17,277 results match your criteria dams

Influence of a low-head dam on water quality of an urban river system.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 23;297:113334. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Environmental Science, University of Lynchburg, Lynchburg, VA, USA.

Dam removal in the United States is becoming a common practice for stream restoration as these structures age, climate driven precipitation patterns change, and ecological uplift becomes desirable. Yet in highly urbanized watersheds, these dams may operate as retention basins removing pollutants and mitigating hydrological change. While elimination may be ecologically and economically advantageous, sediment and pollutant removal processes may be better protective of water quality and damaging flooding. Read More

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Identification and Characterization of s Mutations Associated With Early Blooming in Sweet Cherry, and Validation of DNA-Based Markers for Selection.

Front Plant Sci 2021 8;12:621491. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Unidad de Hortofruticultura, Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón, Zaragoza, Spain.

Dormancy release and bloom time of sweet cherry cultivars depend on the environment and the genotype. The knowledge of these traits is essential for cultivar adaptation to different growing areas, and to ensure fruit set in the current climate change scenario. In this work, the major sweet cherry bloom time QTL (327 Kbs; Chromosome 1) was scanned for candidate genes in the Regina cv genome. Read More

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Major threats to European freshwater fish species.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 17;797:149105. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Forest Research Centre, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal.

In Europe, freshwater fish are the richest group amongst European vertebrates and the second most threatened animal group, surpassed only by freshwater molluscs. The identification of threats is a major benefit for conservation efforts, as it allows actions to be bespoke to specific threats imperilling fish communities in sensitive areas. In this work, we analyse all threats identified under the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species for all European native freshwater dependent fish and lamprey species and relate them with the species distribution, conservation status and migratory phenology. Read More

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Evaporation in Brazilian dryland reservoirs: Spatial variability and impact of riparian vegetation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 18;797:149059. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Ceará (UFC), Fortaleza, Brazil.

Evaporation is a major factor controlling the hydrological dynamics of surface water reservoirs in dry environments, therefore quantification with minimal uncertainties is desired. The aim of this paper is to assess the spatial variability and impact of riparian vegetation on reservoir evaporation by remote sensing. Eight reservoirs located in subhumid and semi-arid climates in the Brazilian Drylands were studied. Read More

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Plaque-associated human microglia accumulate lipid droplets in a chimeric model of Alzheimer's disease.

Mol Neurodegener 2021 Jul 23;16(1):50. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, 92696, USA.

Background: Disease-associated microglia (DAMs), that surround beta-amyloid plaques, represent a transcriptionally-distinct microglial profile in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Activation of DAMs is dependent on triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) in mouse models and the AD TREM2-R47H risk variant reduces microglial activation and plaque association in human carriers. Interestingly, TREM2 has also been identified as a microglial lipid-sensor, and recent data indicates lipid droplet accumulation in aged microglia, that is in turn associated with a dysfunctional proinflammatory phenotype. Read More

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A Novel Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 1 Inhibitor Potently Prevents Transmission to Foetuses in Mouse.

Molecules 2021 Jul 10;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Infectiologie et Santé Publique, National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and the Environment, Université de Tours, 37000 Tours, France.

Treatments currently used to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis are non-specific of and have grievous side effects. To develop a more specific and less toxic drug, we have designed SP230, an imidazo[1,2-]pyridazine salt targeting the calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1) and active against acute toxoplasmosis in mice. Efficiency of SP230 to inhibit foetal transmission of the parasite was evaluated in a mouse model of congenital toxoplasmosis. Read More

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In Utero Exposure to Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Leads to Postnatal Catch-Up Growth and Dysmetabolism in the Adult Rat Liver.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 13;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON N6A 5C1, Canada.

The rates of gestational cannabis use have increased despite limited evidence for its safety in fetal life. Recent animal studies demonstrate that prenatal exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC, the psychoactive component of cannabis) promotes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), culminating in postnatal metabolic deficits. Given IUGR is associated with impaired hepatic function, we hypothesized that Δ9-THC offspring would exhibit hepatic dyslipidemia. Read More

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Lipid Metabolism Is Dysregulated before, during and after Pregnancy in a Mouse Model of Gestational Diabetes.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 12;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories and MRC Metabolic Diseases Unit, Wellcome-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Treatment Centre, Keith Day Road, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK.

