184,361 results match your criteria cytokine production


Tumstatin attenuates the promotion effect of IL-17 secreted by Th17 cells on the stemness maintenance of glioma cells.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 May 5;223:153463. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beilun District People's Hospital of Ningbo City, Ningbo, Zhejiang, 315800, China. Electronic address:

The presence and clinical significance of IL-17 and IL-17-expressing cells have been studied for several cancers, although their correlation with tumor development remains controversial. Peripheral blood was collected from healthy donors and glioma patients to isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The percentage of IL-17-expressing cells and the production of inflammatory cytokines in PBMCs and tissues were measured. Read More

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Transcriptome aberration in mice uterus associated with steroid hormone response and inflammation induced by dioxybenzone and its metabolites.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 4;286:117294. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Benzophenone-type UV filters have been implicated in multiple adverse reproductive outcomes, yet the underlying processes and molecular targets on the female reproductive tract remain largely unknown. Herein, we investigated the effect of dioxybenzone, one of the widely used congeners, and its demethylated (M1) and hydroxylated (M2) metabolites on transcriptome profiles of ICR mice uterus and identified potential cellular targets in human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) separated from normal endometrium tissues. Dioxybenzone, M1 and M2 (20 mg/kg bw/d) significantly induced transcriptome aberration with the induction of 683, 802, and 878 differentially expressed genes mainly involved in cancer, reproductive system disease and inflammatory disease. Read More

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Understanding the increased risk of infections in diabetes: innate and adaptive immune responses in type 1 diabetes.

Metabolism 2021 May 7:154795. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Internal Medicine (463), Radboud University Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500, HB, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Aims: Patients with diabetes have a higher incidence of infections with Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, yet factors contributing to this increased risk are largely unknown. We hypothesize that altered innate and adaptive immune responses during diabetes contribute to an increased susceptibility to infections.

Materials And Methods: We studied cytokine responses to ex vivo pathogenic stimulations in a cohort with type 1 diabetes (n = 243) and non-diabetic healthy control subjects (n = 56) using isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Read More

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Oral immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum expressing Nudix hydrolase and 43 kDa proteins confers protection against Trichinella spiralis in BALB/c mice.

Acta Trop 2021 May 7:105947. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China; Jilin Provincial Engineering Research Center of Animal Probiotics, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China; Key Laboratory of animal production and product quality safety of Ministry of Education, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

Trichinellosis is a significant food-borne zoonotic parasitic disease caused by parasite Trichinella. Given the side effects of anti-Trichinella drugs (e.g. Read More

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Inflammatory cytokines as key players of apoptosis induced by environmental estrogens in the ovary.

Environ Res 2021 May 7:111225. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement in Universities of Shandong, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China. Electronic address:

Natural and synthetic environmental estrogens (EEs), interfering with the physiological functions of the body's estrogens, are widespread and are rising much concern for their possible deleterious effects on human and animal health, in particular on reproduction. In fact, increasing evidence indicate that EEs can be responsible for a variety of disfunctions of the reproductive system especially in females such as premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). Because of their great structural diversity, the modes of action of EEs are controversial. Read More

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Infection-induced inflammation from specific inborn errors of immunity to COVID-19.

FEBS J 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei.

Inborn error of immunity (IEIs) are a group of genetically-defined disorders leading to defective immunity. Some IEIs have been linked to mutations of immune receptors or signaling molecules, resulting in defective signaling of respective cascades essential for combating specific pathogens. However, it remains incompletely understood why in selected IEIs, such as X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type-2 (XLP-2), hypo-immune response to specific pathogens results in persistent inflammation. Read More

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Astrocyte and glutamate involvement in the pathogenesis of epilepsy in Alzheimer's disease.

Epilepsia 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neuroscience, Central Clinical School, The Alfred Hospital, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) can increase the risk of epilepsy by up to 10-fold compared to healthy age-matched controls. However, the pathological mechanisms that underlie this increased risk are poorly understood. Because disruption in brain glutamate homeostasis has been implicated in both AD and epilepsy, this might play a mechanistic role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy in AD. Read More

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Deletion of a putative promoter-proximal Tnfsf11 regulatory region in mice does not alter bone mass or Tnfsf11 expression in vivo.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0250974. Epub 2021 May 10.

Center for Musculoskeletal Disease Research, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, United States of America.

