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Consequences of hydrological alteration for beta diversity of fish assemblages at multiple spatial scales.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 20;798:149170. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

New South Wales Department of Primary Industries-Fisheries, NSW, Australia.

Effects of dam operation and extraction of water from rivers on spatial variation in hydrological regimes, and consequences for freshwater biodiversity, are widely predicted but seldom assessed empirically. Evidence of linkages between hydrology and beta diversity contributes to water-management decisions to support landscape-scale biodiversity and avoid inadvertently contributing to further biodiversity decline. Using six lowland rivers in Australia's Murray - Darling Basin that formed a gradient of hydrological alteration, we examined (1) spatial variation in hydrology under modelled scenarios of low water-resource development and flow modification by dams and extraction, (2) how beta diversity of fish among and within rivers was associated with spatial hydrological variation and whether patterns of overall beta diversity differed between native and non-native species, and (3) the associations of spatial and environmental variables and both recent and long-term hydrology with beta diversity. Read More

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Long-term impacts of reservoir operation on the spatiotemporal variation in nitrogen forms in the post-Three Gorges Dam period (2004-2016).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, 430072, Wuhan, China.

Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient limiting life, and its biochemical cycling and distribution in rivers have been markedly affected by river engineering construction and operation. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the spatiotemporal variations and driving environmental factors of N distributions based on the long-term observations (from 2004 to 2016) of seven stations in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). In the study period, several water quality indexes of the river reach improved, whereas N pollution was severe and tended to be aggravated after the TGR impoundment. Read More

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Practical Evaluation of Printed Strain Sensors Based on Long-Term Static Strain Measurements.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 14;21(14). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba 305-8564, Japan.

Recent progress in printable electronics has enabled the fabrication of printed strain sensors for diverse applications. These include the monitoring of civil infrastructure, the gradual aging of which raises concerns about its effective maintenance and safety. Therefore, there is a need for automated sensing systems that provide information on the performance and behavior of engineering structures that are subjected to dynamic and static loads. Read More

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Effects of dam construction and fish invasion on the species, functional and phylogenetic diversity of fish assemblages in the Yellow River Basin.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 9;293:112863. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

State Key Laboratory of Eco-hydraulic in Northwest Arid Region of China, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an, 710048, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

An understanding of the consequences of human-mediated disturbances from multi-facet diversity (i.e. species, functional and phylogenetic) perspectives is of great significance in biodiversity assessment and conservation planning. Read More

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September 2021

Influence of Zooplankton and Environmental Factors on Clear-Water Phase in Lake Paldang, South Korea.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 5;18(13). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Han River Environment Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Research, 42, Dumulmeori-gil 68beon-gil, Yangseo-myeon, Yangpyeong-gun 12585, Korea.

Lake Paldang is a complex water system with both fluvial and lacustrine characteristics and the largest artificial dam lake in South Korea. In this study, the different occurrence patterns and causes of the clear-water phase (CWP) were investigated using water quality and hydrological factors at four sites in Lake Paldang. Among the environmental and other factors associated with CWP occurrence, secchi depth and turbidity exhibited significant correlations with precipitation, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and individual and relative abundance (RA) of zooplankton (Cladocera) ( < 0. Read More

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EVALUATION OF METAL ACCUMULATION IN THE FORAGE GRASS Brachiaria decumbens Stapf GROWN IN CONTAMINATED SOILS WITH IRON TAILINGS.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Biodiversity, Evolution and Environment of Federal University of Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The biggest world tailing dam rupture occurred in Brazil in 2015, releasing approximately 32 million m of iron tailings in the Doce River watershed, along its 660km trajectory, reaching the Atlantic Ocean. This disaster significantly altered water and soil properties, increasing the soil metal contents, mainly iron concentration. Little is known about the concentration of toxic elements in plants grown in these areas. Read More

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A comparative multicentre study evaluating gluteal turnover flap for wound closure after abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer.

Tech Coloproctol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Surgery, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Post-box 22660, 1100 DD, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The aim of this study was to compare perineal wound healing between gluteal turnover flap and primary closure in patients undergoing abdominoperineal resection (APR) for rectal cancer.

Methods: Patients who underwent APR for primary or recurrent rectal cancer with gluteal turnover flap in two university hospitals (2016-2021) were compared to a multicentre cohort of primary closure (2000-2017). The primary endpoint was uncomplicated perineal wound healing within 30 days. Read More

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sp. nov., an acidophilic, metal-resistant sulfate-reducing bacterium from acid mine drainage.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Jul;71(7)

Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050, Russia.

