dairy cows.

J Anim Breed Genet 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, Qld, Australia.

Vietnamese smallholder dairy cows (VDC) are the result of crossbreeding between different zebu (ZEB) and taurine dairy breeds through many undefined generations. Thus, the predominant breed composition of VDC is currently unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the level of genetic diversity and breed composition of VDC. Read More

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September 2021

Time-to-enrollment in clinical trials investigating neurological recovery in chronic spinal cord injury: observations from a systematic review and ClinicalTrials.gov database.

Neural Regen Res 2022 May;17(5):953-958

Mayo Clinic Neuro-Informatics Laboratory; Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Currently, large numbers of clinical trials are performed to investigate different forms of experimental therapy for patients suffering from chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). However, for the enrollment process, there are different views on how the time period between injury and interventions should be determined. Herein, we sought to evaluate the impact of time-to-enrollment in chronic SCI clinical trials. Read More

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Survival in the Real World: A National Analysis of Patients Treated for Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 Sep 24:OP2100274. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

Purpose: Many patient population groups are not proportionally represented in clinical trials, including patients of color, at age extremes, or with comorbidities. It is therefore unclear how treatment outcomes may differ for these patients compared with those who are well-represented in trials.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included women diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer between 2005 and 2015 in the national CancerLinQ Discovery electronic medical record-based data set. Read More

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September 2021

Edentulism and select chronic diseases among adults aged ≥45 years in China, 2011-2018: A longitudinal study.

Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Institute of Hospital Management, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objectives: Information on the association between edentulism and chronic medical conditions in developing countries is lacking. We investigated such information among adults aged ≥45 years in China.

Methods: A national longitudinal data set from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) 2011-2018 was analysed. Read More

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September 2021

Properties of the EQ-5D-5L when prospective longitudinal data from 28,902 total hip arthroplasty procedures are applied to different European EQ-5D-5L value sets.

Lancet Reg Health Eur 2021 Sep 14;8:100165. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden.

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of using different country-specific value sets in EQ-5D-5L based outcome analyses.

Methods: We obtained data on patients surgically treated with total hip arthroplasty (THA) between 2017 and 2019 from the national Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. Preoperative and one-year postoperative data on a total of 28,902 procedures were available for analysis. Read More

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September 2021

Abnormalities in normal-appearing white matter from which multiple sclerosis lesions arise.

Brain Commun 2021 10;3(3):fcab176. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Biogen Digital Health, Biogen, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.

Normal-appearing white matter is far from normal in multiple sclerosis; little is known about the precise pathology or spatial pattern of this alteration and its relation to subsequent lesion formation. This study was undertaken to evaluate normal-appearing white matter abnormalities in brain areas where multiple sclerosis lesions subsequently form, and to investigate the spatial distribution of normal-appearing white matter abnormalities in persons with multiple sclerosis. Brain MRIs of pre-lesion normal-appearing white matter were analysed in participants with new T2 lesions, pooled from three clinical trials: SYNERGY (NCT01864148; = 85 with relapsing multiple sclerosis) was the test data set; ASCEND (NCT01416181; = 154 with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis) and ADVANCE (NCT00906399; = 261 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis) were used as validation data sets. Read More

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Towards a pragmatic use of statistics in ecology.

PeerJ 2021 1;9:e12090. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Departamento de Ecologia/Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Although null hypothesis testing (NHT) is the primary method for analyzing data in many natural sciences, it has been increasingly criticized. Recently, approaches based on information theory (IT) have become popular and were held by many to be superior because it enables researchers to properly assess the strength of the evidence that data provide for competing hypotheses. Many studies have compared IT and NHT in the context of model selection and stepwise regression, but a systematic comparison of the most basic uses of statistics by ecologists is still lacking. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of White Matter Tracts Fractional Anisotropy Using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics and Its correlation with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale Score in Patients with Motor Neuron Disease.

Indian J Radiol Imaging 2021 Apr 28;31(2):297-303. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Neurology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India.

Motor neuron diseases cause progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. No Indian studies are available on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings in these patients. This study was done to identify white matter tracts that have reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in motor neuron disease (MND) patients using tract-based spatial statistics and to correlate FA values with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) score. Read More

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Application of a convolutional neural network for seismic phase picking of mining-induced seismicity.

Geophys J Int 2021 Jan;224(1):230-240

University of Utah Seismograph Stations, 115 South 1460 East, Room 211 FASB SLC, UT 84112-0102, USA.