The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that maternal lipid metabolism was modulated during normal pregnancy and that these modulations are altered in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We tested this hypothesis using an established mouse model of diet-induced obesity with pregnancy-associated loss of glucose tolerance and a novel lipid analysis tool, Lipid Traffic Analysis, that uses the temporal distribution of lipids to identify differences in the control of lipid metabolism through a time course. Our results suggest that the start of pregnancy is associated with several changes in lipid metabolism, including fewer variables associated with de novo lipogenesis and fewer PUFA-containing lipids in the circulation. Read More

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Morphological alteration in rat hippocampal neuronal dendrites following chronic binge prenatal alcohol exposure.

Brain Res 2021 Jul 20;1768:147587. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Electronic address:

Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). The hippocampus has been recognized as a vulnerable target to alcohol-induced developmental damage. However, the effect of prenatal exposure to alcohol on dendritic morphological adaptations throughout the hippocampal fields in the developing brain still remains largely unknown in the context of FASD. Read More

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Vaginal temperature before calving assessed with wireless vaginal temperature sensor in dairy and beef cattle.

Theriogenology 2021 Jul 14;172:230-238. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Kyushu Okinawa Agricultural Research Center, NARO, Kumamoto, Japan. Electronic address:

We evaluated the daily and hourly vaginal temperature changes and the relationships between the dams' breed and parity by using a commercially available vaginal temperature sensor in 72 Holstein (Hol) calvings and 101 Japanese Black (JB) calvings. Vaginal temperature sensors inserted 7-10 days before the expected calving day sounded two alerts: when the temperature fell below the threshold (Alert 1), and when the sensor reached the ambient temperature after falling out of the dam's vagina with the rupture of the allantoic sac (Alert 2). The durations from Alert 1 to Alert 2 (Time 1) and from Alert 2 to delivery (Time 2) were calculated. Read More

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Maternal and neonatal canine cortisol measurement in multiple matrices during the perinatal period: A pilot study.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254842. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Stress exposure during perinatal period may lead to maternal cortisol increase that negatively affects the offspring development. In recent years, the interest on non-invasive sampling methods to measure cortisol as a marker of stress is increasing in both humans and animals. Indeed, discomfort due to blood collection may compromise the diagnostic outcome, mainly in uncooperative patients. Read More

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African elephants can detect water from natural and artificial sources via olfactory cues.

Anim Cogn 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Zoology and Entomology, Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Water is vital for mammals. Yet, as ephemeral sources can be difficult to find, it raises the question, how do mammals locate water? Elephants (Loxodonta africana) are water-dependent herbivores that possess exceptional olfactory capabilities, and it has been suggested that they may locate water via smell. However, there is no evidence to support this claim. Read More

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Summer Season-Related Heat Stress Affects the Mineral Composition of Holstein Dams' Colostrum, and Neonatal Calves' Mineral Status and Hematological Profile.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

This study examines the effect of season-related heat stress in dams on mineral status, and hematological profile of their calves. Ten Holstein dams (LowT group) were exposed to the 49-day-long period of low air temperature (5.2 ± 0. Read More

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Suppression of Adenosine Deaminase and Xanthine Oxidase Activities by Mineralocorticoid and Glucocorticoid Receptor Blockades Restores Renal Antioxidative Barrier in Oral Contraceptive-Treated Dam.

J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 2021 18;2021:9966372. Epub 2021 May 18.

HOPE Cardiometabolic Research Team and Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Objective: We tested the hypothesis that postpartum combined oral contraceptive (COC) treatment would induce oxidative stress via the adenosine deaminase-xanthine oxidase pathway in the kidney. We also sought to determine whether mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) or glucocorticoid receptor (GR ) blockade would suppress the activities of ADA and xanthine oxidase caused by postpartum COC treatment in the kidney.

Methods: Twenty-four Wistar dams were randomly assigned to 4 groups ( = 6/group). Read More

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Levetiracetam exposure during prenatal and postnatal period induces cognitive decline in rat offsprings, not completely prevented by .

J Complement Integr Med 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Mangalore, Karnataka, India -575001.

Objectives: Levetiracetam (LEV) is an antiepileptic recommended during pregnancy. is a medicinal herb used in Ayurveda for improvement of cognition. Data on effects of LEV and Bacopa on cognition is inadequate. Read More

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Thyroid hormones during the perinatal period are necessary to respiratory network development of newborn rats.

