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[Factors Influencing the Caesarean Section Rates in German Hospitals in the Years 2015-2017: An Ecological Study].

Gesundheitswesen 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Fakultät Gesundheit, Sicherheit, Gesellschaft, Hochschule Furtwangen University, Furtwangen, Deutschland.

Background: Studies in various other countries have shown that there are urban-rural differences in caesarean section rates. Most urban areas showed higher caesarean section rates. The aim of this study was to compare the caesarean section rates between hospitals in urban and rural areas in Germany, and to identify other factors affecting the caesarean section rate. Read More

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September 2021

[The Bavarian Midwives Bonus - A Contribution to Monitoring Freelance Midwifery Care in Bavaria].

Gesundheitswesen 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Bundesministerium für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft, Abteilung Lebensmittelsicherheit, Tiergesundheit, Berlin, Deutschland.

Background: Supply bottlenecks in midwifery care could intensify due to increasing birth rates in Bavaria. Midwives are already fully booked and can only take care of pregnant women by increasing their working hours. The situation of self-employed midwives is particularly precarious. Read More

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September 2021

[Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Regional Deprivation, Disease Characteristics and Relevant Health Care].

Gesundheitswesen 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Institut für Sozialmedizin und Epidemiologie, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck, Deutschland.

Hintergrund: Regionale Deprivation ist als ökologischer Parameter eine Komponente der sozialen Determinanten von Gesundheit. Zu ihrer Messung stehen in Deutschland der "German Index of Multiple Deprivation" (GIMD) und der "German Index of Socioeconomic Deprivation" (GISD) zur Verfügung. Chronisch entzündliche Darmerkrankungen (CED) sind keine häufigen, aber ernste körperliche Erkrankungen unklarer Ätiologie, mit vergleichsweise frühem Auftreten im Erwachsenenalter, oft chronisch-behandlungsbedürftigem Verlauf und unsicherer Prognose. Read More

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September 2021

Pitfalls in international benchmarking of energy intensity across wastewater treatment utilities.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 21;300:113613. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

School of Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.

The collection, treatment and disposal of wastewater is estimated to consume more than 2% of the world's electrical energy, whilst some wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can account for over 20% of electrical consumption within municipalities. To investigate areas to improve wastewater treatment, international benchmarking on energy (electrical) intensity was conducted with the indicator kWh/m and a quality control of secondary treatment or better for ≥95% of treated volume. The core sample included 321 companies from 31 countries, however, to analyse regional differences, 11 countries from an external sample made up of various studies of WWTPs was also used in places. Read More

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September 2021

Similarity and stability of face network across populations and throughout adolescence and adulthood.

Neuroimage 2021 Sep 21:118587. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

The ability to extract cues from faces is fundamental for social animals, including humans. An individual's profile of functional connectivity across a face network can be shaped by common organizing principles, stable individual traits, and time-varying mental states. In the present study, we used data obtained with functional magnetic resonance imaging in two cohorts, IMAGEN (N=534) and ALSPAC (N=465), to investigate - both at group and individual levels - the consistency of the regional profile of functional connectivity across populations (IMAGEN, ALSPAC) and time (Visits 1 to 3 in IMAGEN; age 14 to 22 years). Read More

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September 2021

Access to cancer medicines deemed essential by oncologists in 82 countries: an international, cross-sectional survey.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen's University Cancer Research Institute, Kingston, ON, Canada; Departments of Oncology, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada; Public Health Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: The WHO Essential Medicines List (EML) identifies priority medicines that are most important to public health. Over time, the EML has included an increasing number of cancer medicines. We aimed to investigate whether the cancer medicines in the EML are aligned with the priority medicines of frontline oncologists worldwide, and the extent to which these medicines are accessible in routine clinical practice. Read More

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September 2021

Transcriptome analysis reveals the molecular mechanism of yield increases in maize under stable soil water supply.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(9):e0257756. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Agronomy College, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang Province, P. R. China.

This study explored the physiological and molecular mechanisms of yield increase in maize under stable soil water content (SW) conditions. Results of the study showed that under SW conditions, corn yield increased by 38.72 and 44. Read More

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September 2021

At What Point Should the Thoracolumbar Region Be Addressed in Patients Undergoing Corrective Cervical Deformity Surgery?