Monitoring mining-induced seismicity (MIS) can help engineers understand the rock mass response to resource extraction. With a thorough understanding of ongoing geomechanical processes, engineers can operate mines, especially those mines with the propensity for rock-bursting, more safely and efficiently. Unfortunately, processing MIS data usually requires significant effort from human analysts, which can result in substantial costs and time commitments. Read More

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January 2021

Developing machine learning algorithms for meteorological temperature and humidity forecasting at Terengganu state in Malaysia.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 23;11(1):18935. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaya (UM), 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Accurately predicting meteorological parameters such as air temperature and humidity plays a crucial role in air quality management. This study proposes different machine learning algorithms: Gradient Boosting Tree (G.B. Read More

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September 2021

Update to the dataset of cerebral ischemia in juvenile pigs with evoked potentials.

Sci Data 2021 Sep 23;8(1):248. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Institute of Molecular Cell Biology, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

We expand from a spontaneous to an evoked potentials (EP) data set of brain electrical activities as electrocorticogram (ECoG) and electrothalamogram (EThG) in juvenile pig under various sedation, ischemia and recovery states. This EP data set includes three stimulation paradigms: auditory (AEP, 40 and 2000 Hz), sensory (SEP, left and right maxillary nerve) and high-frequency oscillations (HFO) SEP. This permits derivation of electroencephalogram (EEG) biomarkers of corticothalamic communication under these conditions. Read More

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September 2021

Younger Individuals Increase Their Use of Nursing Homes Following ACA Medicaid Expansion.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

University of Pennsylvania Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Objectives: This study examines the effect of Medicaid eligibility expansion under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on the utilization of nursing home services by younger individuals and those covered by Medicaid.

Design: Compared the age of nursing home residents, proportion of individuals covered by Medicaid, annual nursing home admissions in those younger than 65, and nursing home length of stay in states that expanded Medicaid eligibility through the ACA to states that did not. We used data from LTCFocus (nursing home level), the Minimum Data Set (individual level), and Medicaid expansion status from the Kaiser Family Foundation. Read More

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September 2021

Enhancing Performance of a Spasticity Screening Tool Using the Minimum Data Set.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

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September 2021

Trends in Post-Acute Care Utilization During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Corporal Michael J. Crescenz VA Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Objective: To examine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on post-acute care utilization and spending.

Design: We used a large national multipayer claims data set from January 2019 through October 2020 to examine trends in posthospital discharge location and spending.

Setting And Participants: We identified and included 975,179 hospital discharges who were aged ≥65 years. Read More

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September 2021

Measuring information flux between social media and stock prices with Transfer Entropy.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(9):e0257686. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Finance, Tecnológico de Monterrey, EGADE Business School, Ciudad de México, Alvaro Obregon, México.

Transfer Entropy was applied to analyze the correlations and flow of information between 200,500 tweets and 23 of the largest capitalized companies during 6 years along the period 2013-2018. The set of tweets were obtained applying a text mining algorithm and classified according to daily date and company mentioned. We proposed the construction of a Sentiment Index applying a Natural Processing Language algorithm and structuring the sentiment polarity for each data set. Read More

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September 2021

Data Matching to Support Analysis of Cancer Epidemiology Among Veterans Compared With Non-Veteran Populations-An Exemplar in Brain Tumors.

JCO Clin Cancer Inform 2021 Sep;5:985-994

National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Trans-Divisional Research Program, Bethesda, MD.

Purpose: State and national cancer registries do not systematically include Veteran data, which hinders analysis of the diagnosis patterns, treatment trajectories, and clinical outcomes of Veterans compared with non-Veteran populations. This study used data matching approaches to compare cases included in the Oncology Domain of the Veterans Affairs (VA) Corporate Data Warehouse and the Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System, using brain tumors as an exemplar.

Methods: We used direct data matching, on the basis of protected health information (PHI) common to both databases, to compare primary brain tumors from Veterans and non-Veterans diagnosed from 2000 to 2016. Read More

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September 2021

New Creatinine- and Cystatin C-Based Equations to Estimate GFR without Race.