A novel, spore-forming, acidophilic and metal-resistant sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain OL, was isolated from a microbial mat in a tailing dam at a gold ore mining site. Cells were slightly curved immotile rods, 0.5 µm in diameter and 2. Read More

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Carbonation, Cementation, and Stabilization of Ultramafic Mine Tailings.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 8;55(14):10056-10066. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

SGS Canada Inc., 185 Concession Street, Lakefield, Ontario K0L 2H0, Canada.

Tailings dam failures can cause devastation to the environment, loss of human life, and require expensive remediation. A promising approach for de-risking brucite-bearing ultramafic tailings is in situ cementation via carbon dioxide (CO) mineralization, which also sequesters this greenhouse gas within carbonate minerals. In cylindrical test experiments, brucite [Mg(OH)] carbonation was accelerated by coupling organic and inorganic carbon cycling. Read More

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Evidence of reproductive disturbance in Astyanax lacustris (Teleostei: Characiformes) from the Doce River after the collapse of the Fundão Dam in Mariana, Brazil.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Laboratório de Ictiologia Aplicada - LabPeixe, Universidade Vila Velha, Complexo Biopráticas, Av. José Dantas de Melo, 21, Boa Vista, Zip Code, Vila Velha, ES, 29102-770, Brazil.

The Fundão Dam collapsed, on November 5th, 2015, dumping more than 50 million/m of iron ore tailings, enriched with metals, into the Doce River channel. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive biology and histological damage in Astyanax lacustris specimens exposed to the metals from the dam collapse. The study was carried out at Doce River, in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Read More

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Perinatal fluoxetine dose-dependently affects prenatal stress-induced neurobehavioural abnormalities, HPA-axis functioning and underlying brain alterations in rat dams and their offspring.

Reprod Toxicol 2021 Jun 26;104:27-43. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Salari Institute of Cognitive and Behavioral Disorders (SICBD), Karaj, Alborz, Iran. Electronic address:

Both untreated and SSRI antidepressant treated maternal depression during the perinatal period can pose both short-and long-term health risks to the offspring. Therefore, it is essential to have an effective SSRI treatment consisting of the lowest effective dose beneficial to the mother, without causing adverse effects on offspring development. The effects of prenatal stress on neurobehavioral outcomes were studied in the pregnant and lactating rat dam, and her offspring. Read More

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Modeling the kinetics of potentially toxic elements desorption in sediment affected by a dam breakdown disaster in Doce River - Brazil.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 15;283:131157. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Chemistry Department, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:

On November 5th, 2015, a mining dam spilled a huge plume of mining waste in the Doce River. Even though many studies have reported the environmental impact from the Doce River's tragedy, the transport of potentially toxic elements (PTE) by kinetic modeling to determine how long the basin takes to achieve the natural balance has not been described. Therefore, samples of sludge, sediment, and water were collected along the Doce River basin, to assess the elements' total leaching by kinetic modeling. Read More

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Maternal fluoxetine reduces hippocampal inflammation and neurogenesis in adult offspring with sex-specific effects of periadolescent oxytocin.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of British Columbia, Canada; Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Canada; Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health, University of British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address:

Untreated perinatal depression can have severe consequences for the mother and her children. However, both the efficacy to mothers and safety to exposed infants of pharmacological antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), have been questioned. We previously reported that maternal SSRI exposure increased hippocampal IL-1β levels, which may be tied to limited efficacy of SSRIs during the postpartum to the dam but is not yet known whether maternal postpartum SSRIs affect the neuroinflammatory profile of adult offspring. Read More

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Long-Term Suture Breakage After Scleral Fixation of a Modified Capsular Tension Ring with Polypropylene 10-0 Suture.

Clin Ophthalmol 2021 14;15:2473-2479. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Oslo University Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Aim: To investigate the long-term risk of suture breakage after implantation of a modified capsular tension ring (MCTR) fixated to the sclera with polypropylene 10-0 suture.

Methods: Retrospective case series of operations for subluxated phakic lenses in 2007-2015 with implantation of an MCTR secured with a 10-0 polypropylene suture as part of an intraocular lens (IOL)-capsular bag complex.

Results: We identified 132 eyes (92 patients) operated on with an MCTR. Read More

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Standardizing nomenclature in regional anesthesia: an ASRA-ESRA Delphi consensus study of abdominal wall, paraspinal, and chest wall blocks.

Reg Anesth Pain Med 2021 07;46(7):571-580

Department of Anesthesiology, Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, Genk, Limburg, Belgium.