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Oct;46(20):E1113-E1118

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of cervical to thoracolumbar ratios on poor outcomes in cervical deformity (CD) corrective surgery.

Summary Of Background Data: Consideration of distal regional and global alignment is a critical determinant of outcomes in CD surgery. Read More

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October 2021

Imaging Features at the Periphery: Hemodynamics, Pathophysiology, and Effect on LI-RADS Categorization.

Radiographics 2021 Sep 24:210019. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

From the Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030 (N.C.); University of California San Diego Health, San Diego, Calif (C.B.S., K.J.F.); Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (V.C.); University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex (D.T.F.); University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Mich (W.R.M.); Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn (S.S.A.); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (R.K.G.D.); Naval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, Calif (R.M.M.); Northwestern University, Chicago, Ill (A.A.B.); and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Tex (K.M.E.).

Liver lesions have different enhancement patterns at dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging. The Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) applies the enhancement kinetic of liver observations in its algorithms for imaging-based diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in at-risk populations. Therefore, careful analysis of the spatial and temporal features of these enhancement patterns is necessary to increase the accuracy of liver mass characterization. Read More

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September 2021

Prognostic factors for lymph node metastasis from upper gingival carcinomas.

Oral Radiol 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Objectives: This study sought to identify tumor characteristics that associate with regional lymph node metastases in squamous cell carcinomas originating in the upper gingiva.

Materials And Methods: Data from 113 patients from Osaka University Dental Hospital were included. We measured each primary tumor's width, length, depth, and the extent of bone invasion. Read More

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September 2021

Association of Cardiovascular Outcomes and Mortality With Sustained Long-Acting Insulin Only vs Long-Acting Plus Short-Acting Insulin Treatment.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2126605. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

HealthPartners Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Importance: Cardiovascular events and mortality are the principal causes of excess mortality and health care costs for people with type 2 diabetes. No large studies have specifically compared long-acting insulin alone with long-acting plus short-acting insulin with regard to cardiovascular outcomes.

Objective: To compare cardiovascular events and mortality in adults with type 2 diabetes receiving long-acting insulin who do or do not add short-acting insulin. Read More

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September 2021

Global trends and performances of Mediterranean diet: A bibliometric analysis in CiteSpace.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Sep;100(38):e27175

Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Anhui, China.

Background: The Mediterranean diet (MD) is an ancient eating habit that is believed to contribute to a healthy lifestyle. Unsurprisingly, research on the MD is growing rapidly as people pay more attention to health preservation and prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of chronic diseases. Previous reviews focused more on the effects of MD on a particular disease which has enhanced its significance in the medicine field. Read More

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September 2021

Brain oxygen extraction fraction mapping in patients with multiple sclerosis.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 Sep 24:271678X211048031. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

We aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of whole brain oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) mapping for measuring lesion specific and regional OEF abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In 22 MS patients and 11 healthy controls (HC), OEF and neural tissue susceptibility () maps were computed from MRI multi-echo gradient echo data. In MS patients, 80 chronic active lesions with hyperintense rim on quantitative susceptibility mapping were identified, and the mean OEF and within the rim and core were compared using linear mixed-effect model analysis. Read More

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September 2021

SDHC phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma: A UK-wide case series.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Birmingham Women's Hospital, Birmingham, UK.

Objective: Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) are rare, but strongly heritable tumours. Variants in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits are identified in approximately 25% of cases. However, clinical and genetic information of patients with SDHC variants are underreported. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of acupuncture stimulation on brain activation induced by cue-elicited alcohol craving.

Neural Regen Res 2022 May;17(5):1059-1064

Department of Physical Therapy, College of Biomedical Science, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Republic of Korea.

Acupuncture has been shown to be effective on alcohol use disorder. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. To investigate the effects of Shenmen (HT7) acupoint on brain activation induced by cue-elicited alcohol craving, 30 right-handed healthy light to moderate alcohol drinkers were recruited from the community. Read More

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A laboratory-based analysis of rapidly growing mycobacteria in Northwest Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2021 Apr-Jun;10(2):170-176

Adolfo Lutz Institute, Central Laboratory of Tuberculosis and Mycobacteriosis Laboratory, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are a group of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) implicated in difficult-to-treat pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases, possibly associated with invasive procedures and failures in sterilization of materials and equipment.

