12,982 results match your criteria cycling states

Temporal control of muscle synergies is linked with alpha-band neural drive.

J Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Computer Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 90089, United States.

Key Points: It is theorized that the nervous system controls groups of muscles together as functional units, or 'synergies', resulting in correlated electromyographic (EMG) signals among muscles. However, such correlation does not necessarily imply group-level neural control. Oscillatory synchronization (coherence) among EMG signals implies neural coupling, but it is not clear how this relates to control of muscle synergies. Read More

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Miniaturized probe on polymer SU-8 with array of individually addressable microelectrodes for electrochemical analysis in neural and other biological tissues.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, 72701, USA.

An SU-8 probe with an array of nine, individually addressable gold microband electrodes (100 μm long, 4 μm wide, separated by 4-μm gaps) was photolithographically fabricated and characterized for detection of low concentrations of chemicals in confined spaces and in vivo studies of biological tissues. The probe's shank (6 mm long, 100 μm wide, 100 μm thick) is flexible, but exhibits sufficient sharpness and rigidity to be inserted into soft tissue. Laser micromachining was used to define probe geometry by spatially revealing the underlying sacrificial aluminum layer, which was then etched to free the probes from a silicon wafer. Read More

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Injuries related to electric scooter and bicycle use in a Washington, DC, emergency department.

Traffic Inj Prev 2021 May 7:1-6. Epub 2021 May 7.

Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

Objective: E-scooter use has grown rapidly in the United States. Its rise in popularity has coincided with the promotion of cycling in many cities, but more needs to be known about how these transportation modes compare to determine if cycling should serve as an appropriate benchmark for policy decisions and safety expectations regarding e-scooters.

Methods: We examined characteristics of adults seeking treatment in a Washington, DC, emergency department (ED) for injuries associated with riding e-scooters during 2019 ( = 99) or bicycles during 2015-2017 ( = 337). Read More

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Resistance, Resilience, and Recovery of Dryland Soil Bacterial Communities Across Multiple Disturbances.

Front Microbiol 2021 20;12:648455. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

United States Geological Survey, Southwest Biological Science Center, Moab, UT, United States.

Dryland ecosystems are sensitive to perturbations and generally slow to recover post disturbance. The microorganisms residing in dryland soils are especially important as they contribute to soil structure and nutrient cycling. Disturbance can have particularly strong effects on dryland soil structure and function, yet the natural resistance and recovery of the microbial components of dryland soils has not been well documented. Read More

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Transcriptional analysis of cystic fibrosis airways at single-cell resolution reveals altered epithelial cell states and composition.

Nat Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

UCLA Children's Discovery and Innovation Institute, Mattel Children's Hospital UCLA, Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal autosomal recessive disorder that afflicts more than 70,000 people. People with CF experience multi-organ dysfunction resulting from aberrant electrolyte transport across polarized epithelia due to mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CF-related lung disease is by far the most important determinant of morbidity and mortality. Read More

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Facile and Scalable Fabrication of High-Performance Microsupercapacitors Based on Laser-Scribed Heteroatom-Doped Porous Graphene.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States.

This study proposes an efficient, facile, and scalable strategy to synthesize heteroatom-doped porous graphene via laser direct writing on the precursor-doped polyimide (PI) film, which is fabricated for the first time through incorporating PI powder and precursors with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) binder by a drop-casting and low-temperature drying process. The resulting microsupercapacitors (MSCs) based on the as-prepared heteroatom-doped porous graphene exhibit remarkable capacitive performance. The typical boron-doped MSC prepared on borax-doped polyimide film possesses an ultrahigh areal capacitance of 60. Read More

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Ambient urban N deposition drives increased biomass and total plant N in two native prairie grass species in the U.S. Southern Great Plains.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0251089. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biology, University of Texas Arlington, Arlington, Texas, United States of America.

Remnants of native tallgrass prairie experience elevated atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition in urban areas, with potential effects on species traits that are important for N cycling and species composition. We quantified bulk (primarily wet) inorganic N (NH4+-N + NO3--N) deposition at six sites along an urban development gradient (6-64% urban) in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area from April 2014 to October 2015. In addition, we conducted a phytometer experiment with two common native prairie bunchgrass species--one well studied (Schizachyrium scoparium) and one little studied (Nasella leucotricha)--to investigate ambient N deposition effects on plant biomass and tissue quality. Read More

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Stabilized Lithium, Manganese-Rich Layered Cathode Materials Enabled by Integrating Co-Doping and Nanocoating.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts 01609, United States.