Exp Neurol 2021 Jul 17:113813. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Centre de recherche de l'Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 4G5, Canada.

Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for foetal brain development. Because the gestating mother is the main source of THs to the foetus, maternal hypothyroidism and/or premature birth compromise neurological outcomes in the offspring. Respiratory instability and recurrent apneas due to immaturity of the respiratory control network are major causes of morbidity in infants. Read More

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Impacts of PBDE-47 exposure before, during and after pregnancy on the maternal gut microbiome and its association with host metabolism.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 17;222:112530. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Maternal gut microbiota play an important role in the modulation of offspring disease susceptibility and gut microbiota dysbiosis has been proposed as a mechanism through which toxic environmental chemicals exert their adverse impacts on health. The brominated flame retardants polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are developmental toxicants and induce dysbiotic gut microbiota in offspring. Yet, whether and how PBDEs impact the maternal gut microbiota remain unclear. Read More

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Commercial beef farms excelling in terminal and maternal genetic merit generate more gross profit.

Transl Anim Sci 2021 Jul 9;5(3):txab101. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Teagasc, Moorepark, Fermoy, County Cork, Ireland.

Validation of beef total merit breeding indexes for improving performance and profitability has previously been undertaken at the individual animal level; however, no herd-level validation of beef genetic merit and profit has been previously investigated. The objective of the present study was to quantify the relationship between herd profitability and both herd-average terminal and maternal genetic merit across 1,311 commercial Irish beef herds. Herd-level physical and financial performance data were available from a financial benchmarking tool used by Irish farmers and their extension advisors. Read More

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L-Leucine Improves Metabolic Disorders in Mice With Cigarette Smoke Exposure.

Front Physiol 2021 1;12:700246. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Faculty of Science, School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) causes intrauterine undernutrition, resulting in increased risk for metabolic disorders and type 2 diabetes in the offspring without sex differences. L-leucine supplementation has been shown to reduce body weight and improve glucose metabolism in both obese animals and humans. In this study, we aimed to determine whether postnatal L-leucine supplementation in female offspring can ameliorate the detrimental impact of maternal SE. Read More

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Solving the puzzle of mercury fate and emissions by coal-fired power plants: The potential of hydrodynamic-atmospheric modelling.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 18;288:117579. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Institute for Applied Ecology. University of Canberra. Kirinari St. Bruce, ACT, 2617, Canberra, Australia.

There is currently a significant gap in knowledge about the emission and deposition of mercury (Hg) from coal-fired power plants in Australia. To fill this gap, we propose a novel method that combines several sources of information (stratigraphic data, hydrodynamic modelling and atmospheric modelling), to identify the sources and fates of Hg emitted from coal-fired power plants. The stratigraphic record from Lake Macquarie (Australia) shows that mercury deposition increased up to 7-times since the 1950s, which is when coal-fired power plants were commissioned in the catchment. Read More

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Maternal fructose consumption downregulates hippocampal catalase expression via DNA methylation in rat offspring.

Nutr Res 2021 Jun 12;92:40-48. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Biochemistry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192, Japan.

Some studies have demonstrated that excessive fructose consumption negatively impact brain function. Recently, the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis - which suggests that maternal nutritional status during gestation and lactation can alter offspring phenotype - has received much attention. In a previous study, we demonstrated that maternal fructose consumption increases levels of lipid peroxides in hippocampi of offspring. Read More

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Cariprazine alleviates core behavioral deficits in the prenatal valproic acid exposure model of autism spectrum disorder.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Gedeon Richter Plc, Budapest, Hungary.

Rationale: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by deficits in social communication and interaction and restricted, repetitive behaviors. The unmet medical need in ASD is considerable since there is no approved pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these deficits in social communication, interaction, and behavior. Cariprazine, a dopamine D-preferring D/D receptor partial agonist, is already approved for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder in adults; investigation in patients with ASD is warranted. Read More

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The Effects of Maternal Interleukin-17A on Social Behavior, Cognitive Function, and Depression-Like Behavior in Mice with Altered Kynurenine Metabolites.

Int J Tryptophan Res 2021 28;14:11786469211026639. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Center for Baby Science, Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan.

