71,194 results match your criteria cytokines apoptosis


Immunotoxicity induced by Ivermectin is associated with NF-κB signaling pathway on macrophages.

Chemosphere 2021 Nov 26:133087. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, China. Electronic address:

Ivermectin (IVM) has been widely used as a highly effective and broad-spectrum biopesticide in animal husbandry and agriculture. Considering the frequent environmental and occupational exposure, the various toxic effects caused by IVM should be paid more attention. The immune system is a common target of toxins due to its complexity and sensitivity. Read More

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November 2021

Effects of chlorobromoisocyanuric acid on embryonic development and immunotoxicity of zebrafish.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Jiangxi Engineering Laboratory of Zebrafish Modeling and Drug Screening for Human Diseases, Ji'an, China.

Although chlorobromoisocyanuric acid has been widely used in agriculture, its deleterious toxicity on aquatic organisms remains rare. In this study, zebrafish were exposed to chlorobromoisocyanuric acid (0, 30, 40, and 50 mg/L) from 10 to 96 h post-fertilization (hpf). We found a significant reduction in immune cell numbers (neutrophils and macrophages) and the area of thymus at 96 hpf. Read More

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November 2021

Nucleomodulin BspJ as an effector promotes the colonization of in the host.

J Vet Sci 2021 Oct 24. Epub 2021 Oct 24.

International Research Center for Animal Health Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003, Xinjiang, China.

Background: infection induces brucellosis, a zoonotic disease. The intracellular circulation process and virulence of mainly depend on its type IV secretion system (T4SS) expressing secretory effectors. Secreted protein BspJ is a nucleomodulin of that invades the host cell nucleus. Read More

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October 2021

Effect of Electrical Stimulation on Ocular Cells: A Means for Improving Ocular Tissue Engineering and Treatments of Eye Diseases.

Biomed Res Int 2021 17;2021:6548554. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Poostchi Ophthalmology Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Tissue engineering is biomedical engineering that uses suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to assemble functional constructs that restore or improve damaged tissues. Recently, cell therapies as a subset of tissue engineering have been very promising in the treatment of ocular diseases. One of the most important biophysical factors to make this happen is noninvasive electrical stimulation (ES) to target ocular cells that may preserve vision in multiple retinal and optic nerve diseases. Read More

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November 2021

Hsp22 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced myocardial injury by inhibiting inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis.

Bioengineered 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330000, China.

Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction (SIMD) is ubiquitous in septic shock patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Heat shock protein 22 (Hsp22), which belongs to the small HSP family of proteins, is involved in several biological functions. However, the function of Hsp22 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced myocardial injury is not yet established. Read More

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November 2021

MLK4 regulates DNA damage response and promotes triple-negative breast cancer chemoresistance.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Nov 27;12(12):1111. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Laboratory of Molecular OncoSignalling, IMol Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

Chemoresistance constitutes a major challenge in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Mixed-Lineage Kinase 4 (MLK4) is frequently amplified or overexpressed in TNBC where it facilitates the aggressive growth and migratory potential of breast cancer cells. However, the functional role of MLK4 in resistance to chemotherapy has not been investigated so far. Read More

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November 2021

MicroRNA-100-5p and microRNA-298-5p released from apoptotic cortical neurons are endogenous Toll-like receptor 7/8 ligands that contribute to neurodegeneration.

Mol Neurodegener 2021 Nov 27;16(1):80. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

Background: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression in the brain is altered in neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies demonstrated that selected miRNAs conventionally regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level can act extracellularly as signaling molecules. The identity of miRNA species serving as membrane receptor ligands involved in neuronal apoptosis in the central nervous system (CNS), as well as the miRNAs' sequence and structure required for this mode of action remained largely unresolved. Read More

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November 2021

Mangiferin exert protective effects on joints of adjuvant-induced arthritis rats by regulating the MAPKs/NF-κB pathway of fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Nov 23:108352. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, 100 Kexue, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Mangiferin (MF) is a bioactive ingredient predominantly isolated from the mango tree, that has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. This study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of MF on the joints of arthritic rats and explore the underlying mechanisms of this function.

Methods: Adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) rat model was established and clinical severity of AA was evaluated by arthritis index, paw edema, plasma, and synovium homogenate parameters. Read More

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November 2021

Effect of Geumgwe-Sinkihwan on Renal Dysfunction in Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Renal Failure Mice.

