38,994 results match your criteria cytochrome oxidase

Proteome and transcriptome analysis revealed florfenicol via affected drug metabolism and lipid metabolism induce liver injury of broilers.

Poult Sci 2021 May 4;100(9):101228. Epub 2021 May 4.

College of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine, Agriculture University of Hebei, Baoding, 071001, China; Hebei Veterinary Biotechnology Innovation Center, Baoding 071000, China.

In order to explore the mechanism of liver injury induced by florfenicol (FFC) in broilers. Sixty broilers were randomly divided into 2 groups: control group: normal drinking water and feed were given every d; FFC group: tap water containing FFC (0.15g/L) was given every d and feed was taken freely; each group was given 5 dd of continuous medication and feed was taken freely. Read More

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New records of two deep-sea eels collected from the Western Pacific Ocean based on COI and 16S rRNA genes.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Marine Bio-Resources Research Unit, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST), Busan, 49111, Republic of Korea.

Background: Two deep-sea eels collected from the Western Pacific Ocean are described in this study. Based on their morphological characteristics, the two deep-sea eel specimens were assumed to belong to the cusk-eel family Ophidiidae and the cutthroat eel family Synaphobranchidae.

Methods And Results: To accurately identify the species of the deep-sea eel specimens, we sequenced the mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [COI] and 16S ribosomal RNA [16S rRNA]). Read More

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Molecular detection of Wolbachia endosymbiont in reptiles and their ectoparasites.

Parasitol Res 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy.

Wolbachia, a maternally transmitted Gram-negative endosymbiont of onchocercid nematodes and arthropods, has a role in the biology of their host; thus it has been exploited for the filariasis treatment in humans. To assess the presence and prevalence of this endosymbiont in reptiles and their ectoparasites, blood and tail tissue as well as ticks and mites collected from them were molecularly screened for Wolbachia DNA using two sets of primers targeting partial 16S rRNA and Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) genes. Positive samples were screened for the partial 12S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes for filarioids. Read More

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Mitochondrial- sequence polymorphism reflects spatial genetic clustering of sibling species E in Sri Lanka.

J Vector Borne Dis 2020 Apr-Jun;57(2):139-146

Center for Biotechnology, Department of Zoology; Genetics and Molecular Biology Unit, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila, Sri Lanka.

Background & Objectives: Malaria infects around 216 million people annually with estimated 445,000 deaths globally. Anopheles culicifacies is the vector of malaria in Sri Lanka, a complex of five morphologically identical sibling species of which precise identification using DNA-based methods is still under experimentation. This study was carried out in Sri Lanka to observe the utility of BCE-PCR assay based on mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase II (COII) developed in India, in sibling species B and E identification in Sri Lanka, to characterize nucleotide and corresponding amino acid sequences of COII region in major vector sibling species E in Sri Lanka and to analyze the spatial distribution pattern of sibling species E in Sri Lanka using microsatellite markers. Read More

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Singular and combined effects of transcranial infrared laser stimulation and exposure therapy on pathological fear: a randomized clinical trial.

Psychol Med 2021 Jul 21:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Background: Preclinical findings suggest that transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) improves fear extinction learning and cognitive function by enhancing prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygen metabolism. These findings prompted our investigation of treating pathological fear using this non-invasive stimulation approach either alone to the dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC), or to the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC) in combination with exposure therapy.

Methods: Volunteers with pathological fear of either enclosed spaces, contamination, public speaking, or anxiety-related bodily sensations were recruited for this randomized, single-blind, sham-controlled trial with four arms: (a) Exposure + TILS_vmPFC (n = 29), (b) Exposure + sham TILS_vmPFC (n = 29), (c) TILS_dlPFC alone (n = 26), or (d) Sham TILS _dlPFC alone (n = 28). Read More

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Cysteine Mutants of the Major Facilitator Superfamily-Type Transporter CcoA Provide Insight into Copper Import.

mBio 2021 Jul 20:e0156721. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvaniagrid.25879.31, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

CcoA belongs to the widely distributed bacterial copper (Cu) importer subfamily CalT (co-ike ransporters) of the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) and provides cytoplasmic Cu needed for -type cytochrome oxidase (-Cox) biogenesis. Earlier studies have supported a 12-transmembrane helix (TMH) topology of CcoA with the well-conserved MetxxxMet and HisxxxMet motifs in its TMH7 and TMH8, respectively. Of these residues, Met and His are essential for Cu uptake and -Cox production, whereas Met and Met contribute partly to these processes. Read More

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Molecular Study of Echinococcus granulosus Cestodes in Ukraine and the First Genetic Identification of Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Stricto (G1 Genotype) in the Country.