Background: There is heterogeneity in the names and anatomical descriptions of regional anesthetic techniques. This may have adverse consequences on education, research, and implementation into clinical practice. We aimed to produce standardized nomenclature for abdominal wall, paraspinal, and chest wall regional anesthetic techniques. Read More

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Impacts of an Amazonian hydroelectric dam on frog assemblages.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(6):e0244580. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Coordenação de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

About 90% of the Amazon's energy potential remains unexploited, with many large hydroelectric dams yet to be built, so it is important to understand how terrestrial vertebrates are affected by reservoir formation and habitat loss. We investigated the influence of the construction of the Santo Antônio Hydroelectric dam on the Madeira River in southwestern Amazonia on the structure of frog assemblages based on samples collected in two years before the dam flooded (pre-stage) and one (post1-stage) and four years (post2-stage) after its construction. We surveyed five 500-ha plot systems three times during each stage; in the pre-stage we sampled 19 plots in low-lying areas that would be flooded by the dam, (from now called flooded pre-stage plots) and 45 plots in terra-firme forest (from now called unflooded pre-stage plots). Read More

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Effects of supplements differing in fatty acid profile to late gestational beef cows on cow performance, calf growth performance, and mRNA expression of genes associated with myogenesis and adipogenesis.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 Jun 14;12(1):67. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA.

Background: Maternal nutrition during gestation affects fetal development, which has long-term programming effects on offspring postnatal growth performance. With a critical role in protein and lipid metabolism, essential fatty acids can influence the development of muscle and adipose tissue. The experiment investigated the effects of late gestation supplements (77 d prepartum), either rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (CON; 155 g/cow/d EnerGII) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; 80 g/cow/d Strata and 80 g/cow/d Prequel), on cow performance and subsequent calf growth performance as well as mRNA expression in longissimus muscle (LM) and subcutaneous adipose tissue at birth and weaning. Read More

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Electromagnetic power of lightning superbolts from Earth to space.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 11;12(1):3553. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Météorage, Pau, France.

Lightning superbolts are the most powerful and rare lightning events with intense optical emission, first identified from space. Superbolt events occurred in 2010-2018 could be localized by extracting the high energy tail of the lightning stroke signals measured by the very low frequency ground stations of the World-Wide Lightning Location Network. Here, we report electromagnetic observations of superbolts from space using Van Allen Probes satellite measurements, and ground measurements, and with two events measured both from ground and space. Read More

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Replicative senescence dictates the emergence of disease-associated microglia and contributes to Aβ pathology.

Cell Rep 2021 Jun;35(10):109228

School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK. Electronic address:

The sustained proliferation of microglia is a key hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), accelerating its progression. Here, we aim to understand the long-term impact of the early and prolonged microglial proliferation observed in AD, hypothesizing that extensive and repeated cycling would engender a distinct transcriptional and phenotypic trajectory. We show that the early and sustained microglial proliferation seen in an AD-like model promotes replicative senescence, characterized by increased βgal activity, a senescence-associated transcriptional signature, and telomere shortening, correlating with the appearance of disease-associated microglia (DAM) and senescent microglial profiles in human post-mortem AD cases. Read More

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Soy isoflavones recover pancreatic islet function and prevent metabolic dysfunction in male rats.

J Endocrinol 2021 Jul 7;250(3):81-91. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Biotechnology, Genetics, and Cellular Biology, State University of Maringá, Maringá, Parana, Brazil.

We tested whether chronic supplementation with soy isoflavones could modulate insulin secretion levels and subsequent recovery of pancreatic islet function as well as prevent metabolic dysfunction induced by early overfeeding in adult male rats. Wistar rats raised in small litters (SL, three pups/dam) and normal litters (NL, nine pups/dam) were used as models of early overfeeding and normal feeding, respectively. At 30 to 90 days old, animals in the SL and NL groups received either soy isoflavones extract (ISO) or water (W) gavage serving as controls. Read More

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Development of a practical dietitian road map for the nutritional management of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients on pegvaliase.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2021 Sep 25;28:100771. Epub 2021 May 25.

University Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: The metabolic dietitian/nutritionist (hereafter 'dietitian') plays an essential role in the nutritional management of patients with phenylketonuria (PKU), including those on pegvaliase. Currently, more educational support and clinical experience is needed to ensure that dietitians are prepared to provide optimal nutritional management and counselling of pegvaliase-treated patients.

Methods: Via a face-to-face data-review meeting, followed by a virtual consolidation meeting, a group of expert dietitians and one paediatrician discussed and developed a series of recommendations on the nutritional evaluation and management of patients receiving pegvaliase. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of knowledge, attitude, and practices of Type 2 diabetic patients: A study in the locality in Vietnam.

J Educ Health Promot 2021 27;10:72. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, Thailand.

Background: Disease knowledge, appropriate attitude, and proper practices play an important role in disease control and reduction of diabetes-related complications and deaths. This study aims to investigate the impact of knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAPs) of Type 2 diabetic patients' outcomes.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional research was conducted on a group of 102 Type 2 diabetic participants in 17 communities in Tam Binh District, Vinh Long Province, Vietnam. Read More

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February 2021

Researching 100 t cows: An innovative approach to identify intrinsic cows factors associated with a high lifetime milk production.