Methods: We report our experience with the laboratory identification of RGM in a routine work and give an overview of the RGM isolated in our setting. Laboratorial data from all RGM mycobacterial isolates received at Adolfo Lutz Institute of São José do Rio Preto were analyzed from January 2000 to December 2015. Read More

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September 2021

Early safety and efficacy of linezolid-based combination therapy among patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis in North-western Nigeria.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2021 Apr-Jun;10(2):129-135

Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria.

Background: The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DRTB) has continued to pose a threat to public health in sub-Saharan Africa and globally. Despite the high burden of tuberculosis (TB) in Nigeria, there are paucity of data on the safety and efficacy of newer agents and repurposed drugs used in the treatment of DRTB.

Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted at a regional DRTB treatment center in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria. Read More

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September 2021

COVID-19 outbreak investigation and response in a penitentiary setting: the experience of a prison in Italy, February to April 2020.

Euro Surveill 2021 09;26(38)

Welfare General Directorate, Lombardia Regional Health Authority, Milan, Italy.

Prisons are high-risk settings for COVID-19 and present specific challenges for prevention and control. We describe a COVID-19 outbreak in a large prison in Milan between 20 February and 30 April 2020. We performed a retrospective analysis of routine data collected during the COVID-19 emergency in prison. Read More

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September 2021

Glial TDP-43 and TDP-43 induced glial pathology, focus on neurodegenerative proteinopathy syndromes.

Glia 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Since its discovery in 2006, TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has driven rapidly evolving research in neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and limbic predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy (LATE). TDP-43 mislocalization or aggregation is the hallmark of TDP-43 proteinopathy and is associated with cognitive impairment that can be mapped to its regional deposition. Studies in human tissue and model systems demonstrate that TDP-43 may potentiate other proteinopathies such as the amyloid or tau pathology seen in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) in the combination of AD+LATE. Read More

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September 2021

Free of charge medicine schemes in the NHS. A local and regional Drug and Therapeutic Committees (DTC) experience.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Centre of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Institute of Health Informatics, University College London.

Introduction: Free of charge (FoC) medicine schemes are increasingly available and allow access to investigational treatments outside clinical trials or in advance of licensing or NHS commissioning.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed FoC medicine schemes evaluated between 2013 and 2019 by a single NHS trust and a regional drug and therapeutics committee (DTC). The details of each locally reviewed FoC scheme, and any nationally available MHRA Early Access to Medicines Scheme (MHRA EAMS) in the same period, were recorded and categorised. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of perinatal fluoxetine exposure on novelty-induced social and non-social investigation behaviors in a seminatural environment.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Psychology, UiT the Arctic University of Norway, 9037, Tromsø, Norway.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are increasingly prescribed as medication for various affective disorders during pregnancy. SSRIs cross the placenta and affect serotonergic neurotransmission in the fetus, but the neurobehavioral consequences for the offspring remain largely unclear. Recent rodent research has linked perinatal SSRI exposure to alterations in both social and non-social aspects of behavior. Read More

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September 2021

Different spreading dynamics throughout Germany during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic: a time series study based on national surveillance data.

Lancet Reg Health Eur 2021 Jul 27;6:100151. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Department of Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Cologne-Merheim Hospital, ARDS and ECMO centre, Kliniken der Stadt Köln, Witten/Herdecke University Hospital, Cologne, Germany.

Background: The second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic led to substantial differences in incidence rates across Germany.

Methods: Assumption-free k-nearest neighbour clustering from the principal component analysis of weekly incidence rates of German counties groups similar spreading behaviour. Different spreading dynamics was analysed by the derivative plots of the temporal evolution of tuples [x(t),x'(t)] of weekly incidence rates and their derivatives. Read More

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Head circumference from birth to five years in France: New national reference charts and comparison to WHO standards.

Lancet Reg Health Eur 2021 Jun 5;5:100114. Epub 2021 May 5.

Université de Paris, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Statistics (CRESS), INSERM, INRAE, F-75004 Paris, France.