Nutrients 2021 Oct 28;13(11). Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Hanbang Cardio-Renal Syndrome Research Center, Wonkwang University, 460 Iksan-daero, Iksan 54538, Jeonbuk, Korea.

Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important cause of acute renal failure (ARF). Geumgwe-sinkihwan (GSH) was recorded in a traditional Chines medical book named "Bangyakhappyeon" in 1884. GSH has been used for treatment for patients with diabetes and glomerulonephritis caused by deficiency of kidney yang and insufficiency of kidney gi. Read More

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October 2021

Chronobiology and Chronotherapy in Inflammatory Joint Diseases.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Nov 2;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Clinica Medica Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, via L. Borsari 47, 44121 Ferrara, Italy.

Circadian rhythm perturbations can impact the evolution of different conditions, including autoimmune diseases. This narrative review summarizes the current understanding of circadian biology in inflammatory joint diseases and discusses the potential application of chronotherapy. Proinflammatory cytokines are key players in the development and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), regulating cell survival/apoptosis, differentiation, and proliferation. Read More

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November 2021

Isoorientin Inhibits Amyloid β-Induced Neuronal Inflammation in BV2 Cells by Blocking the NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

Molecules 2021 Nov 22;26(22). Epub 2021 Nov 22.

College of Pharmacy, Keimyung University, 1095 Dalgubeoldaero, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-701, Korea.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder. AD is pathologically characterized by the formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and extracellular amyloid plaques which were comprised of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides. Aβ induces neurodegeneration by activating microglia, which triggers neurotoxicity by releasing various inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Read More

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November 2021

Physiological Roles of Apoptotic Cell Clearance: Beyond Immune Functions.

Life (Basel) 2021 Oct 26;11(11). Epub 2021 Oct 26.

College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea.

The clearance of apoptotic cells is known to be a critical step in maintaining tissue and organism homeostasis. This process is rapidly/promptly mediated by recruited or resident phagocytes. Phagocytes that engulf apoptotic cells have been closely linked to the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines to eliminate inflammatory responses. Read More

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October 2021

Repurposing of High-Dose Erythropoietin as a Potential Drug Attenuates Sepsis in Preconditioning Renal Injury.

Cells 2021 Nov 12;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

Due to (i) the uremia-enhanced sepsis severity, (ii) the high prevalence of sepsis with pre-existing renal injury and (iii) the non-erythropoiesis immunomodulation of erythropoietin (EPO), EPO was tested in sepsis with pre-existing renal injury models with the retrospective exploration in patients. Then, EPO was subcutaneously administered in mice with (i) cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) after renal injury including 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx-CLP) and bilateral nephrectomy (BiNx-CLP) or sham surgery (sham-CLP) and (ii) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, along with testing in macrophages. In patients, the data of EPO administration and the disease characteristics in patients with sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (sepsis-AKI) were evaluated. Read More

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November 2021

Instructions for Flow Cytometric Detection of ASC Specks as a Readout of Inflammasome Activation in Human Blood.

Cells 2021 Oct 26;10(11). Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Pediatric Rheumatology, Department Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, University Medicine, University of Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald, Germany.

Inflammasome activation is linked to the aggregation of the adaptor protein ASC into a multiprotein complex, known as the ASC speck. Redistribution of cytosolic ASC to this complex has been widely used as a readout for inflammasome activation and precedes the downstream proteolytic release of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18. Although inflammasomes are important for many diseases such as periodic fever syndromes, COVID-19, gout, sepsis, atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, only a little knowledge exists on the precise and cell type specific occurrence of inflammasome activation in patient samples ex vivo. Read More

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October 2021

Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Comprehensive Review.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Nov 19;13(22). Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Dipartimento di Diagnostica per Immagini, Radioterapia Oncologica ed Ematologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, 00168 Roma, Italy.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients have a greater predisposition to develop autoimmune complications. The most common of them is autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) with a frequency of 7-10% of cases. Pathogenesis is multifactorial involving humoral, cellular, and innate immunity. Read More

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November 2021

Characterizing the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Mood Disorders: Overview, Technical Development, and Measures of Peripheral Activation in Adolescent Patients.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Nov 19;22(22). Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada.

The NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin-domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a node of intracellular stress pathways and a druggable target which integrates mitochondrial stress and inflammatory cascades. While a body of evidence suggests the involvement of the NLRP3 inflammasome in numerous diseases, a lack of reliable measurement techniques highlights the need for a robust assay using small quantities of biological samples. We present a literature overview on peripheral activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in mood disorders, then outline a process to develop and validate a robust assay to measure baseline and activated intracellular levels of "apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD" (ASC) as a key component of an inflammatory profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Read More

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November 2021

The Modulatory Influence of Plant-Derived Compounds on Human Keratinocyte Function.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Nov 19;22(22). Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Computer Science in Economics, University of Lodz, 90-214 Lodz, Poland.

The plant kingdom is a rich source of secondary metabolites with numerous properties, including the potential to modify keratinocyte biology. Keratinocytes are important epithelial cells that play a protective role against various chemical, physical and biological stimuli, and participate in reactive oxygen scavenging and inflammation and wound healing processes. The epidermal cell response may be modulated by phytochemicals via changes in signal transduction pathways. Read More

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November 2021

Gas6 Ameliorates Inflammatory Response and Apoptosis in Bleomycin-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

Biomedicines 2021 Nov 12;9(11). Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 07804, Korea.

Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by alveolar damage, lung edema, and exacerbated inflammatory response. Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6) mediates many different functions, including cell survival, proliferation, inflammatory signaling, and apoptotic cell clearance (efferocytosis). The role of Gas6 in bleomycin (BLM)-induced ALI is unknown. Read More

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November 2021

Cathepsin C Regulates Cytokine-Induced Apoptosis in β-Cell Model Systems.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Oct 25;12(11). Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Translational Type 1 Diabetes Research, Clinical Research, Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, 2820 Gentofte, Denmark.

Emerging evidence suggests that several of the lysosomal cathepsin proteases are genetically associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and participate in immune-mediated destruction of the pancreatic β cells. We previously reported that the T1D candidate gene cathepsin H is downregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines in human pancreatic islets and regulates β-cell function, apoptosis, and disease progression in children with new-onset T1D. In the present study, the objective was to investigate the expression patterns of all 15 known cathepsins in β-cell model systems and examine their role in the regulation of cytokine-induced apoptosis. Read More

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October 2021

Immunomodulatory Effects of Herbal Compounds Quercetin and Curcumin on Cellular and Molecular Functions of Bovine-Milk-Isolated Neutrophils toward Infection.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Nov 17;11(11). Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand.

Herbal phytochemicals featuring active ingredients including quercetin and curcumin have shown potential in treating human and animal diseases. The current study investigated their potential function in vitro for host immunomodulation associated with subclinical bovine mastitis via milk-isolated neutrophils. Our results showed a positive influence on cellular migration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, phagocytosis, and bacterial killing as well as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) release. Read More

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November 2021

TLR-Mediated Signal Transduction and Neurodegenerative Disorders.

Brain Sci 2021 Oct 20;11(11). Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Engineering & Technology (SET), Sharda University, Greater Noida 201310, India.

A special class of proteins called Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an essential part of the innate immune system, connecting it to the adaptive immune system. There are 10 different Toll-Like Receptors that have been identified in human beings. TLRs are part of the central nervous system (CNS), showing that the CNS is capable of the immune response, breaking the long-held belief of the brain's "immune privilege" owing to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Read More

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October 2021

Terretonin as a New Protective Agent against Sepsis-Induced Acute Lung Injury: Impact on SIRT1/Nrf2/NF-κBp65/NLRP3 Signaling.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Nov 22;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Natural Products and Alternative Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

Endophytic fungi are proving to be an excellent source of chemical entities with unique structures and varied bioactivities. Terretonin (TE) and its structurally related derivatives are a class of meroterpenoids, possessing the same unique tetracyclic core skeleton, which have been reported from the genus. This study was carried out to assess the potential protective effects of TE separated from the endophytic fungus against LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced ALI (acute lung injury) in mice. Read More

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November 2021

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Molecular Immunopathogenesis of Chinese Soft-Shelled Turtle () Infected with .

Biology (Basel) 2021 Nov 22;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 22.