Prev Vet Med 2021 Aug 26;193:105392. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Reproduction, Obstetrics and Herd Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820, Merelbeke, Belgium.

Longevity is an important trait both from an economic and social perspective. Modern dairy cows are criticized for their short productive lifespan: only a minority of animals survives to a fourth lactation, implying that most cows are culled before reaching their maximal potential. In contrast, the population of 100 t cows (HT), reaching the threshold of 100,000 kg lifetime milk yield, is growing rapidly. Read More

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The trans-ancestral genomic architecture of glycemic traits.

Nat Genet 2021 06 31;53(6):840-860. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Glycemic traits are used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic health. To date, most genetic studies of glycemic traits have focused on individuals of European ancestry. Here we aggregated genome-wide association studies comprising up to 281,416 individuals without diabetes (30% non-European ancestry) for whom fasting glucose, 2-h glucose after an oral glucose challenge, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin data were available. Read More

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A hydroelectric dam borrow pit rehabilitation. Two decades after the project, what went wrong?

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 27;293:112850. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Geology, Federal University of Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Although environmental rehabilitation projects that did not succeed are not uncommon, there are few research papers that deal with the subject. Works on the rehabilitation of borrow pits are even more rare. In an attempt to fulfill some gaps, the present study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of a program for the restoration of a clay borrow pit used for the construction of a hydroelectric plant, twenty years after its execution. Read More

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September 2021

When timing matters-misdesigned dam filling impacts hydropower sustainability.

Nat Commun 2021 05 24;12(1):3056. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Electronics, Information, and Bioengineering Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.

Decades of sustainable dam planning efforts have focused on containing dam impacts in regime conditions, when the dam is fully filled and operational, overlooking potential disputes raised by the filling phase. Here, we argue that filling timing and operations can catalyze most of the conflicts associated with a dam's lifetime, which can be mitigated by adaptive solutions that respond to medium-to-long term hydroclimatic fluctuations. Our retrospective analysis of the contested recent filling of Gibe III in the Omo-Turkana basin provides quantitative evidence of the benefits generated by adaptive filling strategies, attaining levels of hydropower production comparable with the historical ones while curtailing the negative impacts to downstream users. Read More

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Real-time visualization of renal microperfusion using laser speckle contrast imaging.

J Biomed Opt 2021 May;26(5)

Medical Centre Leeuwarden, Department of Intensive Care, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands.

Significance: Intraoperative parameters of renal cortical microperfusion (RCM) have been associated with postoperative ischemia/reperfusion injury. Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) could provide valuable information in this regard with the advantage over the current standard of care of being a non-contact and full-field imaging technique.

Aim: Our study aims to validate the use of LSCI for the visualization of RCM on ex vivo perfused human-sized porcine kidneys in various models of hemodynamic changes. Read More

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Sedimentation history and excess metal deposition in estuarine barrier-island system of the Nakdong River, South Korea.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Aug 19;169:112499. Epub 2021 May 19.

Marine Environmental Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, 385 Haeyang-ro, Busan 49111, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Human activities, such as dam construction and reclamation, can affect sedimentation rates as well as sediment topography and transport in estuaries such as the Nakdong River Estuary. To investigate the sedimentation history, two sediment cores (1-2 m long) were sampled in tidal flats of the estuary. In addition, surface sediments were collected to study present sedimentation environments that appear to be three environments locally: 1) fine-grained sediment deposition; 2) sediments under stronger hydraulic energy; and 3) sandy sediments with good sorting. Read More

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Cloud model-based evaluation of landslide dam development feasibility.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0251212. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

As natural backwater structures, landslide dams both threaten downstream human settlement or infrastructure and contain abundant hydro-energy and tourism resources, so research on their development feasibility is of great significance for permanently remedying them and effectively turning disasters into benefits. Through an analysis of the factors influencing landslide dam development and utilization, an index system (consisting of target, rule, and index layers) for evaluating development feasibility was constructed in this paper. Considering uncertainty and randomness in development feasibility evaluation, a cloud model-improved evaluation method was proposed to determine membership and score clouds based on the uncertainty reasoning of cloud model, and a cloud model-improved analytic hierarchy process (AHP-Cloud Model) was introduced to obtain weights. Read More

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Diet Quality and Lower Refined Grain Consumption are Associated With Less Weight Gain in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Adult Population.

J Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: The prevalence of obesity is increasing in many Asian countries. However, longitudinal data on the impacts of dietary factors on weight gain in Asian populations are sparse.

Objectives: We evaluated the relationship between changes in intakes of nutrients, foods, and beverages and diet quality and long-term changes in body weight. Read More

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