The cytokine RANKL is essential for osteoclast formation during physiological and pathological bone resorption. RANKL also contributes to lymphocyte production, development of lymph nodes and mammary glands, as well as other biological activities. Transcriptional control of the Tnfsf11 gene, which encodes RANKL, is complex and involves distant regulatory regions. Read More

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Fecal microbiota composition associates with the capacity of human peripheral blood monocytes to differentiate into immunogenic dendritic cells .

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-20

Laboratory for Molecular Microbiology (LMM), Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering (IMGGI), University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Although promising for active immunization in cancer patients, dendritic cells (DCs) vaccines generated display high inter-individual variability in their immunogenicity, which mostly limits their therapeutic efficacy. Gut microbiota composition is a key emerging factor affecting individuals' immune responses, but it is unknown how it affects the variability of donors' precursor cells to differentiate into immunogenic DCs . By analyzing gut microbiota composition in 14 healthy donors, along with the phenotype and cytokines production by monocyte-derived DCs, we found significant correlations between immunogenic properties of DC and microbiota composition. Read More

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A protective variant of the autophagy receptor CALCOCO2/NDP52 in Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

Autophagy 2021 May 10:1-3. Epub 2021 May 10.

IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, which has been found associated with dysfunctional mitochondria. In order to advance our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms underlying this disease, we analyzed mitophagy, a process fundamental for the elimination of damaged mitochondria through the autophagic process, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of MS patients. Through a genetic analysis carried out on 203 MS patients and 1000 healthy controls, we identified a natural variant of CALCOCO2/NDP52, a well-known autophagic receptor, associated with and protective in MS. Read More

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Therapeutic Potential of Cytokines in Demyelinating Lesions After Stroke.

J Mol Neurosci 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences Affiliated Zhoupu Hospital, Shanghai, 201318, China.

White matter damage is a component of most human stroke and usually accounts for at least half of the lesion volume. Subcortical white matter stroke (WMS) accounts for 25% of all strokes and causes severe motor and cognitive dysfunction. The adult brain has a very limited ability to repair white matter damage. Read More

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miR-384-5p regulates inflammation in -induced acute lung injury by downregulating PGC1β and enhancing the activation of -triggered signaling pathways.

Sci Prog 2021 Apr-Jun;104(2):368504211014361

Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, P.R. China.

Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the most prevalent respiratory syndromes of excessive inflammatory reaction during lung infection. () infection is among the leading causes of ALI. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of target mRNAs, including those involved in inflammatory processes, by binding to the 3'UTR. Read More

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Induction of renal tumor necrosis factor-alpha and other autacoids and the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline in acute decompensated heart failure.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, United Statesgrid.260917.b.

While administration of Hypertonic Saline (HSS) in combination with diuretics has yielded improved weight loss, preservation of renal function, and reduction in hospitalization time in the clinical setting of patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), the mechanisms that underlie these beneficial effects remain unclear and additional studies are needed before this approach can be adopted on a more consistent basis. As high salt conditions stimulate production of several renal autacoids that exhibit natriuretic effects, renal physiologists can contribute to the understanding of mechanisms by which HSS leads to increased diuresis both as an individual therapy, as well as in combination with loop diuretics. For instance, since HSS increases TNF-α production by proximal tubule (PT) and thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL) epithelial cells, this 'Perspective article' is aimed at highlighting how the effects of TNF-α produced by these cell types may contribute to the beneficial effects of HSS in patients with ADHF. Read More

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Retinoic Acid Correlates with Reduced Serum IL-10 And TGF-β in Allergic Rhinitis.

Rep Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Jan;9(4):399-407

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Retinoic acid (RA) plays a key role in naïve T cell differentiation into FOXP3+ Treg cell in the respiratory airways. The present study aims to investigate RA and Treg-related cytokine serum levels, salivary IgA levels, FOXP3 and IL-4 gene expression, and the relationships between RA serum levels and Treg-related cytokines in allergic rhinitis (AR) patients and healthy controls.

Methods: Salivary IgA and serum IgE, RA, IL-10, and TGF-β concentrations were measured by ELISA in 37 AR patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Read More

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January 2021

The Use of the Anticoagulant Heparin and Corticosteroid Dexamethasone as Prominent Treatments for COVID-19.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 23;8:615333. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Laboratory of Immunology and Inflammation, Department of Cell Biology, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil.

