3,925 results match your criteria cytoskeletal architecture

SIK2 orchestrates actin-dependent host response upon infection.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Institute of Biochemistry II, Goethe University School of Medicine, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany;

is an intracellular pathogen of a substantial global health concern. In order to identify key players involved in infection, we performed a global host phosphoproteome analysis subsequent to bacterial infection. Thereby, we identified the kinase SIK2 as a central component of the host defense machinery upon infection. Read More

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The transcription factor Rreb1 regulates epithelial architecture, invasiveness and vasculogenesis in early mouse embryos.

Elife 2021 Apr 30;10. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Developmental Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, United States.

Ras-responsive element-binding protein 1 (Rreb1) is a zinc-finger transcription factor acting downstream of RAS signaling. has been implicated in cancer and Noonan-like RASopathies. However, little is known about its role in mammalian non-disease states. Read More

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Zebrafish embryo extracts enhance 5-FU anti-cancer effects upon breast cancer cells.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Apr;25(8):3235-3245

Department of Surgery "Pietro Valdoni", Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Objective: The inhibition of the metastatic capability of cancer cells is a pivotal aim of current anticancer strategies. We investigated herein the anti-migrating and anti-invasive properties of Zebrafish embryo extracts (SL) - an integrative formula comprising morphogenetic factors extracted from zebrafish embryos - alone or in association with 5-Fluoro-Uracil (5-FU), when added to metastatic breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) and in normal epithelial breast cells (MCF10A) committed toward an inflammatory phenotype upon TGF-β1 stimulation.

Materials And Methods: Invasiveness, migrating capability, cytoskeleton architecture and related molecular factors involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition were studied after treatment with 5-FU, with and without SL. Read More

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Cytoskeletal control of early mammalian development.

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The cytoskeleton - comprising actin filaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments - serves instructive roles in regulating cell function and behaviour during development. However, a key challenge in cell and developmental biology is to dissect how these different structures function and interact in vivo to build complex tissues, with the ultimate aim to understand these processes in a mammalian organism. The preimplantation mouse embryo has emerged as a primary model system for tackling this challenge. Read More

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LINCking the Nuclear Envelope to Sperm Architecture.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Università degli Studi della Campania L. Vanvitelli, Via Costantinopoli 16, 80138 Napoli, Italy.

Nuclear architecture undergoes an extensive remodeling during spermatogenesis, especially at levels of spermatocytes (SPC) and spermatids (SPT). Interestingly, typical events of spermiogenesis, such as nuclear elongation, acrosome biogenesis, and flagellum formation, need a functional cooperation between proteins of the nuclear envelope and acroplaxome/manchette structures. In addition, nuclear envelope plays a key role in chromosome distribution. Read More

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Centrosome Dynamics and Its Role in Inflammatory Response and Metastatic Process.

Biomolecules 2021 Apr 23;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Metastasis is a process by which cancer cells escape from the location of the primary tumor invading normal tissues at distant organs. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a hallmark of human cancer, associated with metastasis and therapeutic resistance. The centrosome plays a major role in organizing the microtubule cytoskeleton in animal cells regulating cellular architecture and cell division. Read More

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Conquering the Nuclear Envelope Barriers by EBV Lytic Replication.

Viruses 2021 04 18;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Graduate Institute and Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100233, Taiwan.

The nuclear envelope (NE) of eukaryotic cells has a highly structural architecture, comprising double lipid-bilayer membranes, nuclear pore complexes, and an underlying nuclear lamina network. The NE structure is held in place through the membrane-bound LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex, spanning the inner and outer nuclear membranes. The NE functions as a barrier between the nucleus and cytoplasm and as a transverse scaffold for various cellular processes. Read More

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Mechanoresponsive metabolism in cancer cell migration and metastasis.

Cell Metab 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA. Electronic address:

Altered tissue mechanics and metabolism are defining characteristics of cancer that impact not only proliferation but also migration. While migrating through a mechanically and spatially heterogeneous microenvironment, changes in metabolism allow cells to dynamically tune energy generation and bioenergetics in response to fluctuating energy needs. Physical cues from the extracellular matrix influence mechanosignaling pathways, cell mechanics, and cytoskeletal architecture to alter presentation and function of metabolic enzymes. Read More

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DNA methylation variations in familial female and male breast cancer.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jun 12;21(6):468. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Division of Biology and Genetics, University of Brescia, I-25123 Brescia, Italy.