Acta Parasitol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of General Biology and Parasitology, Medical University of Warsaw, Chałubińskiego 5, 02-004, Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction: Cystic echinococcosis is a globally distributed zoonotic disease of great medical and veterinary importance, which is caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. In Ukraine, two areas of the prominent circulation of the parasite are established, the southern steppe zone with sheep as the main transmitter, and the northern forest-steppe zone and Polissia, where pigs are mainly responsible for maintaining the E. granulosus transmission. Read More

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Molecular Identification of Leafmining Flies From Australia Including New Liriomyza Outbreaks.

J Econ Entomol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Bio21 Institute, School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Some leafmining fly species are pests of agricultural and ornamental plants but they also include many species with little economic importance. The taxonomy of leafmining flies is often challenging because of putative cryptic species. Following new outbreaks of Liriomyza (Diptera:Agromyzidae) in Australia, we here characterize 13 dipteran leafminer species collected from Australia based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA barcodes, and we compare these with overseas data. Read More

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Boosted activity by engineering the enzyme microenvironment in cascade reaction: A molecular understanding.

Synth Syst Biotechnol 2021 Sep 6;6(3):163-172. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, China.

Engineering of enzyme microenvironment can surprisingly boost the apparent activity. However, the underlying regulation mechanism is not well-studied at a molecular level so far. Here, we present a modulation of two model enzymes of cytochrome (Cty C) and -amino acid oxidase (DAAO) with opposite pH-activity profiles using ionic polymers. Read More

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September 2021

Case Report: Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy Presents as Epilepsy, Ataxia, and Dystonia With a Rare Mutation in .

Front Neurol 2021 1;12:679302. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Neurology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Mitochondrial diseases are a group of common inherited disorders caused by mutations in nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); the clinical phenotype of diseases caused by mutant mtDNA is challenging owing to heteroplasmy of mtDNA and may delay diagnosis and treatment. Herein, we report the case of an adult male who slowly developed epilepsy, ataxia, dystonia, impaired cognition, and hearing impairment over 14 years in the absence of clinical myopathy. His lactate level was normal. Read More

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Population genetics and conservation of recently discovered springsnails in Arizona.

J Molluscan Stud 2021 Sep 13;87(3):eyab020. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Arizona Game and Fish Department, 5000 West Carefree Highway, Phoenix, AZ 85086, USA.

Establishing baseline geographical distributions of extant genetic diversity is increasingly important for future conservation efforts of freshwater species. We analyse the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene to taxonomically characterize 233 samples from recently discovered springsnail populations throughout 17 sites in Arizona, USA. A total of 28 unique COI haplotypes were recovered, with the number of haplotypes ranging from 1 to 4 by population in Arizona. Read More

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September 2021

Exendin-4 inhibits high glucose-induced oxidative stress in retinal pigment epithelial cells by modulating the expression and activation of pShc.

Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2021 Jul 19:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Ophthalmology Department, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: Activation of pSch, an adaptor protein, is associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced retinal pigment epithelial cell damage and diabetic retinopathy. Exendin-4 is a glucagon-like protein that protects against diabetic retinopathy, but the mechanism of action is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate whether Exendin-4 could protect against high glucose-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the adult human retinal pigment epithelial-19 cell line by modulating levels and activation of pShc and to study the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) arm of catecholamine pathway catalyzes the conversion of -tyrosine to -DOPA in Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC var. pruriens: An integrated pathway analysis using field grown and in vitro callus cultures.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jul 8;166:1032-1043. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC var. pruriens is the natural source for -DOPA, precursor of the neurotransmitter dopamine, used widely in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Read More

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Critical roles of the Cu site in efficient proton pumping as revealed by crystal structures of mammalian cytochrome c oxidase catalytic intermediates.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jul 15:100967. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Picobiology Institute and Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori, Akoh, Hyogo 678-1297, Japan; Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori, Akoh, Hyogo 678-1297, Japan. Electronic address:

Mammalian cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) reduces O to water in a bimetallic site including Fe and Cu giving intermediate molecules, termed A-, P-, F-, O-, E- and R-forms. From the P-form on, each reaction step is driven by single-electron donations from cytochrome c coupled with the pumping of a single proton through the H-pathway, a proton-conducting pathway composed of a hydrogen-bond network and a water channel. The proton-gradient formed is utilized for ATP production by F-ATPase. Read More

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Liposome-encapsulated methemoglobin as an antidote against cyanide poisoning.

J Control Release 2021 Jul 15;337:59-70. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shibakoen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512, Japan.

