2,508 results match your criteria cyp2d6 gene

Trichostatin A sensitizes hepatoma cells to Taxol more than 5-Aza-dC and dexamethasone.

Drug Metab Pers Ther 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Division of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

Objectives: This work was designed to compare the sensitizing effects of epigenetic modifiers on cancer cells vs. that of glucocorticoids. Also, to evaluate their effects on genes involved in epigenetic changes and drug metabolism. Read More

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Sequence2Script: A Web-Based Tool for Translation of Pharmacogenetic Data Into Evidence-Based Prescribing Recommendations.

Front Pharmacol 2021 18;12:636650. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Ushiosoft Corporation, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing has emerged as an effective strategy for informing drug selection and dosing. This has led to an increase in the use of PGx testing in the clinic and has catalyzed the emergence of a burgeoning commercial PGx testing industry. However, not all PGx tests are equivalent in their approach to translating testing results into prescribing recommendations, due to an absence of regulatory standards. Read More

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Influence of Genetic Polymorphisms on the Response to Tramadol, Ibuprofen, and the Combination in Patients With Moderate to Severe Pain After Dental Surgery.

Clin Ther 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Clinical Pharmacology Department, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto Teófilo Hernando, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Princesa (IP), Madrid, Spain; UICEC Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Plataforma SCReN (Spanish Clinical Reseach Network), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Princesa, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Purpose: We aimed to elucidate the influence on analgesic effect of genetic polymorphisms in enzymes responsible for biotransformation of tramadol and ibuprofen or other possible genes involved in their mechanism of action.

Methods: The study population comprised 118 patients from a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase III clinical trial that assessed the analgesic efficacy and tolerability of a single dose of ibuprofen (arginine)/tramadol 400/37.5 mg compared with ibuprofen arginine 400 mg alone, tramadol 50 mg alone, and placebo in patients with moderate to severe pain after dental surgery. Read More

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Potential Utility of Pre-Emptive Germline Pharmacogenetics in Breast Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 11;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

ARUP Institute for Clinical and Experimental Pathology, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA.

Patients with breast cancer often receive many drugs to manage the cancer, side effects associated with cancer treatment, and co-morbidities (i.e., polypharmacy). Read More

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Genetic variability of and among the Egyptian population.

Pharmacogenomics 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutic Innovation, Children's Mercy Kansas City & School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA.

This study investigated major allelic variants of and in Egyptians, an Arabic population for which there is little information regarding these important pharmacogenes. , , , , and gene copy number variation, as well as and were determined with commercially available TaqMan assays in 145 healthy study participants. The alleles identified suggest that the prevalence of poor metabolizers is low as none were found among the 145 subjects investigated. Read More

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Prospects for personalization of depression treatment with genome sequencing.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Laboratory of Pharmacogenomics, Department of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Maj Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland.

The effectiveness of antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) varies considerably between patients. With these interindividual differences and a number of antidepressants to choose from, the first choice of treatment often fails to produce improvement in the patient's condition. A substantial part of the variation in response to antidepressants can be explained by genetic factors. Read More

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Biochip-based approach for comprehensive pharmacogenetic testing.

Drug Metab Pers Ther 2020 Dec 14. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

Objectives: Individual sensitivity to many widely used drugs is significantly associated with genetic factors. The purpose of our work was to develop an instrument for simultaneous determination of the most clinically relevant pharmacogenetic markers to allow personalized treatment, mainly in patients with cardiovascular diseases.

Methods: Multiplex one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by hybridization on a low-density biochip was applied to interrogate 15 polymorphisms in the following eight genes:  -1639 G>A 1297 G>A 2374 C>G *2,*3 (430 C>T, 1075 A>C) (2549delA, 1846 G>A, 1707delT, 2615_2617delAAG, 2988 G>A), (681 G>A, 636 G>A, -806 C>T) (3435 C>T). Read More

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December 2020

Urinary metabolites of non-persistent pesticides and serum hormones in Spanish adolescent males.