Background: The monitoring of head circumference (HC) is essential to early detect any conditions affecting its growth in early childhood. A positive secular trend and regional specificities in HC suggested the need to provide updated national HC reference growth charts.

Methods: We extracted all growth data collected from 42 primary-care physicians from across the French metropolitan territory who used the same electronic medical-records software. Read More

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Excess mortality for men and women above age 70 according to level of care during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden: A population-based study.

Lancet Reg Health Eur 2021 May 17;4:100072. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Unit of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Both age and comorbidity are established risk factors for death among those infected with COVID-19. Because they often co-exist, it is difficult to assess if age is a risk factor on its own.

Methods: We used administrative register data of the total Swedish population from 01/2015 until 07/2020. Read More

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In- and out-of-hospital mortality for myocardial infarction during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Emilia-Romagna, Italy: A population-based observational study.

Lancet Reg Health Eur 2021 Apr 2;3:100055. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Cardiology Unit, Ospedale Maggiore Carlo Alberto Pizzardi, Bologna, Italy.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has put several healthcare systems under severe pressure. The present analysis investigates how the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic affected the myocardial infarction (MI) network of Emilia-Romagna (Italy).

Methods: Based on Emilia-Romagna mortality registry and administrative data from all the hospitals from January 2017 to June 2020, we analysed: i) temporal trend in MI hospital admissions; ii) characteristics, management, and 30-day mortality of MI patients; iii) out-of-hospital mortality for cardiac cause. Read More

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Shortened duration and reduced area of frozen soil in the Northern Hemisphere.

Innovation (N Y) 2021 Aug 21;2(3):100146. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

The changes in near-surface soil freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs) are crucial to understanding the related hydrological and biological processes in terrestrial ecosystems under a changing climate. However, long-term dynamics of soil FTCs at the hemisphere scale and the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, the spatiotemporal patterns and main driving factors of soil FTCs across the Northern Hemisphere (NH) during 1979-2017 were analyzed using multisource data fusion and attribution approaches. Read More

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Ambient Temperature and Years of Life Lost: A National Study in China.

Innovation (N Y) 2021 Feb 16;2(1):100072. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, 4214, Australia.

Although numerous studies have investigated premature deaths attributable to temperature, effects of temperature on years of life lost (YLL) remain unclear. We estimated the relationship between temperatures and YLL, and quantified the YLL per death caused by temperature in China. We collected daily meteorological and mortality data, and calculated the daily YLL values for 364 locations (2013-2017 in Yunnan, Guangdong, Hunan, Zhejiang, and Jilin provinces, and 2006-2011 in other locations) in China. Read More

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February 2021

Exploring Seasonal and Circadian Rhythms in Structural Traits of Field Maize from LiDAR Time Series.

Plant Phenomics 2021 6;2021:9895241. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Ecology, College of Environmental Sciences, and Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Plant growth rhythm in structural traits is important for better understanding plant response to the ever-changing environment. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is a well-suited tool to study structural rhythm under field conditions. Recent studies have used TLS to describe the structural rhythm of trees, but no consistent patterns have been drawn. Read More

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September 2021

A dataset of human-inedible byproduct feeds consumed by dairy cows in the United States.

Data Brief 2021 Oct 8;38:107358. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Dairy Management Inc., United States.

Dairy cows convert human-indigestible forages and byproducts nutrients into edible food for humans [1]. Because of microbiota located in their rumen, dairy cows can digest fibrous forages and feeds which are not exploited by humans and monogastric animals like pigs. Dairy cows in the U. Read More

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October 2021

Weak spatial-genetic structure in a native invasive, the southern pine beetle (), across the eastern United States.

PeerJ 2021 2;9:e11947. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Northern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Hamden, CT, United States of America.

The southern pine beetle, is a native pest of pine trees that has recently expanded its range into the northeastern United States. Understanding its colonization, dispersal, and connectivity will be critical for mitigating negative economic and ecological impacts in the newly invaded areas. Characterization of spatial-genetic structure can contribute to this; however, previous studies have reached different conclusions about regional population genetic structure, with one study reporting a weak east-west pattern, and the most recent reporting an absence of structure. Read More

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September 2021