School of Oceanography, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Although hemorrhagic sepsis caused by infection is the dominant disease in the aquaculture of Chinese soft-shelled turtle, information on its molecular pathology is seriously limited. In this study, ninety turtles intraperitoneally injected with exhibited two different phenotypes based on the pathological symptoms, referred to as active and inactive turtles. Comparative transcriptomes of liver and spleen from these two groups at 6, 24, and 72 h post-injection (hpi) were further analyzed. Read More

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November 2021

Lingbao Huxin Pill Alleviates Apoptosis and Inflammation at Infarct Border Zone through SIRT1-Mediated FOXO1 and NF- κ B Pathways in Rat Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Chin J Integr Med 2021 Nov 26. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

National Clinical Research Center for Chinese Medicine Cardiology, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100091, China.

Objective: To investigate whether Lingbao Huxin Pill (LBHX) protects against acute myocardial infarction (AMI) at the infarct border zone (IBZ) of myocardial tissue by regulating apoptosis and inflammation through the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-mediated forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and nuclear factor-κ B (NF-κ B) signaling pathways.

Methods: Six-week-old Wistar rats with normal diet were randomized into the sham, the model, Betaloc (0.9 mg/kg daily), LBHX-L (0. Read More

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November 2021

Semaphorin 3A mitigates lipopolysaccharide-induced chondrocyte inflammation, apoptosis and extracellular matrix degradation by binding to Neuropilin-1.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(2):9641-9654

Department of Hand Surgery, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, China.

Semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) and its receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) are expressed low in chondrocytes under stress, and overexpressing SEMA3A reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine release. This study was aimed at exploring whether SEMA3A participates in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chondrocyte inflammation, apoptosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. SEMA3A and NRP-1 expression in LPS-induced ATDC5 cells was determined with RT-qPCR and western blotting. Read More

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December 2021

Chemerin regulates autophagy to participate in polycystic ovary syndrome.

J Int Med Res 2021 Nov;49(11):3000605211058376

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 585250The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, P. R. China.

Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Chemerin has recently been discovered as a novel adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Excessive autophagy activity and overexpression of autophagy-related genes in follicular granulosa cells are important mechanisms of PCOS. Read More

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November 2021

Perfluorooctane sulfonate induces heart toxicity involving cardiac apoptosis and inflammation in rats.

Exp Ther Med 2022 Jan 28;23(1):14. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Department of Cardiology, Zhejiang Xiaoshan Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311200, P.R. China.

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent pollutant that exerts toxicity and induces cardiogenesis in humans and animals. Yet, the effect of PFOS exposure on cardiac toxicity in adult rats has, to our knowledge, not been reported and the mechanism still remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the toxicity of PFOS on rat hearts and any associated mechanisms. Read More

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January 2022

Exosomes derived from miR-129-5p modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells represses ventricular remolding of mice with myocardial infarction.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2021 Nov 23. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of cardiology, Shijiazhuang People's Hospital, 5 Fangbei Road, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050011, China.

Background: Myocardial infraction (MI) is a severe disease with great mortality. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-derived exosomes display protection against MI. MicroRNA-129-5p was reported to exert anti-inflammation activity by targeting high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). Read More

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November 2021

The S Protein of SARS-CoV-2 Injures Cardiomyocytes Indirectly through the Release of Cytokines Instead of Direct Action.

Acta Cardiol Sin 2021 Nov;37(6):643-647

Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University.

Background: Emerging evidence has shown that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with cardiac injury, but it remains unclear whether cardiac injury is mainly caused by direct viral infection or is secondary to SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine storm.

Methods: Through directly treating cardiomyocytes with S protein, a crucial surface protein of SARS-CoV-2, and indirectly treating cardiomyocytes with S protein-derived human T lymphocyte conditioned medium, we compared the intensities of cardiomyocyte injuries caused by either S protein of the virus or S protein of virus-triggered cytokines.

Results: The directly treated cardiomyocytes did not show increasing cell apoptosis. Read More

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November 2021

Radiocontrast agent and intraductal pressure promote the progression of post-ERCP pancreatitis by regulating inflammatory response, cellular apoptosis, and tight junction integrity.

Pancreatology 2021 Nov 9. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Digestive Endoscopy Center, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) is the most common complication following ERCP and the mechanism is not fully understood. This study evaluated the changes in the inflammatory response, cellular apoptosis, and tight junction integrity in a rat model of pancreatitis to explore the underlying mechanism.

Methods: PEP was induced in rats by retrograde biliopancreatic ductal infusion of contrast agents or saline. Read More

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November 2021