Environ Res 2021 Mar 23;197:111016. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (ibs.GRANADA), 18012, Granada, Spain; CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Spain; Biomedical Research Center (CIBM), University of Granada, 18100, Granada, Spain; Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada, 18071, Granada, Spain. Electronic address:

Objective: To assess the relationship of urinary concentrations of ethylenethiourea (ETU), the main degradation product of ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate fungicides, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a common metabolite of many pyrethroids, and 1-naphthol (1N), a metabolite of the carbamate insecticide carbaryl, with hormone concentrations in adolescent males; and to examine interactions between pesticide metabolites and polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, including CYP2C19 and CYP2D6, in relation to hormone concentrations.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 134 males from the Spanish Environment and Childhood (INMA)-Granada cohort. Urine and serum samples were collected from participants during the same clinical visit at the age of 15-17 years. Read More

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Evidence for Pharmacogenomic Effects on Risperidone Outcomes in Pediatrics.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2021 Apr;42(3):205-212

Departments of Pediatrics.

Objective: To determine the association between genetic variants reported to affect risperidone and adverse events (AEs) in children and adolescents.

Methods: Individuals aged 18 years or younger with ≥4 weeks of risperidone exposure in a deidentified DNA biobank were included. The primary outcome was AE frequency as a function of genotype. Read More

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The association of CYP2D6 gene polymorphisms in the full-length coding region with higher recurrence rate of vivax malaria in Yunnan Province, China.

Malar J 2021 Mar 20;20(1):160. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases Control, Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Vector-Borne Diseases Control and Research, Yunnan Centre of Malaria Research, Pu'er, 665000, China.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggest that compromised CYP2D6 enzyme activity caused by gene mutation could contribute to primaquine failure for the radical cure of vivax malaria. The current study aims to preliminarily reveal the association between the recurrence of vivax malaria in Yunnan Province and CYP2D6 gene mutation by analysing polymorphisms in the entire coding region of human CYP2D6 gene.

Methods: Blood samples were collected from patients with vivax malaria, who received "chloroquine and 8-day course of primaquine therapy" in Yunnan Province. Read More

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A retrospective analysis of actionable pharmacogenetic/genomic biomarker language in FDA labels.

Shinji Yamazaki

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics & Metabolism, Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, San Diego, California, USA.

The primary goal of precision medicine is to maximize the benefit-risk relationships for individual patients by delivering the right drug to the right patients at the right dose. To achieve this goal, it has become increasingly important to assess gene-drug interactions (GDIs) in clinical settings. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) periodically updates the table of pharmacogenetic/genomic (PGx) biomarkers in drug labeling on their website. Read More

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Pharmacogenetics of common SNP affecting drug metabolizing enzymes: comparison of allele frequencies between European and Malaysian/Singaporean.

Drug Metab Pers Ther 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Compared to Europe, data on genetic variation in genes transcribing drug metabolizing enzymes among Asian is limited due to ethnic diversity. Here we compare frequencies for clinically relevant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) commonly observed in drug metabolizing enzymes between European and Malaysian/Singaporean. Minor allele frequencies (MAF) for the indicated SNPs for European, South Asian and East Asian populations were obtained from the NCBI website (https://www. Read More

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Cytochrome P450 2C19 enzyme, Cytochrome P450 2C9 enzyme, and Cytochrome P450 2D6 enzyme allelic variants and its possible effect on drug metabolism: A retrospective study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(11):e24545

Institute of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Abstract: The objective of the present study was to assess the allelic variations of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19), Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9), and Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) as they play a major role in drug metabolism. The interindividual genetic variabilities of these enzymes can account for different responsiveness as well as concentration fluctuations for a particular drug.During the period of 2017 to 2018 a total of 54 patients have received pharmacogenetic testing at the Department of Genetics and Molecular Medicine at Kaunas Clinics. Read More

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Discrepancies and similarities in the genome-informed guidance for psychiatric disorders amongst different regulatory bodies and research consortia using next generation sequencing-based clinical pharmacogenomics data.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Mar 9;167:105538. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Laboratory of Pharmacogenomics and Individualized Therapy, Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, University of Patras, Patras, Greece; The Golden Helix Foundation, London, UK. Electronic address:

Undoubtedly, pharmacogenomics (PGx) aims in optimizing drug treatment responses whilst also improving the patients' quality of life, either via a reduction of adverse drug reactions and/or an enhancement of drug treatment efficacy. To achieve this, PGx guidance is provided by the two major regulatory bodies in a worldwide level, specifically the U.S. Read More