While lithium, manganese-rich (LMR) layered oxide cathode materials offer high energy density (>900 Wh kg) and low cost, LMR is susceptible to continuous capacity and voltage decay from the oxygen migration and side reaction with aqueous electrolyte at high voltage. Herein, the integration of Na/F co-doping (CD) and AlF coating on LMR is achieved without the need of complex atomic layer deposition. Akin to pristine and CD samples, CD with 1 wt % AlF (CD-1. Read More

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A single-cell RNA expression atlas of normal, preneoplastic and tumorigenic states in the human breast.

EMBO J 2021 May 5:e107333. Epub 2021 May 5.

ACRF Cancer Biology and Stem Cells Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Vic, Australia.

To examine global changes in breast heterogeneity across different states, we determined the single-cell transcriptomes of > 340,000 cells encompassing normal breast, preneoplastic BRCA1 tissue, the major breast cancer subtypes, and pairs of tumors and involved lymph nodes. Elucidation of the normal breast microenvironment revealed striking changes in the stroma of post-menopausal women. Single-cell profiling of 34 treatment-naive primary tumors, including estrogen receptor (ER) , HER2 , and triple-negative breast cancers, revealed comparable diversity among cancer cells and a discrete subset of cycling cells. Read More

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Nano Carbon Doped Polyacrylamide Gel Electrolytes for High Performance Supercapacitors.

Molecules 2021 Apr 30;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, USA.

Novel polyacrylamide gel electrolytes (PGEs) doped with nano carbons with enhanced electrochemical, thermal, and mechanical properties are presented. Carboxylated carbon nanotubes (fCNTs), graphene oxide sheets (GO), and the hybrid of fCNT/GO were embedded in the PGEs to serve as supercapacitor (SC) electrolytes. Thermal stability of the unmodified PGE increased with the addition of the nano carbons which led to lower capacitance degradation and longer cycling life of the SCs. Read More

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Regulating Solvent Molecule Coordination with KPF for Superstable Graphite Potassium Anodes.

ACS Nano 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, P.R. China.

Graphite is one of the most attractive anode materials due to its low cost, environmental friendliness, and high energy density for potassium ion batteries (PIBs). However, the severe capacity fade of graphite anodes in traditional KPF-based electrolyte hinders its practical applications. Here, we demonstrate that the cycling stability of graphite anodes can be significantly improved by regulating the coordination of solvent molecules with KPF a high-temperature precycling step. Read More

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Ancestry specific associations of a genetic risk score, dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome: a longitudinal ARIC study.

BMC Med Genomics 2021 May 1;14(1):118. Epub 2021 May 1.

Division of Asthma Research, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH, 45229, USA.

Background: Associations have been observed among genetic variants, dietary patterns, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). A gap in knowledge is whether a genetic risk score (GRS) and dietary patterns interact to increase MetS risk among African Americans. We investigated whether MetS risk was influenced by interaction between a GRS and dietary patterns among Whites and African Americans. Read More

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The Unfolded Protein Response as a Compensatory Mechanism and Potential Therapeutic Target in PLN R14del Cardiomyopathy.

Circulation 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA; Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.

Phospholamban (PLN) is a critical regulator of calcium cycling and contractility in the heart. The loss of arginine at position 14 in PLN (R14del) is associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with a high prevalence of ventricular arrhythmias. How the R14 deletion causes DCM is poorly understood and there are no disease-specific therapies. Read More

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Urinary neopterin of wild chimpanzees indicates that cell-mediated immune activity varies by age, sex, and female reproductive status.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 29;11(1):9298. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Interim Group Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

The study of free-living animal populations is necessary to understand life history trade-offs associated with immune investment. To investigate the role of life history strategies in shaping proinflammatory cell-mediated immune function, we analyzed age, sex, and reproductive status as predictors of urinary neopterin in 70 sexually mature chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. In the absence of clinical signs of acute infectious disease, neopterin levels significantly increased with age in both male and female chimpanzees, as observed in humans and several other vertebrate species. Read More

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Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Graphene/Boron Nitride Nanosheets Electrodes and PVA/PEI Gel Electrolytes.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;14(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, Beijing Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy and Sensor, Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101400, China.

All-solid-state supercapacitors have gained increasing attention as wearable energy storage devices, partially due to their flexible, safe, and lightweight natures. However, their electrochemical performances are largely hampered by the low flexibility and durability of current polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based electrolytes. Herein, a novel polyvinyl alcohol-polyethyleneimine (PVA-PEI) based, conductive and elastic hydrogel was devised as an all-in-one electrolyte platform for wearable supercapacitor (WSC). Read More

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O-GlcNAcylation and O-GlcNAc Cycling Regulate Gene Transcription: Emerging Roles in Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;13(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.