N Engl J Med 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

From the Division of Nephrology (L.A.I., S.J.C., A.S.L.) and the Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies (H.T.), Tufts Medical Center, Tufts Clinical and Translational Science Institute, Tufts University (H.T.), the Section on Genetics and Epidemiology, Joslin Diabetes Center (A.D.), and the Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School (A.D.) - all in Boston; the Renal-Electrolyte and Hypertension Division, Perelman School of Medicine (N.D.E.), and the Departments of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (W.Y.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; the Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (J.C., D.W., Y.S., M.E.G., E.S., S.H.B.), the Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (D.C.C., M.E.G.), and the Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Maryland School of Medicine (R.K.) - all in Baltimore; the Kidney Health Research Collaborative, San Francisco Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center and University of California, San Francisco (M.M.E., M.G.S.), the Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, San Francisco VA Health Care System and University of California, San Francisco (M.M.E.), and the Department of Medicine, Priscilla Chan and Mark Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital and University of California, San Francisco (N.R.P.) - all in San Francisco; the Clinical Trial Unit, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland (M.F.); the Division of Biostatistics, Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Utah Health, Salt Lake City (T.G.); the Department of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden (A.G.); the Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, and the Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur - both in Iceland (V.G.); the Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (O.M.G.); the Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (A.B.K., J.C.S.), Pediatrics (M.M.), and Medicine (M.M.), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, and the Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester (A.D.R., V.E.T.) - all in Minnesota; the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands (G.N.); the Chronic Kidney Disease Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, AZ (R.G.N.); the Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland (E.D.P.); Rush University Medical Center, Chicago (R.R.); and Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen and the Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen - both in Copenhagen (P.R.).

Background: Current equations for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) that use serum creatinine or cystatin C incorporate age, sex, and race to estimate measured GFR. However, race in eGFR equations is a social and not a biologic construct.

Methods: We developed new eGFR equations without race using data from two development data sets: 10 studies (8254 participants, 31. Read More

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September 2021

Examining racial disparities in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment.

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2021 Sep 23:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

Black individuals are less likely to receive an accurate diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) than their White counterparts, possibly because diagnoses are typically made by a physician, often without reference to objective neuropsychological test data. We examined racial differences in actuarial MCI diagnoses among individuals diagnosed with MCI via semi-structured clinical interview (the Clinical Dementia Rating) to examine for possible biases in the diagnostic process. Participants were drawn from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set and included 491 individuals self-identifying as Black and 2,818 individuals self-identifying as White. Read More

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September 2021

Acids in coffee: A review of sensory measurements and meta-analysis of chemical composition.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Sep 23:1-27. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

UC Davis Coffee Center, University of California Davis, Davis, California, USA.

Coffee contains a variety of organic acids (OAs) and chlorogenic acids (CGAs) that contribute to overall sensory properties. Large variations in preparation and measurement methodology across the literature complicate interpretation of general trends. Here, we perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature to elucidate the concentrations of OAs and CGAs in both (arabica) and (robusta), for both green coffee and roasted coffee at multiple roast levels. Read More

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September 2021

Developing a machine learning model to identify delirium risk in geriatric internal medicine inpatients.

Eur Geriatr Med 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Purpose: To develop a machine learning model that predicts delirium risk in geriatric internal medicine inpatients.

Methods: A prospective cohort study of internal medicine wards in a tertiary care hospital in China. Blinded observers assessed delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). Read More

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September 2021

Outcomes of robot-assisted versus conventional laparoscopic low anterior resection in patients with rectal cancer: propensity-matched analysis of the National Clinical Database in Japan.

BJS Open 2021 Sep;5(5)

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery has several advantages over conventional laparoscopy. However, population-based comparative studies for low anterior resection are limited. This article aimed to compare peri-operative results of robot-assisted low anterior resection (RALAR) and laparoscopy. Read More

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September 2021

Human Skeleton Detection and Extraction in Dance Video Based on PSO-Enabled LSTM Neural Network.

Authors:
Dingxin Li

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 11;2021:2545151. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Sports and Public Art, Zhengzhou University of Aeronautics, Zhengzhou, Henan 450046, China.

With the significant increase of social informatization, the emerging information technology represented by machine vision has been applied to more and more scenes. Among them, the detection and extraction of human skeleton in a dance video based on this technology has a huge market demand in education and training. However, the existing detection and extraction technology has the problems of slow recognition speed and low extraction accuracy. Read More

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September 2021

Pain Among an Inpatient Complex Chronic Care Population of Residents with and without Missing Limbs.

J Pain Res 2021 15;14:2921-2930. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Faculty of Health, Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: Limb loss occurs for various reasons (trauma, infection, vascular diseases, tumors, congenital absence). Limb loss is known to result in several types of pain. Little is known about pain in residents with missing limbs admitted to complex chronic care (CCC) facilities. Read More

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September 2021

Classifiers for Predicting Coronary Artery Disease Based on Gene Expression Profiles in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

Int J Gen Med 2021 15;14:5651-5663. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Cardiology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, 530022, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a serious global health concern. Current diagnostic methods for CAD involve risk to the patient and are costly, so better diagnostic tools are needed. We defined four classifiers based on gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and determined their potential for CAD detection. Read More

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September 2021