14,082 results match your criteria damage cognitive


Cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory profile of cognitive impairment in newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients.

Mult Scler 2021 Jul 30:13524585211032510. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Neurology Section, Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Background: The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) molecular milieu is a marker of diffuse intrathecal inflammation in the meninges that, in turn, targets the grey matter (GM) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Cognitive impairment (CI) is associated with brain damage in MS and is often present early in people with MS (pwMS).

Objective: To investigate whether a specific CSF inflammatory profile is associated with different degrees of CI in newly diagnosed pwMS. Read More

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Exercise intensities modulate cognitive function in spontaneously hypertensive rats through oxidative mediated synaptic plasticity in hippocampus.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Cardiovascular Institute, An Nan Hospital, China Medical University, Tainan, Taiwan.

Oxidative damage in the brain may lead to cognitive impairments. There was considerable debate regarding the beneficial effects of physical exercise on cognitive functions because exercise protocols have varied widely across studies. We investigated whether different exercise intensities alter performance on cognitive tasks. Read More

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Post-COVID-19 acute sarcopenia: physiopathology and management.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics Section, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

In this review, we discuss the pathophysiologic and management aspects of acute sarcopenia in relation to SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19 is as a multi-organ infectious disease characterized by a severe inflammatory and highly catabolic status, influencing the deep changes in the body build, especially the amount, structure, and function of skeletal muscles which would amount to acutely developed sarcopenia. Acute sarcopenia may largely impact patients' in-hospital prognosis as well as the vulnerability to the post-COVID-19 functional and physical deterioration. Read More

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Research progress on mechanism and imaging of temporal lobe injury induced by radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

Eur Radiol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, 71 Xinmin Street, Changchun, 130021, China.

Radiotherapy (RT) is an effective treatment for head and neck cancer (HNC). Radiation-induced temporal lobe injury (TLI) is a serious complication of RT. Late symptoms of radiation-induced TLI are irreversible and manifest as memory loss, cognitive impairment, and even temporal lobe necrosis (TLN). Read More

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L. Prevents Hypobaric Hypoxia-Induced Spatial Memory Deficit Through Small Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel Inhibition: The Role of ERK/CaMKII/CREB Signaling.

Front Pharmacol 2021 12;12:669701. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Neurobiology, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences (DIPAS), DRDO, Delhi, India.

Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) is a stressful condition, which is more common at high altitudes and can impair cognitive functions. L. leaf extract (GBE) is widely used as herbal medicine against different disorders. Read More

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But they weren't being careful! Role of theory of mind in moral judgments about victim and transgressor negligence.

J Exp Child Psychol 2021 Jul 26;212:105234. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Psychology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.

Previous research showed that children are influenced not only by intentions and outcomes but also by transgressor negligence in their moral judgments. The current study investigated the role of transgressor and victim negligence on children's moral judgments. Children's false-belief theory of mind understanding (FBU ToM) was examined as a possible factor that might shape moral judgments in contexts involving negligence. Read More

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Shenzhi Jiannao formula ameliorates vascular dementia in vivo and in vitro by inhibition glutamate neurotoxicity via promoting clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

Chin Med 2021 Jul 28;16(1):65. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Shenzhen Hospital of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine (Longgang), No. 1 Dayun Road, Longgang District, Shenzhen, 518172, China.

Background: Synaptic damage and glutamate excitotoxicity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia (VD). Clathrin, RAB5B and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 1 (NMDAR1) proteins play a vital role in endocytosis of synaptic vesicles in neurons and glutamate over accumulation. Previous researches have been confirmed that Shenzhi Jiannao (SZJN) formula has an anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective effect in VD, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Read More

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Positive effects of roflumilast on behavior, neuroinflammation, and white matter injury in mice with global cerebral ischemia.

Behav Pharmacol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, State University of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil Neuroimmune Connect and Repair Lab., Biomedical Research Institute, Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is a promising pharmacological strategy for the treatment of cerebral ischemic conditions. To increase the relevance and increase the translational value of preclinical studies, it is important to conduct experiments using different animal species and strains, different animal models, and to evaluate long-term functional outcomes after cerebral ischemia. In the present study, the effects of the selective PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast were evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Read More

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Sophocarpine Attenuates Cognitive Impairment and Promotes Neurogenesis in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Neuroimmunomodulation 2021 Jul 28:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Neurobiology Laboratory, Institute of Basic Medicine, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhang, China.

Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by abnormal deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and impaired neurogenesis and cognition, still lacks an optimally effective therapeutic agent for its management, and mounting evidence has shown that inflammatory processes are implicated in AD. Sophocarpine has been reported to exert inflammation-regulating effects in various diseases. However, whether sophocarpine can exert anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective effects in AD remains unclear. Read More

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CCL5 via GPX1 activation protects hippocampal memory function after mild traumatic brain injury.

Redox Biol 2021 Jul 17;46:102067. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Ph.D. Program for Neural Regenerative Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University and National Health Research, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Neural Regenerative Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a prevalent head injury worldwide which increases the risk of neurodegenerative diseases. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory chemokines after TBI induces secondary effects which damage neurons. Targeting NADPH oxidase or increasing redox systems are ways to reduce ROS and damage. Read More

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Rosmarinic acid attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in rats.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 Jul 24;117:102008. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand 9717853577, Iran; Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand 9717853577, Iran. Electronic address:

It has been recently demonstrated that rosmarinic acid (RA) through modulation in the amyloidogenic pathway exhibit neuroprotective potential in Alzheimer's disease. However, its effects on non-amyloidogenic pathways such as neuroinflammation (NI) and oxidative stress have not been elucidated carefully. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of RA on cognitive function, cortical and hippocampal oxidant-antioxidant balance, and proinflammatory cytokines production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NI in rats. Read More

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The spatiotemporal organization of experience dictates hippocampal involvement in primary visual cortical plasticity.

Curr Biol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Electronic address:

The hippocampus and neocortex are theorized to be crucial partners in the formation of long-term memories. Here, we assess hippocampal involvement in two related forms of experience-dependent plasticity in the primary visual cortex (V1) of mice. Like control animals, those with hippocampal lesions exhibit potentiation of visually evoked potentials after passive daily exposure to a phase-reversing oriented grating stimulus, which is accompanied by long-term habituation of a reflexive behavioral response. Read More

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Disrupted anterior and posterior hippocampal structural networks correlate impaired verbal memory and spatial memory in different subtypes of MCI.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG, McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China.

Background And Purpose: The anterior and posterior hippocampal networks represent verbal and spatial memory respectively, and may play different roles in the pathological mechanism of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and non-amnestic MCI (naMCI), which hasn't been explored.

Methods: A total of 990 older adults with 791 normal control (NC, 65 ± 6 years, 502 women), 140 aMCI (66 ± 7 years, 84 women) and 59 naMCI (66 ± 7 years, 38 women) were included. We used a multivariate method, partial least squares, to assessed the structural covariance network of anterior hippocampus (aHC) and posterior hippocampus (pHC), and their relationships with verbal memory and spatial memory in the three groups. Read More

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Neuroprotective Effects of Normobaric Hyperoxia and Transplantation of Encapsulated Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells on The Focal Brain Ischemia.

Cell J 2021 Aug 17;23(3):303-312. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Animal Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. Email:

Objective: Choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) have the epithelial characteristic, produce cerebrospinal fluid, contribute to the detoxification process in the central nervous system (CNS), and are responsible for the synthesis and release of many nerve growth factors. On the other hand, studies suggest that normobaric hyperoxia (HO) by induction of ischemic tolerance (IT) can protect against brain damage and neurological diseases. We examined the effect of combination therapy of encapsulated CPECs and HO to protect against ischemic brain injury. Read More

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MRI combined with early clinical variables are excellent outcome predictors for newborn infants undergoing therapeutic hypothermia after perinatal asphyxia.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Jun 17;36:100885. Epub 2021 May 17.

Neonatal Neuroscience, Translational Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Background: Binary prediction-models for outcome [death, cognition, presence and severity of cerebral palsy (CP)], using MRI and early clinical data applicable for individual outcome prediction have not been developed.