O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a single sugar post-translational modification (PTM) of intracellular proteins linking nutrient flux through the Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway (HBP) to the control of cis-regulatory elements in the genome. Aberrant O-GlcNAcylation is associated with the development, progression, and alterations in gene expression in cancer. O-GlcNAc cycling is defined as the addition and subsequent removal of the modification by O-GlcNAc Transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) provides a novel method for cells to regulate various aspects of gene expression, including RNA polymerase function, epigenetic dynamics, and transcription factor activity. Read More

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The Balance of Muscle Oxygen Supply and Demand Reveals Critical Metabolic Rate and Predicts Time to Exhaustion.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Human Physiology, Gonzaga University.

We tested the hypothesis that during whole body exercise, the balance between muscle O supply and metabolic demand may elucidate intensity domains, reveal a critical metabolic rate, and predict time to exhaustion. Seventeen active, healthy volunteers (12 male, 5 female; 32±2 years) participated in two distinct protocols. Study 1 (N=7) consisted of constant work rate cycling in the moderate, heavy, and severe exercise intensity domains with concurrent measures of pulmonary VO and local %SmO (via NIRS) on quadriceps and forearm sites. Read More

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Heterogeneous Chemistry of Mercuric Chloride on Inorganic Salt Surfaces.

J Phys Chem A 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102, United States.

Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) is a major chemical form responsible for deposition of atmospheric mercury, but its interaction with environmental surfaces is not well understood. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the uptake of gaseous HgCl, used as a GOM surrogate, by several inorganic salts representative of marine and urban aerosols. The process was studied in a fast flow reactor coupled to an ion drift-chemical ionization mass spectrometer, where gaseous HgCl was quantitatively detected as HgCl·NO. Read More

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Hybrid Electrolyte Engineering Enables Safe and Wide-Temperature Redox Flow Batteries.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

The University of Texas at Austin, Materials Science and Engineering, 1 University Station, C2200, 78712, Austin, UNITED STATES.

Electrolyte is an important component in redox flow batteries (RFBs) that determines the current capability, potential window, and safety, but both aqueous and nonaqueous electrolytes have their intrinsic limits. Here, we develop the proof-of-concept hybrid electrolyte chemistry to enable the design of safe and wide-temperature RFBs. In addition to the non-flammable characteristics, the hybrid electrolyte also inherits the high electrochemical stability and wide operational temperature range. Read More

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Genetic and epigenetic regulation of skeletal muscle ribosome biogenesis with exercise.

J Physiol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

The Center for Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Key Points: Ribosome biogenesis and MYC transcription are associated with acute resistance exercise (RE) and are distinct from endurance exercise (EE) in human skeletal muscle throughout a 24-hour time-course of recovery. A PCR-based method for relative ribosomal DNA (rDNA) copy number estimation was validated by whole genome sequencing and revealed that rDNA dosage is positively correlated with ribosome biogenesis in response to RE. Acute RE modifies rDNA methylation patterns in enhancer, intergenic spacer, and non-canonical MYC-associated regions, but not the promoter. Read More

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Naïve CD4+ T Cell Lymphopenia and Apoptosis in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Is Driven by the CD31+ Subset and Is Partially Normalized in Direct-Acting Antiviral Treated Persons.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:641230. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States.

Background: The mechanisms underlying naïve CD4+ lymphopenia during chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection are unclear. Whether direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy restores peripheral naïve CD4+ T cell numbers and function is unknown.

Methods: We enumerated frequencies and counts of peripheral naïve CD4+, CD4+CD31+ and CD4+CD31- T cells by flow cytometry in a cross sectional analysis comparing chronic HCV infected (n=34), DAA-treated(n=29), and age-range matched controls (n=25), as well as in a longitudinal cohort of HCV DAA treated persons (n=16). Read More

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Interfacial Chemistry Enables Stable Cycling of All-Solid-State Li Metal Batteries at High Current Densities.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 May 27;143(17):6542-6550. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Materials Science and Engineering Program and Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, United States.

The application of flexible, robust, and low-cost solid polymer electrolytes in next-generation all-solid-state lithium metal batteries has been hindered by the low room-temperature ionic conductivity of these electrolytes and the small critical current density of the batteries. Both issues stem from the low mobility of Li ions in the polymer and the fast lithium dendrite growth at the Li metal/electrolyte interface. Herein, Mg(ClO) is demonstrated to be an effective additive in the poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based composite electrolyte to regulate Li ion transport and manipulate the Li metal/electrolyte interfacial performance. Read More

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A Biomechanical Comparison of High-Tensile Strength Tape Versus High-Tensile Strength Suture for Tendon Fixation Under Cyclic Loading.

Arthroscopy 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery,Naval Health Clinic,United States Naval Academy,Annapolis,MD,USA.