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Clinical Genotyping to Personalize Adjuvant Tamoxifen Treatment in ER-Positive Breast Cancer Patients: Current Status of a Controversy.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Feb 12;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Erasmus MC University Hospital, Wytemaweg 80, 3015CN Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Tamoxifen is a major option for adjuvant endocrine treatment in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer patients. The conversion of the prodrug tamoxifen into the most active metabolite endoxifen is mainly catalyzed by the enzyme cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Genetic variation in the gene leads to altered enzyme activity, which influences endoxifen formation and thereby potentially therapy outcome. Read More

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February 2021

Longitudinal genetic studies of cognitive characteristics.

Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii 2020 Feb;24(1):87-95

Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics - Subdivision of the Ufa Federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Laboratory of psychology of professions and conflicts, Moscow, Russia.

The present review describes longitudinal studies of cognitive traits and functions determining the causes of their variations and their possible correction to prevent cognitive impairment. The present study reviews the involvement of such environmental factors as nutrition, prenatal maternal stress, social isolation and others in cognitive functioning. The role of epigenetic factors in the implementation of environmental effects in cognitive characteristics is revealed. Read More

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February 2020

Dataset of the first report of pharmacogenomics profiling in an outpatient spine setting.

Data Brief 2021 Apr 3;35:106832. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe St., Meyer 7-113, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Here we describe the dataset of the first report of pharmacogenomics profiling in an outpatient spine setting with the primary aims to catalog: 1) the genes, alleles, and associated rs Numbers (accession numbers for specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms) analysed and 2) the genotypes and corresponding phenotypes of the genes involved in metabolizing 37 commonly used analgesic medications. The present description applies to analgesic medication-metabolizing enzymes and may be especially valuable to investigators who are exploring strategies to optimize pharmacologic pain management (e.g. Read More

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Identification of CYP2D6 Haplotypes that Interfere with Commonly Used Assays for Copy Number Variation Characterization.

J Mol Diagn 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Clinical Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Innovation, Children's Mercy Kansas City, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri. Electronic address:

Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) copy number (CN) variation affects the metabolism of numerous prescribed drugs. Sequence variation within primer or probe target regions of hydrolysis probe CN assays can generate false-positive calls for CN loss. Furthermore, CYP2D6-CYP2D7 hybrids and gene conversions can cause difficult to interpret discordant CN calls. Read More

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February 2021

Potential Determinants for Metabolic Fates and Inhibitory Effects of Isobavachalcone Involving in Human Cytochrome P450, UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Enzymes, and Efflux Transporters.

J Pharm Sci 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

International Cooperative Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Modernization and Innovative Drug Development Ministry of PR China, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China; College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Isobavachalcone, a naturally occurring chalcone in Psoralea corylifolia, posses many biological properties including anticancer, antiplatelet, and antifungal. However, its glucuronidation, glucuronides excretion, and drug-drug interaction (DDI) involving in human cytochrome P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes, and efflux transporters (BCRP and MRPs) remains unclear so far. After incubation, three glucuronides were produced by HLM and HIM with total intrinsic clearance (CL) of 236. Read More

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February 2021

No Association Between Pharmacogenomics Variants and Hospital and Emergency Department Utilization: A Mayo Clinic Biobank Retrospective Study.

Pharmgenomics Pers Med 2021 11;14:229-237. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: The use of pharmacogenomics data is increasing in clinical practice. However, it is unknown if pharmacogenomics data can be used more broadly to predict outcomes like hospitalization or emergency department (ED) visit. We aim to determine the association between selected pharmacogenomics phenotypes and hospital utilization outcomes (hospitalization and ED visits). Read More

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February 2021

Influence of gene polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole in healthy Chinese subjects.