In total, ~25% of familial breast cancer (BC) is attributed to germline mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, while the rest of the cases are included in the BRCAX group. BC is also known to affect men, with a worldwide incidence of 1%. Epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation, have been rarely studied in male breast cancer (MBC) on a genome-wide level. Read More

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Drebrin, an actin-binding protein, is required for lens morphogenesis and growth.

Dev Dyn 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Lens morphogenesis, architecture, and clarity are known to be critically dependent on actin cytoskeleton organization and cell adhesive interactions. There is limited knowledge, however regarding the identity and role of key proteins regulating actin cytoskeletal organization in the lens. This study investigated the role of drebrin, a developmentally regulated actin-binding protein, in mouse lens development by generating and characterizing a conditional knockout (cKO) mouse model using the Cre-LoxP recombination approach. Read More

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A lesson from earthquake engineering for selectively damaging cancer cell structures.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 Apr 19;119:104533. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Laboratory of Bio-inspired, Bionic, Nano, Meta Materials and Mechanics, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Italy; School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, UK. Electronic address:

The progressive falling of barriers among disciplines is opening unforeseen scenarios in diagnosis and treatment of cancer diseases. By sharing models and mature knowledge in physics, engineering, computer sciences and molecular biology, synergistic efforts have in fact contributed in the last years to re-think still unsolved problems, shedding light on key roles of mechanobiology in tumors and envisaging new effective strategies for a precise medicine. The use of ultrasounds for altering cancer cells' program is one of the most attracting grounds to be explored in oncophysics, although how to administer mechanical energy to impair selected cell structures and functions simultaneously overcoming the critical trade-off between the impact of the cure and the patient risk still remains an open issue. Read More

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Exploiting Substrate Cues for Co-Culturing Cells in a Micropattern.

Langmuir 2021 04 19;37(16):4933-4942. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India.

Spatial distribution of cells and their interactions between neighboring cells in native microenvironments are of fundamental importance in determining cell fate decisions such as migration, growth, and differentiation. Controlling the spatial distribution of different cell types in defined geometries can replicate these native environments, which can be a useful model for several studies. While spatiotemporal control over multiple cell arrangements is required to achieve the complex tissue architecture, unfortunately, conventional cell patterning techniques usually allow only single patterning with a single cell type. Read More

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Intravital imaging of real-time endogenous actin dysregulation in proximal and distal tubules at the onset of severe ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8280. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Immunology and Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Pre-medicine Bridge Program, College of Arts and Sciences, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Severe renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) can lead to acute and chronic kidney dysfunction. Cytoskeletal modifications are among the main effects of this condition. The majority of studies that have contributed to the current understanding of IRI have relied on histological analyses using exogenous probes after the fact. Read More

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Myofibril and mitochondria morphogenesis are coordinated by a mechanical feedback mechanism in muscle.

Nat Commun 2021 04 7;12(1):2091. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Aix Marseille University, CNRS, IBDM, Turing Center for Living Systems, Marseille, France.

Complex animals build specialised muscles to match specific biomechanical and energetic needs. Hence, composition and architecture of sarcomeres and mitochondria are muscle type specific. However, mechanisms coordinating mitochondria with sarcomere morphogenesis are elusive. Read More

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Secrets of secretion-How studies of the Drosophila salivary gland have informed our understanding of the cellular networks underlying secretory organ form and function.

Curr Top Dev Biol 2021 19;143:1-36. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Cell Biology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States. Electronic address:

Secretory organs are critical for organismal survival. Yet, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms governing their development and maintenance remain unclear for most model secretory organs. The Drosophila embryonic salivary gland (SG) remedies this deficiency as one of the few organs wherein direct connections from the expression of the early patterning genes to cell specification to organ architecture and functional specialization can be made. Read More

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November 2020

Genomic Approaches Reveal Pleiotropic Effects in Crossbred Beef Cattle.

Front Genet 2021 19;12:627055. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

Carcass and meat quality are two important attributes for the beef industry because they drive profitability and consumer demand. These traits are of even greater importance in crossbred cattle used in subtropical and tropical regions for their superior adaptability because they tend to underperform compared to their purebred counterparts. Many of these traits are challenging and expensive to measure and unavailable until late in life or after the animal is harvested, hence unrealistic to improve through traditional phenotypic selection, but perfect candidates for genomic selection. Read More

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Stiffness and Aging in Cardiovascular Diseases: The Dangerous Relationship between Force and Senescence.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 26;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Unità di Ingegneria Tissutale Cardiovascolare, Centro cardiologico Monzino, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico(IRCCS), 20138 Milan, Italy.