Cyanide induces acute lethal poisoning resulting from inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase located in the complex IV (Complex IV) of mitochondria. However, current therapies for cyanide poisoning using hydroxocobalamin and nitrous acid compounds remain a clinical issue. Here, we show that liposome-encapsulated methemoglobin ([email protected]), nanosized biomimetic red blood cells, replicate the antidotal mechanism of nitrous acid compounds against cyanide poisoning, achieving superior efficacy and fast action with no adverse effects. Read More

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Case Study 11: Considerations for Enzyme Mapping Experiments-Interaction Between the Aldehyde Oxidase Inhibitor Hydralazine and Glutathione.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2342:809-823

Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Often it may be convenient and efficient to address multiple research questions with a single experiment. In many instances, however, the best approach is to design the experiment to address one question at a time. The design of enzyme mapping experiments is discussed in this chapter, focusing on considerations pertinent to the study of aldehyde oxidase (AO) vs. Read More

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January 2021

Responses of microRNA and predicted mRNA and enzymatic targets in liver of two salmonids (Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salvelinus fontinalis) following air exposure.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Jul 13;256:110646. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

The acute stress response is well-characterized, with rainbow trout as a teleost model for physiological and molecular responses. Air exposure, which stimulates an acute stress response, modulates liver microRNAs in rainbow trout; however, these highly conserved non-coding RNAs that bind to mRNA and repress translation, have never been measured in brook trout and it is unknown how miRNA expression responds following air exposure in this less studied salmonid. Our objective was to characterize the effects of air exposure on rainbow and brook trout liver miRNA expression, as well as the mRNA expression and enzyme activity that the miRNAs are predicted to target. Read More

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Uncoupling Protein 1-Independent Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Brown Adipose Tissue of Diet-Induced Obese Female Mice.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Jul 13:108819. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, and Obesity Research Institute, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX. Electronic address:

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in energy expenditure through its thermogenic function, making its activation a popular target to reduce obesity. We recently reported that male mice housed at thermoneutrality with uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) deficiency had increased weight gain and glucose intolerance, but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ameliorated these effects. Whether female mice respond similarly to lack of UCP1 and to EPA remains unknown. Read More

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The identification of fish eggs of two species, the ovate sole Solea ovata and black porgy Acanthopagrus schlegelii.

J Fish Biol 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

South China Sea Environmental Monitoring Center, State Oceanic Administration, Guangzhou, China.

Fish eggs of the ovate sole Solea ovata and black porgy Acanthopagrus schlegelii were identified through DNA barcoding of cytochrome c oxidase subunitI(COX1). Visual taxonomic features were achieved and photographs of the eggs of both species at different developmental stages were reported for the first time. Additionally, oil globules dissolution caused by ethanol as egg fixatives was observed. Read More

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Just keep it simple? Benchmarking the accuracy of taxonomy assignment software in metabarcoding studies.

Holly M Bik

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Marine Sciences and Institute of Bioinformatics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States of America.

How do you put a name on an unknown piece of DNA? From microbes to mammals, high-throughput metabarcoding studies provide a more objective view of natural communities, overcoming many of the inherent limitations of traditional field surveys and microscopy-based observations (Deiner et al. 2017). Taxonomy assignment is one of the most critical aspects of any metabarcoding study, yet this important bioinformatics task is routinely overlooked. Read More

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Pigment epithelium-derived factor inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced proliferation, VEGF and MMP-9 expression in breast cancer cells via interaction with laminin receptor.

Oncol Lett 2021 Aug 30;22(2):629. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo 142-8666, Japan.

Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is one of the adipocytokines with multifaceted functions, which may serve a role in the development of various types of cardiometabolic disorders. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been shown to contribute to numerous aging-associated disorders, such as cancer. However, it remains unclear whether and how PEDF exerts antitumor effects in AGE-exposed human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, and therefore this was explored in the present study. Read More

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Cadmium uncouples mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and induces oxidative cellular stress in soybean roots.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Laboratory of Plant Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, University of Maringá, Maringá, PR, 87020-900, Brazil.

Cadmium (Cd) inhibits soybean root growth, but its exact mode of action is still not completely understood. We evaluated the effects of Cd on growth, mitochondrial respiration, lipid peroxidation, total phenols, glutathione, and activities of lipoxygenase (LOX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in soybean roots. In primary roots, Cd stimulated KCN-insensitive respiration and KCN-SHAM-insensitive respiration, indicating the involvement of the alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway, while it decreased KCN-sensitive respiration, suggesting an inhibition of the cytochrome oxidase pathway (COX). Read More

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Components and Pharmacodynamical Mechanism of Yinfupian Based on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics Analyses.