Pharmacogenomics 2021 Mar 15;22(4):213-223. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

GCP Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Pharmacogenetics study was added into 2 bioequivalence trials of aripiprazole. The correlation between polymorphisms and aripiprazole pharmacokinetics (PK) was analyzed. A total of 140 subjects were included. Read More

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Dimethoxycurcumin reduces proliferation and induces apoptosis in renal tumor cells more efficiently than demethoxycurcumin and curcumin.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Apr 12;338:109410. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of General Biology, Center of Biological Sciences, Londrina State University - UEL, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, Pr 445 Km 380, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

Curcumin (Cur), is a pigment with antiproliferative activity but has some pharmacokinetic limitations, which led researchers to look for more effective structure analogs. This work investigated the effects of Cur and compared them with the two analogs, demethoxycurcumin (DeMC) and dimethoxycurcumin (DiMC), to elucidate their mechanisms of action. The cytotoxic, antiproliferative, and genotoxic effects these compounds were correlated based on gene expression analysis in the human renal adenocarcinoma cells (786-O). Read More

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Pharmacogenetics Guidelines: Overview and Comparison of the DPWG, CPIC, CPNDS, and RNPGx Guidelines.

Front Pharmacol 2020 25;11:595219. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Division of Laboratories, Pharmacy, and Biomedical Genetics, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Many studies have shown that the efficacy and risk of side effects of drug treatment is influenced by genetic variants. Evidence based guidelines are essential for implementing pharmacogenetic knowledge in daily clinical practice to optimize pharmacotherapy of individual patients. A literature search was performed to select committees developing guidelines with recommendations being published in English. Read More

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January 2021

Sequencing of 53,831 diverse genomes from the NHLBI TOPMed Program.

Daniel Taliun Daniel N Harris Michael D Kessler Jedidiah Carlson Zachary A Szpiech Raul Torres Sarah A Gagliano Taliun André Corvelo Stephanie M Gogarten Hyun Min Kang Achilleas N Pitsillides Jonathon LeFaive Seung-Been Lee Xiaowen Tian Brian L Browning Sayantan Das Anne-Katrin Emde Wayne E Clarke Douglas P Loesch Amol C Shetty Thomas W Blackwell Albert V Smith Quenna Wong Xiaoming Liu Matthew P Conomos Dean M Bobo François Aguet Christine Albert Alvaro Alonso Kristin G Ardlie Dan E Arking Stella Aslibekyan Paul L Auer John Barnard R Graham Barr Lucas Barwick Lewis C Becker Rebecca L Beer Emelia J Benjamin Lawrence F Bielak John Blangero Michael Boehnke Donald W Bowden Jennifer A Brody Esteban G Burchard Brian E Cade James F Casella Brandon Chalazan Daniel I Chasman Yii-Der Ida Chen Michael H Cho Seung Hoan Choi Mina K Chung Clary B Clish Adolfo Correa Joanne E Curran Brian Custer Dawood Darbar Michelle Daya Mariza de Andrade Dawn L DeMeo Susan K Dutcher Patrick T Ellinor Leslie S Emery Celeste Eng Diane Fatkin Tasha Fingerlin Lukas Forer Myriam Fornage Nora Franceschini Christian Fuchsberger Stephanie M Fullerton Soren Germer Mark T Gladwin Daniel J Gottlieb Xiuqing Guo Michael E Hall Jiang He Nancy L Heard-Costa Susan R Heckbert Marguerite R Irvin Jill M Johnsen Andrew D Johnson Robert Kaplan Sharon L R Kardia Tanika Kelly Shannon Kelly Eimear E Kenny Douglas P Kiel Robert Klemmer Barbara A Konkle Charles Kooperberg Anna Köttgen Leslie A Lange Jessica Lasky-Su Daniel Levy Xihong Lin Keng-Han Lin Chunyu Liu Ruth J F Loos Lori Garman Robert Gerszten Steven A Lubitz Kathryn L Lunetta Angel C Y Mak Ani Manichaikul Alisa K Manning Rasika A Mathias David D McManus Stephen T McGarvey James B Meigs Deborah A Meyers Julie L Mikulla Mollie A Minear Braxton D Mitchell Sanghamitra Mohanty May E Montasser Courtney Montgomery Alanna C Morrison Joanne M Murabito Andrea Natale Pradeep Natarajan Sarah C Nelson Kari E North Jeffrey R O'Connell Nicholette D Palmer Nathan Pankratz Gina M Peloso Patricia A Peyser Jacob Pleiness Wendy S Post Bruce M Psaty D C Rao Susan Redline Alexander P Reiner Dan Roden Jerome I Rotter Ingo Ruczinski Chloé Sarnowski Sebastian Schoenherr David A Schwartz Jeong-Sun Seo Sudha Seshadri Vivien A Sheehan Wayne H Sheu M Benjamin Shoemaker Nicholas L Smith Jennifer A Smith Nona Sotoodehnia Adrienne M Stilp Weihong Tang Kent D Taylor Marilyn Telen Timothy A Thornton Russell P Tracy David J Van Den Berg Ramachandran S Vasan Karine A Viaud-Martinez Scott Vrieze Daniel E Weeks Bruce S Weir Scott T Weiss Lu-Chen Weng Cristen J Willer Yingze Zhang Xutong Zhao Donna K Arnett Allison E Ashley-Koch Kathleen C Barnes Eric Boerwinkle Stacey Gabriel Richard Gibbs Kenneth M Rice Stephen S Rich Edwin K Silverman Pankaj Qasba Weiniu Gan George J Papanicolaou Deborah A Nickerson Sharon R Browning Michael C Zody Sebastian Zöllner James G Wilson L Adrienne Cupples Cathy C Laurie Cashell E Jaquish Ryan D Hernandez Timothy D O'Connor Gonçalo R Abecasis