Biological aging is a process associated with a gradual decline in tissues' homeostasis based on the progressive inability of the cells to self-renew. Cellular senescence is one of the hallmarks of the aging process, characterized by an irreversible cell cycle arrest due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, telomeres shortening, chronic inflammatory activation, and chromatin modifications. In this review, we will describe the effects of senescence on tissue structure, extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, and nucleus architecture, and see how these changes affect (are affected by) mechano-transduction. Read More

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Actin bundle architecture and mechanics regulate myosin II force generation.

Biophys J 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

The actin cytoskeleton is a soft, structural material that underlies biological processes such as cell division, motility, and cargo transport. The cross-linked actin filaments self-organize into a myriad of architectures, from disordered meshworks to ordered bundles, which are hypothesized to control the actomyosin force generation that regulates cell migration, shape, and adhesion. Here, we use fluorescence microscopy and simulations to investigate how actin bundle architectures with varying polarity, spacing, and rigidity impact myosin II dynamics and force generation. Read More

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Interaction of Gp82 With Host Cell LAMP2 Induces Protein Kinase C Activation and Promotes Invasion.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 12;11:627888. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The surface molecule gp82 of metacyclic trypomastigote (MT) forms of , the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, mediates the host cell invasion, a process critical for the establishment of infection. Gp82 is known to bind to the target cell in a receptor-dependent manner, triggering Ca signal, actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and lysosome spreading. The host cell receptor for gp82 was recently identified as LAMP2, the major lysosome membrane-associated protein. Read More

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Profilin 3 genetic architecture in glioma formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) archive.

Gene 2021 Jun 26;787:145614. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

School of Life Sciences, Forman Christian College (A Chartered University), Lahore 54600, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Pfn3 is an intron-less gene, encoding actin binding protein that affects structure of cytoskeleton. Although, Pfn3 is mentioned in Allen Brain Atlas and in adult and prenatal Human Brain Tissue Gene Expression Profiles dataset, however, no report on brain and/or brain tumor associated Pfn3 nucleotide sequences are available in the databases. Moreover, pfn3 and pfn4 are always considered as testicular specific genes. Read More

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Mechanical stress determines the configuration of TGFβ activation in articular cartilage.

Nat Commun 2021 03 17;12(1):1706. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Our incomplete understanding of osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis has significantly hindered the development of disease-modifying therapy. The functional relationship between subchondral bone (SB) and articular cartilage (AC) is unclear. Here, we found that the changes of SB architecture altered the distribution of mechanical stress on AC. Read More

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Fibronectin as a multiregulatory molecule crucial in tumor matrisome: from structural and functional features to clinical practice in oncology.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Mar 17;40(1):102. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy Unit, IRCCS-Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy.

Deciphering extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and architecture may represent a novel approach to identify diagnostic and therapeutic targets in cancer. Among the ECM components, fibronectin and its fibrillary assembly represent the scaffold to build up the entire ECM structure, deeply affecting its features. Herein we focus on this extraordinary protein starting from its complex structure and defining its role in cancer as prognostic and theranostic marker. Read More

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The genetic architecture of structural left-right asymmetry of the human brain.

Nat Hum Behav 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Language and Genetics Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Left-right hemispheric asymmetry is an important aspect of healthy brain organization for many functions including language, and it can be altered in cognitive and psychiatric disorders. No mechanism has yet been identified for establishing the human brain's left-right axis. We performed multivariate genome-wide association scanning of cortical regional surface area and thickness asymmetries, and subcortical volume asymmetries, using data from 32,256 participants from the UK Biobank. Read More

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Insights into the interaction dynamics between volatile anesthetics and tubulin through computational molecular modelling.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Mar 10:1-15. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (DIMEAS), Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy.