Front Pharmacol 2021 28;12:680640. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Preparation, School of Pharmacy, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, China.

According to the treatment records of Yang deficiency syndrome (YDS) with characteristic decoction pieces of lateral root of -Yinfupian (YF) in traditional Chinese medicine prepare school, known as "Jianchangbang". The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the composition and therapeutic mechanism of the unprocessed lateral root of (ULRA) and its processed product (YF). Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis method were used to determine and screen the main components of ULRA and YF. Read More

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Moenkhausia andrica (Characiformes: Characidae): a new species from the rio Tapajós basin, Brazil, with minute fin hooklets in females.

J Fish Biol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Laboratório de Ictiologia, Setor de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil.

A new species of Moenkhausia is described from the upper rio Juruena, rio Tapajós basin, Brazil. It is distinguished from all congeners by the presence of minute bony hooks in all fins of both mature females and males and combination of the a prepelvic region flattened, dorsal portion of the humeral blotch extending two scales horizontally and vertically, lateral line with 28 to 32 scales, five scale series above and below lateral line; circumpeduncular scales 13-14, anal-fin rays 16-19, and dorsal portion of eyes blue in live specimens. The new species is also supported by high divergence in the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). Read More

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Molecular identification of seven Sarcocystis species in red deer (Cervus elaphus) from Lithuania.

Parasitol Int 2021 Jul 10;85:102419. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Nature Research Centre, Institute of Ecology, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius, Lithuania.

The diaphragm muscles of 77 free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) were examined for Sarcocystis species in Lithuania. Sarcocysts were detected in 61 out of 77 (79.2%) animals investigated. Read More

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Comparative Genomics Provides Insights into the Genetic Diversity and Evolution of the DPANN Superphylum.

mSystems 2021 Jul 13:e0060221. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South Universitygrid.216417.7, Changsha, China.

DPANN is known as highly diverse, globally widespread, and mostly ectosymbiotic archaeal superphylum. However, this group of archaea was overlooked for a long time, and there were limited in-depth studies reported. In this investigation, 41 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) belonging to the DPANN superphylum were recovered (18 MAGs had average nucleotide identity [ANI] values of <95% and a percentage of conserved proteins [POCP] of >50%, while 14 MAGs showed a POCP of <50%), which were analyzed comparatively with 515 other published DPANN genomes. Read More

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Inferring the ecological niche of bat viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2 using phylogeographic analyses of Rhinolophus species.

Sci Rep 2021 07 12;11(1):14276. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Zoology, Hungarian Natural History Museum, Baross u. 13, Budapest, H-1088, Hungary.

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causal agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To date, viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2 have been reported in four bat species: Rhinolophus acuminatus, Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus malayanus, and Rhinolophus shameli. Here, we analysed 343 sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (CO1) from georeferenced bats of the four Rhinolophus species identified as reservoirs of viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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Morphological and genetic evaluation of the thumbprint emperor, (Forsskål, 1775) in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

F1000Res 2020 5;9:915. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Marine Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Marine Science and Fisheries, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia.

: The Lethrinidae (emperors) include many important food fish species. Accurate determination of species and stocks is important for fisheries management. The taxonomy of the genus is problematic, for example with regards to the identification of the thumbprint emperor Little research has been done on diversity in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Read More

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Hydrogen sulfide stimulates lipid biogenesis from glutamine that is dependent on the mitochondrial NAD(P)H pool.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jul 9:100950. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Michigan Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109. Electronic address:

Mammalian cells synthesize HS from sulfur containing amino acids and are also exposed to exogenous sources of this signaling molecule, notably from gut microbes. As an inhibitor of complex IV in the electron transport chain, HS can have a profound impact on metabolism, suggesting the hypothesis that metabolic reprogramming is a primary mechanism by which HS signals. In this study, we report that HS increases lipogenesis in many cell types, using carbon derived from glutamine rather than from glucose. Read More

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Genes Linking Copper Trafficking and Homeostasis to the Biogenesis and Activity of the -Type Cytochrome Oxidase in the Enteric Pathogen .

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:683260. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Bacterial C-type haem-copper oxidases in the family are widespread in microaerophiles, which exploit their high oxygen-binding affinity for growth in microoxic niches. In microaerophilic pathogens, C-type oxidases can be essential for infection, yet little is known about their biogenesis compared to model bacteria. Here, we have identified genes involved in -oxidase (Cco) assembly and activity in the Gram-negative pathogen , the commonest cause of human food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis. Read More

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