Methods: From Dec 1 2006 until Dec 31 2013, we recruited 178 infants into a population-based cohort with moderate or severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) including postnatal collapse (PNC,  = 12) and additional diagnoses ( = 12) using CoolCap/TOBY-trial entry-criteria including depressed amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG). Early clinical/biochemical variables and MRI scans (median day 8) were obtained in 168 infants. Read More

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TRPV1 Antagonist Prevents Neonatal Sevoflurane-Induced Synaptic Abnormality and Cognitive Impairment in Mice Through Regulating the Src/Cofilin Signaling Pathway.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 7;9:684516. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shenzhen Second People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

Long-term neurodevelopmental disorders following neonatal anesthesia have been reported both in young animals and in children. The activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in hippocampus adversely affects neurodevelopment. The current study explored the underlying mechanism of TRPV1 channels on long-lasting cognitive dysfunction induced by anesthetic exposure to the developing brain. Read More

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Periodontal disease is associated with cognitive dysfunction in aging dogs: A blinded prospective comparison of visual periodontal and cognitive questionnaire scores.

Open Vet J 2021 Apr-Jun;11(2):210-216. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Background: Periodontal disease has been linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease in people. It is theorized that the chronic inflammatory condition characteristic of oral dysbiosis in patients with periodontal disease leads to disruption of the blood-brain barrier, cytotoxin- and pathogen-induced brain damage, and accumulation of neurotoxic β-amyloid. In this inflammatory theory of Alzheimer's disease, β-amyloid-a known antimicrobial protein-accumulates in response to oral pathogens. Read More

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Mitochondrial Protection and Against Glutamate Neurotoxicity via Shh/Ptch1 Signaling Pathway to Ameliorate Cognitive Dysfunction by Kaixin San in Multi-Infarct Dementia Rats.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 9;2021:5590745. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Institute of Material Medica Integration and Transformation for Brain Disorders, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan 611137, China.

Multi-infarct dementia (MID), a prominent subtype of vascular dementia (VD), is responsible for at least 15 to 20 percent of dementia in the elderly. Mitochondrial dysfunctions and glutamate neurotoxicity due to chronic hypoperfusion and oxidative stress were regarded as the major risk factors in the pathogenesis. (KXS), a classic prescription of , was applied to treatment for "amnesia" and has been demonstrated to alleviate the cognitive deficit in a variety of dementias, including MID. Read More

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Probiotics Fermentation Technology, a Novel Kefir Product, Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment in Streptozotocin-Induced Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease in Mice.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 8;2021:5525306. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Surgery, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cognitive impairment. Gut microbiota dysfunction (dysbiosis) is implicated in the pathology of AD and is associated with several detrimental consequences, including neurotransmitter depletion, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and insulin resistance, which all contribute to the onset of AD. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Probiotics Fermentation Technology (PFT), a kefir product, in alleviating AD symptoms via regulation of the gut microbiota using a streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced AD mouse model and to compare its activity with simvastatin, which has been proven to effectively treat AD. Read More

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Neurological impairment caused by Schistosoma mansoni systemic infection exhibits early features of idiopathic neurodegenerative disease.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jul 22:100979. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Centro de Estudos em Estresse Oxidativo, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Porto Alegre, RS - Brazil. Electronic address:

Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease caused by trematodes of the Schistosoma genus, affects over 250 million people around the world. This disease has been associated with learning and memory deficits in children, while reduced attention levels, impaired work capacity, and cognitive deficits have been observed in adults. Strongly correlated with poverty and lack of basic sanitary conditions, this chronic endemic infection is common in Africa, South America, and parts of Asia and contributes to inhibition of social development and low quality of life in affected areas. Read More

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Involvement of ectonucleotidases and purinergic receptor expression during acute Chagas disease in the cortex of mice treated with resveratrol and benznidazole.

Purinergic Signal 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

Chagas disease (CD) is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. CD affects people worldwide, primarily in tropical areas. The central nervous system (CNS) is an essential site for T. Read More

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Pathophysiology of Brain Injury and Neurological Outcome in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Scoping Review of Preclinical to Clinical Studies.

Neurocrit Care 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Division of Neuroscience Critical Care, Departments of Neurology, Neurosurgery, Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Phipps 455, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been associated with secondary acute brain injury (ABI). However, there is sparse literature on the mechanism of lung-mediated brain injury and prevalence of ARDS-associated secondary ABI. We aimed to review and elucidate potential mechanisms of ARDS-mediated ABI from preclinical models and assess the prevalence of ABI and neurological outcome in ARDS with clinical studies. Read More

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[Corrigendum] HORMAD1 promotes docetaxel resistance in triple negative breast cancer by enhancing DNA damage tolerance.

Oncol Rep 2021 Sep 23;46(3). Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Endocrine and Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400042, P.R. China.