General anesthetics, able to reversibly suppress all conscious brain activity, have baffled medical science for decades, and little is known about their exact molecular mechanism of action. Given the recent scientific interest in the exploration of microtubules as putative functional targets of anesthetics, and the involvement thereof in neurodegenerative disorders, the present work focuses on the investigation of the interaction between human tubulin and four volatile anesthetics: ethylene, desflurane, halothane and methoxyflurane. Interaction sites on different tubulin isotypes are predicted through docking, along with an estimate of the binding affinity ranking. Read More

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The vesicle cluster as a major organizer of synaptic composition in the short-term and long-term.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2021 Mar 8;71:63-68. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

University Medical Center Göttingen, Institute for Neuro- and Sensory Physiology and Biostructural Imaging of Neurodegeneration (BIN) Center, Göttingen, 37073, Germany; Cluster of Excellence "Multiscale Bioimaging: from Molecular Machines to Networks of Excitable Cells" (MBExC), University of Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address:

For decades, the synaptic vesicle cluster has been thought of as a storage space for synaptic vesicles, whose obvious function is to provide vesicles for the depolarization-induced release of neurotransmitters; however, reports over the last few years indicate that the synaptic vesicle cluster probably plays a much broader and more fundamental role in synaptic biology. Various experiments suggest that the cluster is able to regulate protein distribution and mobility in the synapse; moreover, it probably regulates cytoskeleton architecture, mediates the selective removal of synaptic components from the bouton, and controls the responses of the presynapse to plasticity. Here we discuss these features of the vesicle cluster and conclude that it serves as a key organizer of synaptic composition and dynamics. Read More

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Dynein self-organizes while translocating the centrosome in T-cells.

Mol Biol Cell 2021 04 10;32(9):855-868. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Biophysics, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands.

T-cells massively restructure their internal architecture upon reaching an antigen-presenting cell (APC) to form the immunological synapse (IS), a cell-cell interface necessary for efficient elimination of the APC. This reorganization occurs through tight coordination of cytoskeletal processes: actin forms a peripheral ring, and dynein motors translocate the centrosome toward the IS. A recent study proposed that centrosome translocation involves a microtubule (MT) bundle that connects the centrosome perpendicularly to dynein at the synapse center: the "stalk. Read More

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Maize ( L.) Nucleoskeletal Proteins Regulate Nuclear Envelope Remodeling and Function in Stomatal Complex Development and Pollen Viability.

Front Plant Sci 2021 17;12:645218. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, United States.

In eukaryotes, the nuclear envelope (NE) encloses chromatin and separates it from the rest of the cell. The Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex physically bridges across the NE, linking nuclear and cytoplasmic components. In plants, these LINC complexes are beginning to be ascribed roles in cellular and nuclear functions, including chromatin organization, regulation of nuclei shape and movement, and cell division. Read More

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February 2021

Actin Cytoskeleton and Regulation of TGFβ Signaling: Exploring Their Links.

Biomolecules 2021 02 23;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy Unit, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, via Chianesi 53, 00144 Rome, Italy.

Human tissues, to maintain their architecture and function, respond to injuries by activating intricate biochemical and physical mechanisms that regulates intercellular communication crucial in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Coordination of the communication occurs through the activity of different actin cytoskeletal regulators, physically connected to extracellular matrix through integrins, generating a platform of biochemical and biomechanical signaling that is deregulated in cancer. Among the major pathways, a controller of cellular functions is the cytokine transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), which remains a complex and central signaling network still to be interpreted and explained in cancer progression. Read More

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February 2021

Myosin Motors: Novel Regulators and Therapeutic Targets in Colorectal Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Feb 11;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third most common cause of cancer and the second most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Clinicians are largely faced with advanced and metastatic disease for which few interventions are available. One poorly understood aspect of CRC involves altered organization of the actin cytoskeleton, especially at the metastatic stage of the disease. Read More

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February 2021

Cocaine Induces Cytoskeletal Changes in Cardiac Myocytes: Implications for Cardiac Morphology.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 24;22(5). Epub 2021 Feb 24.

School of Life Sciences, Pharmacy and Chemistry, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Kingston upon Thames, London, KT1 2EE, UK.

Cocaine is one of the most widely abused illicit drugs worldwide and has long been recognised as an agent of cardiac dysfunction in numerous cases of drug overdose. Cocaine has previously been shown to up-regulate cytoskeletal rearrangements and morphological changes in numerous tissues; however, previous literature observes such changes primarily in clinical case reports and addiction studies. An investigation into the fundamental cytoskeletal parameters of migration, adhesion and proliferation were studied to determine the cytoskeletal and cytotoxic basis of cocaine in cardiac cells. Read More

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February 2021