Nature 2021 02 10;590(7845):290-299. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

The Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme seeks to elucidate the genetic architecture and biology of heart, lung, blood and sleep disorders, with the ultimate goal of improving diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these diseases. The initial phases of the programme focused on whole-genome sequencing of individuals with rich phenotypic data and diverse backgrounds. Here we describe the TOPMed goals and design as well as the available resources and early insights obtained from the sequence data. Read More

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February 2021

[Pharmacoresistance to psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents: Pharmacogenetic anomalies of cytochrome P450 2D6].

Encephale 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Service universitaire de psychiatrie de l'enfant et de l'adolescent, hôpitaux pédiatriques de Nice CHU-Lenval, 57, avenue de la Californie, 06200 Nice, France; Université Côte d'Azur, CoBTek, FRIS, Nice, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: Some patients in child and adolescent psychiatry present resistance to psychotropic drugs, often resulting in polytherapy, an increased risk of adverse events, and more frequent and longer hospitalisation. Psychotropic drugs are mainly metabolised in the liver, in particular by the CYP2D6 subunit of cytochrome P450. Anomalies such as a duplication of the CYP2D6 gene related to an ultra-rapid metaboliser phenotype has been described to be linked to clinical efficacy. Read More

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February 2021

Pharmacogenomics and COVID-19: clinical implications of human genome interactions with repurposed drugs.

Osama A Badary

Pharmacogenomics J 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Clinical Pharmacy Practice Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, The British University in Egypt (BUE), Cairo, Egypt.

The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has evolved into an emergent global pandemic. Many drugs without established efficacy are being used to treat COVID-19 patients either as an offlabel/compassionate use or as a clinical trial. Although drug repurposing is an attractive approach with reduced time and cost, there is a need to make predictions on success before the start of therapy. Read More

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February 2021

Effect of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on plasma concentration and therapeutic effect of risperidone.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 Feb 3;21(1):70. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, and Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the influence of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on risperidone plasma concentrations in patients with schizophrenia. Based on pharmacogenomics, we examined whether plasma concentration of risperidone is associated with clinical response and adverse side-effects.

Methods: We recruited patients with chronic schizophrenia who were then treated with risperidone. Read More

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February 2021

Potential of whole-genome sequencing-based pharmacogenetic profiling.

Pharmacogenomics 2021 Feb 1;22(3):177-190. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Center for Cardiovascular Genetics & Gene Diagnostics, Foundation for People with Rare Diseases, Schlieren-Zurich 8952, Switzerland.

Pharmacogenetics represents a major driver of precision medicine, promising individualized drug selection and dosing. Traditionally, pharmacogenetic profiling has been performed using targeted genotyping that focuses on common/known variants. Recently, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is emerging as a more comprehensive short-read next-generation sequencing approach, enabling both gene diagnostics and pharmacogenetic profiling, including rare/novel variants, in a single assay. Read More

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February 2021