COVID-19 is spreading worldwide at disturbing rates, overwhelming global healthcare. Mounting death cases due to disease complications highlight the necessity of describing efficient drug therapy strategies for severe patients. COVID-19 severity associates with hypercoagulation and exacerbated inflammation, both influenced by ACE2 downregulation and cytokine storm occurrence. Read More

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Involvement of Phosphatases in Parasite Biology and Pathogeny.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 22;11:633146. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo De Meis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

In the lifecycle, the motile promastigote form is transmitted from the sand fly vector to a mammalian host during a blood meal. Inside vertebrate host macrophages, the parasites can differentiate into the amastigote form and multiply, causing leishmaniasis, one of the most significant neglected tropical diseases. parasites face different conditions throughout their development inside sand flies. Read More

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Quantitative Phosphoproteomic Analysis Reveals Dendritic Cell- Specific STAT Signaling After α2-3-Linked Sialic Acid Ligand Binding.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:673454. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are key initiators of the adaptive immunity, and upon recognition of pathogens are able to skew T cell differentiation to elicit appropriate responses. DCs possess this extraordinary capacity to discern external signals using receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns. These can be glycan-binding receptors that recognize carbohydrate structures on pathogens or pathogen-associated patterns that additionally bind receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Read More

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Rhinovirus C Infection Induces Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Expansion and Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:649520. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

Rhinovirus C (RV-C) infection is associated with severe asthma exacerbations. Since type 2 inflammation is an important disease mechanism in asthma, we hypothesized that RV-C infection, in contrast to RV-A, preferentially stimulates type 2 inflammation, leading to exacerbated eosinophilic inflammation. To test this, we developed a mouse model of RV-C15 airways disease. Read More

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The Role of Antibodies Against the Crude Capsular Extract in the Immune Response of Porcine Alveolar Macrophages to Infection of Various Serovars of (.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:635097. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Preventive Medicine, Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, Czechia.

In Glässer's disease outbreaks, has to overcome the non-specific immune system in the lower respiratory tract, the alveolar macrophages. Here we showed that porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) were able to recognize and phagocyte with strain-to-strain variability despite the presence of the capsule in virulent (serovar 1, 5, 12) as well in avirulent strains (serovar 6 and 9). The capsule, outer membrane proteins, virulence-associated autotransporters, cytolethal distending toxins and many other proteins have been identified as virulence factors of this bacterium. Read More

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miRNAs Alter T Helper 17 Cell Fate in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Diseases.

Front Immunol 2021 21;12:593473. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Dermatology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

T helper 17 (Th17) cells are characterized by the secretion of the IL-17 cytokine and are essential for the immune response against bacterial and fungal infections. Despite the beneficial roles of Th17 cells, unrestrained IL-17 production can contribute to immunopathology and inflammatory autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Although these diverse outcomes are directed by the activation of Th17 cells, the regulation of Th17 cells is incompletely understood. Read More

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Proteomic Analysis of Non-human Primate Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells During Infection Reveals a Role of Ezrin in Glanders Pathogenesis.

Front Microbiol 2021 22;12:625211. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Countermeasures Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, MD, United States.

, the causative agent of glanders, is a gram-negative intracellular bacterium. Depending on different routes of infection, the disease is manifested by pneumonia, septicemia, and chronic infections of the skin. poses a serious biological threat due to its ability to infect via aerosol route, resistance to multiple antibiotics and to date there are no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved vaccines available. Read More

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Yi-Qi-Jian-Pi Formula Suppresses RIPK1/RIPK3-Complex-Dependent Necroptosis of Hepatocytes Through ROS Signaling and Attenuates Liver Injury and .

Front Pharmacol 2021 23;12:658811. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is described as a characteristic of acute jaundice and coagulation dysfunction. Effective treatments for ACLF are unavailable and hence are urgently required. We aimed to define the effect of Yi-Qi-Jian-Pi Formula (YQJPF) on liver injury and further examine the molecular mechanisms. Read More

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Xi Lei San Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Rats and TNF--Stimulated Colitis in CACO2 Cells: Involvement of the NLRP3 Inflammasome and Autophagy.

Mediators Inflamm 2021 21;2021:1610251. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Urology, Nanchong Central Hospital, The Second Clinical Medical College, North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan Province, China.