Viral infection and chronic maternal inflammation during pregnancy are correlated with a higher prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the pathoetiology of ASD is not fully understood; moreover, the key molecules that can cross the placenta following maternal inflammation and contribute to the development of ASD have not been identified. Recently, the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-17A (IL-17A) was identified as a potential mediator of these effects. Read More

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Intrauterine growth restriction weakens anticontractile influence of NO in coronary arteries of adult rats.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 14;11(1):14475. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is one of the most common pathologies of pregnancy. The cardiovascular consequences of IUGR do not disappear in adulthood and can manifest themselves in pathological alterations of vasomotor control. The hypothesis was tested that IUGR weakens anticontractile influence of NO and augments procontractile influence of Rho-kinase in arteries of adult offspring. Read More

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Influence of the subsurface physical barrier on nitrate contamination and seawater intrusion in an unconfined aquifer.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 4;284:117528. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecological Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266100, China.

Coastal areas are facing not only environmental problems associated with seawater intrusion (SWI) but also health and ecological problems caused by excessive nitrate (NO) contamination. The installation of a subsurface physical barrier (SPB) is one of the common methods employed to reduce or prevent SWI, but there are few studies on the impact of SPBs on NP in groundwater. Through laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, the effects of the hydraulic gradient (HG), the nitrate concentration of the set groundwater nitrate pollution source, the relative height of the SPB (H') and the relative distance between the SPB and the saltwater boundary on the NP of groundwater in the presence of SWI, subsurface dams and cut-off walls were studied. Read More

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September 2021

A proof-of-concept study of maternal immune activation mediated induction of Toll-like receptor (TLR) and inflammasome pathways leading to neuroprogressive changes and schizophrenia-like behaviours in offspring.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 Jul 11;52:48-61. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Department of Human Genetics, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru, India. Electronic address:

Infection, particularly prenatal infection, leads to an enhanced risk of schizophrenia in the offspring. Interestingly, few data exist on the pathway(s) such as TLR and inflammasome, primarily involved in sensing the microorganisms and inducing downstream inflammatory responses, apoptosis and neuroprogressive changes that drive prenatal infection-induced risk of schizophrenia. Herein, we aimed to discern whether prenatal infection-induced maternal immune activation (MIA) causes schizophrenia-like behaviours through activation of TLR and inflammasome pathways in the brain of offspring. Read More

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L-Citrulline supplementation during pregnancy improves perinatal and postpartum maternal vascular function in a mouse model of preeclampsia.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

grid.460217.6Magee-Womens Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Preeclampsia is a spontaneously occurring pregnancy complication diagnosed by new onset hypertension and end-organ dysfunction with or without proteinuria. This pregnancy-specific syndrome contributes to maternal morbidity and mortality and can have detrimental effects on fetal outcome. Preeclampsia is also linked to increased risk of maternal cardiovascular disease throughout life. Read More

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Different life stage, different risks: Thermal performance across the life cycle of and in the face of climate change.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jul 8;11(13):8941-8956. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Faculty of Business Management and Social Sciences Osnabrück University of Applied Sciences Osnabrück Germany.

Extending assessments of climate change-induced range shifts via correlative species distribution models by including species traits is crucial for conservation planning. However, comprehensive assessments of future distribution scenarios incorporating responses of biotic factors are poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of our study was to extend the understanding about the combined usage of species traits data and species distribution models for different life stages and distribution scenarios. Read More

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Transplacental Transfer of Primaquine and Neurobehavioral Development of Prenatally Exposed Rats.

J Toxicol 2021 24;2021:7392606. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Biological Sciences, National School of Public Health (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro 21040-361, Brazil.

Primaquine (PQ) not only eliminates gametocytes but also kills liver dormant forms of and . Owing to these unique therapeutic properties, it is an essential drug. Although PQ has been used for over 70 years, its toxicological database has gaps such as the absence of studies on its reproductive and developmental toxicity and kinetics in pregnancy. Read More

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Liver-specific decrease in Tff3 gene expression in infant mice perinatally exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrabromodibenzofuran or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

J Appl Toxicol 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Center for Health and Environmental Risk Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan.

Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/DFs) are byproducts of brominated flame retardants and can cause adverse health effects. Although exposure to polychlorinated (PC) DD/DFs induces toxic effects, including liver injury and neurobehavioral disorder, little is known about toxicities associated with PBDD/DF exposure. Thus, we examined effects of perinatal exposure to brominated congener on the infant mouse. Read More

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