Purpose: To compare the biomechanical properties of high-tensile strength tape and high-tensile strength suture across two selected stitch techniques, the Krackow and whip stitch, in securing tendinous tissue during 5000 cycles of non-destructive loading followed by a load to failure.

Methods: Fourteen matched pairs each of cadaveric Achilles, quadriceps, and patellar tendons (n = 84) were randomly assigned to either Krackow or whip stitch and sutured with either 2 mm high-tensile strength tape or No. 2 high-tensile strength suture. Read More

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Molecular Determination of Organic Adsorption Sites on Smectite during Fe Redox Processes Using ToF-SIMS Analysis.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States.

Turnover of soil organic carbon (SOC) is strongly affected by a balance between mineral protection and microbial degradation. However, the mechanisms controlling the heterogeneous and preferential adsorption of different types of SOC remain elusive. In this work, the heterogeneous adsorption of humic substances (HSs) and microbial carbon (MC) on a clay mineral (nontronite NAu-2) during microbial-mediated Fe redox cycling was determined using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Read More

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On the Electrochemical Phase Evolution of Anti-PbO-Type CoSe in Alkali Ion Batteries.

Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

The reaction mechanism of anti-PbO type CoSe in Li, Na, and K ion half cells is studied. Ex situ X-ray diffraction data is analyzed with the Rietveld method, in conjunction with discharge profiles and extended cycling data. These indicate that intercalation followed by a conversion reaction occur in all systems. Read More

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Changes in Soil Microbial Activity, Bacterial Community Composition and Function in a Long-Term Continuous Soybean Cropping System After Corn Insertion and Fertilization.

Front Microbiol 2021 7;12:638326. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun, China.

Corn-soybean rotation and fertilization are common practices improving soil fertility and crop yield. Their effects on bacterial community have been extensively studied, yet, few comprehensive studies about the microbial activity, bacterial community and functional groups in a long-term continuous soybean cropping system after corn insertion and fertilization. The effects of corn insertions (Sm: no corn insertion, CS: 3 cycles of corn-soybean rotations and CCS: 2 cycles of corn-corn-soybean rotations) with two fertilization regimes (No fertilization and NPK) on bacterial community and microbial activity were investigated in a long-term field experiment. Read More

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MoS/FeS Nanocomposite Catalyst for Efficient Fenton Reaction.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside California 92521 United States.

Nanocomposites containing FeS as catalyst and MoS as cocatalyst have been synthesized toward efficient heterogeneous Fenton reaction. The deposition of FeS nanoparticles in situ on the surface of MoS nanosheets creates strong contact between the two components and generates a large number of exposed Mo sites and sulfur vacancies, which contribute to the enhanced degradation rate by accelerating Fe/Fe cycling and ensuring rapid electron transfer. In addition, the MoS/FeS nanocomposite catalysts exhibit the best performance at near-neutral conditions (pH 6. Read More

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Secondary (iso)BAs cooperate with endogenous ligands to activate FXR under physiological and pathological conditions.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 Apr 22;1867(8):166153. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

IsoBAs, stereoisomers of primary and secondary BAs, are found in feces and plasma of human individuals. BA signaling via the nuclear receptor FXR is crucial for regulation of hepatic and intestinal physiology/pathophysiology.

Aim: Investigate the ability of BA-stereoisomers to bind and modulate FXR under physiological/pathological conditions. Read More

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Control of distal lysine coordination in a monomeric hemoglobin: A role for heme peripheral interactions.

J Inorg Biochem 2021 Jun 24;219:111437. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

T.C. Jenkins Department of Biophysics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. Electronic address:

THB1 is a monomeric truncated hemoglobin (TrHb) found in the cytoplasm of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The canonical heme coordination scheme in hemoglobins is a proximal histidine ligand and an open distal site. In THB1, the latter site is occupied by Lys53, which is likely to facilitate Fe(II)/Fe(III) redox cycling but hinders dioxygen binding, two features inherent to the NO dioxygenase activity of the protein. Read More

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High-Energy-Density, Long-Life Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Practically Necessary Parameters Enabled by Low-Cost Fe-Ni Nanoalloy Catalysts.

ACS Nano 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, United States.

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries possess high theoretical specific energy but suffer from lithium polysulfide (LiPS) shuttling and sluggish reaction kinetics. Catalysts in Li-S batteries are deemed as a cornerstone for improving the sluggish kinetics and simultaneously mitigating the LiPS shuttling. Herein, a cost-effective hexagonal close-packed (hcp)-phase Fe-Ni alloy is shown to serve as an efficient electrocatalyst to promote the LiPS conversion reaction in Li-S batteries. Read More

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