Objective: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic nonspecific inflammatory bowel disease with an unclear etiology. The active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) exert anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and immunomodulatory effects, and their multitarget characteristics provide them with a unique advantage for treating IBD. However, the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of Xi Lei San in treatment of IBD remain unknown. Read More

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Anti-inflammatory effects of Water Extract are regulated by the STAT/NF-κB pathway and HO-1 expression in Virus-infected RAW264.7 cells.

Int J Med Sci 2021 30;18(11):2285-2293. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Post-Modern Agriculture, MingDao University, Changhua, Taiwan.

This study examined the effect of the Flos Lonicerae Japonicae water extract (FLJWE), chlorogenic acid, and luteolin on pseudorabies virus (PRV)-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 cells and elucidated related molecular mechanisms. The results revealed that FLJWE and luteolin, but not chlorogenic acid, inhibited the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inflammatory cytokines in PRV-infected RAW 264. Read More

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miR-19a-3p inhibition alleviates sepsis-induced lung injury via enhancing USP13 expression.

Acta Biochim Pol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Nanjing First Hospital-Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 210009, China.

Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by various pathogenic microorganisms or toxins. Lung damage is one of the causes of death in patients with sepsis. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-19a-3p and its regulation mechanism in sepsis-induced lung injury. Read More

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Improvement in the anti-inflammatory profile with lifelong physical exercise is related to clock genes expression in effector-memory CD4+ T cells in master athletes.

Exerc Immunol Rev 2021 ;27:67-83

University of Coimbra, Research Center for Sport and Physical Activity, Faculty of Sports Science and Physical Education, Coimbra, Portugal.

Purpose: Ageing is associated with alterations in the immune system as well as with alterations of the circadian rhythm. Immune cells show rhythmicity in execution of their tasks. Chronic inflammation (inflammaging), which is observed in the elderly, is mitigated by lifelong exercise. Read More

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January 2021

Vitamin D receptor and 1α-hydroxylase are highly expressed in lungs of mice infected with H9N2 avian influenza viruses.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2021 May 6:105907. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pathophysiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

The H9N2 avian influenza viruses infect poultry worldwide, and can potentially cause a human pandemic without adaptation. Vitamin D3 (D3) is increasingly being recognized for its extra-skeletal roles, such as the inflammatory and immune responses to infection. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in vitamin D metabolizing enzymes and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the lung tissues of mice infected with H9N2. Read More

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Paeoniflorin attenuates the allergic contact dermatitis response via inhibiting the IFN-γ production and the NF-κB/IκBα signaling pathway in T lymphocytes.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 6;96:107687. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Dermatology, The Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China; Institute (College) of Integrative Medicine, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China. Electronic address:

Paeoniflorin (PF) has been demonstrated to have an anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effect in the treatment of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). However, its clinical application is hampered by the lacking of comprehensive mechanical explanation. This research aimed to study the effect of PF on the proliferation, apoptosis and cytokines secretion as well as the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways of T lymphocytes activation in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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Comparing cytokine production and clinical response following vaccination with BCG Moreau and BCG Russia strains in a Brazilian infant population.

Vaccine 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Laboratório Avançado de Saúde Pública, Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (IGM/Fiocruz), Salvador, Bahia 40296 710, Brazil; Departamento de Ciências da Vida, Universidade Estadual da Bahia (UNEB), Salvador, BA 41150 000, Brazil. Electronic address:

Introduction: BCG is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) and, in Brazil, comprises part of the recommended vaccine schedule within the first month of life. Due to a local manufacturing shortage of BCG Moreau, BCG Russia was introduced in 2017 by the Brazilian Ministry of Health.

Objective: To evaluate differences in immune responses induced by BCG Moreau and BCG Russia in infants, in addition to scar formation. Read More

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ADIPOCYTOKINES LEPTIN AND ADIPONEСTIN AS PREDICTORS OF GENERALIZED PERIODONTITIS ASSOCIATED WITH OBESITY.

Georgian Med News 2021 Mar(312):42-46

Bogomolets National Medical University, Institute of Postgraduate Education, Department of Dentistry, Kyiv, Ukraine.

In recent years, according to the WHO, more than 1,9 billion people over the age of 18 are overweight, of whom more than 650 million are obese, with an annual trend. Studies in recent decades have shown that obese young people with generalized periodontitis have abnormalities in protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, which contributes to the early destruction of the periodontal tissue complex and rapid tooth loss. The aim of our study was to examine changes in serum leptin and adiponectin in patients with generalized periodontitis on the background of obesity. Read More

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