Following the publication of this article, the authors realized that the published version of Fig. 4A contained an erroneous label; essentially, the information purported to relate to experiments having been performed with docetaxel should not have been included in this figure. The correctly labelled version of Fig. Read More

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September 2021

Shenzhiling oral solution promotes myelin repair through PI3K/Akt-mTOR pathway in STZ-induced SAD mice.

3 Biotech 2021 Jul 1;11(7):361. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Key Laboratory of Chinese Internal Medicine of Ministry of Education and Beijing, Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine (BUCM), Haiyuncang No. 5 in Dongcheng District, Beijing, China.

Most forms of Alzheimer's disease are sporadic. A model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease induced with bilateral intraventricular injection of streptozotocin leads to insulin resistance in the brain accompanied by memory decline, synaptic dysfunction, amyloid plaque deposition, oxidative stress, and neuronal apoptosis, all of which mimic the pathologies associated with sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Myelin injury is an essential component of Alzheimer's disease, playing a key role in early cognitive impairment. Read More

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Effect of Retinal Injury Induced by Laser Photocoagulation on Visuospatial Memory in Mouse Model.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2021 Jul 25;12(3):586-591. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Neuroscience Research Lab, Department of Neurology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Visual pathway reveals the connection between neuronal activity of the brain and eye. The neural networks of brain amplify the retinal signals resulting in the formation of visual image. The laser injury in the retina may affect the visual pathway and may lead to disruption of neuronal signals/activity. Read More

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Novel Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease: Based Upon N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Hypoactivation and Oxidative Stress.

Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2021 Aug;19(3):423-433

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

Early detection and prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important. The current treatment for early AD is acetylcholine esterase inhibitors (AChEIs); however, the efficacy is poor. Besides, AChEI did not show efficacy in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Read More

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The informed road map to prevention of Alzheimer Disease: A call to arms.

Mol Neurodegener 2021 Jul 21;16(1):49. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Neurology, Washington University in St Louis, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, Campus Box, St Louis, MO, 8111, USA.

Alzheimer disease (AD) prevention trials hold the promise to delay or prevent cognitive decline and dementia onset by intervening before significant neuronal damage occurs. In recent years, the first AD prevention trials have launched and are yielding important findings on the biology of targeting asymptomatic AD pathology. However, there are limitations that impact the design of these prevention trials, including the translation of animal models that recapitulate key stages and multiple pathological aspects of the human disease, missing target validation in asymptomatic disease, uncertain causality of the association of pathophysiologic changes with cognitive and clinical symptoms, and limited biomarker validation for novel targets. Read More

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Avapritinib: an emerging new therapy for systemic mastocytosis.

Expert Rev Hematol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Leukemia, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Introduction: Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a rare myeloid neoplasm driven in ≈95% of cases by activating mutations, usually D816V. SM can be indolent (ISM), smoldering (SSM) and advanced (AdvSM), the latter characterized by organ damage resulting from infiltrating neoplastic mast cells. The vast majority of cases are indolent, with near-normal life expectancy, although symptoms can be severe. Read More

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[Anatomical controversies involved in radical resection of rectal cancer].

Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jul;24(7):633-637

The Second Department of General Surgery, The Fourth Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050001, China Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Third Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051, China.

The concept of total mesorectal resection provides a quality control standard that can be followed for radical resection of rectal cancer, but some anatomical problems are still controversial. Compared with traditional open surgery, laparoscopic radical rectal surgery has better surgical vision, better neurological protection, better operating space. However, if the surgeon has insufficient understanding of the anatomy, collateral damage may occur, such as uncontrollable bleeding during the operation, postoperative urination and defecation dysfunction and so on. Read More

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Cognitive Impairment in Multiple System Atrophy Is Related to White Matter Damage Detected by the T1-Weighted/T2-Weighted Ratio.

Eur Neurol 2021 Jul 20:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Introduction: This study aimed to use a novel MRI contrast, the standardized T1-weighted/T2-weighted (sT1w/T2w) ratio, to assess damage of the white matter and gray matter in multiple system atrophy (MSA). Furthermore, this study investigated whether the sT1w/T2w ratio was associated with cognitive impairment in MSA.

Methods: The white matter and gray matter sT1w/T2w ratio of 37 MSA patients and 19 healthy controls were measured. Read More

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