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Investigating the roles of hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and elevated free fatty acids in cardiac function in patients with type 2 diabetes via treatment with insulin compared with empagliflozin: protocol for the HyperCarD2 randomised, crossover trial.

BMJ Open 2022 Aug 11;12(8):e054100. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

Department of Endocrinology, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterised by elevated plasma glucose, free fatty acid (FFA) and insulin concentrations, and this metabolic profile is linked to diabetic cardiomyopathy, a diastolic dysfunction at first and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Shifting cardiac metabolism towards glucose utilisation has been suggested to improve cardiovascular function and CVD risk, but insulin treatment increases overall glucose oxidation and lowers lipid oxidation, without reducing CVD risk, whereas SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) increase FFA, ketone body concentrations and lipid oxidation, while decreasing insulin concentrations and CVD risk. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the importance of different metabolic profiles obtained during treatment with a SGLT2i versus insulin for myocardial function in patients with T2D. Read More

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Correlation Between Cutaneous Manifestations and Functional Alterations in Chronic Venous Disease of the Lower Extremities.

Actas Dermosifiliogr 2022 Aug 8. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Hospital Privado, Córdoba, Argentina.

Background And Aims: Few studies have evaluated the correlation between the severity of cutaneous manifestations of chronic venous disease (CVD) of the lower limbs measured by the Clinical, Etiologic, Anatomic and Pathophysiologic classification (CEAP) and the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) combined, its risk factors, and venous reflux determined by Doppler ultrasonography. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical severity assessed by CEAP and VCSS with known risk factors for CVD and the severity of venous reflux.

Methods: A prospective study was carried out on 250 patients with CVD characterized as C2 to C6 according to the CEAP classification, who attended the departments of Dermatology and Vascular Medicine at the Hospital Privado Universitario de Córdoba from April 2013 to December 2014. Read More

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Association of polygenic risk scores with incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events among individuals with coronary artery calcium score of zero: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2022 Aug 8. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Section of Cardiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States of America; Section of Cardiology, Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, TX, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) are associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events. We studied incident ASCVD among individuals with absent coronary artery calcium (CAC = 0), to investigate the association of PRS with incident ASCVD among such individuals.

Methods: Data was used from Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a prospective cohort study of participants free of clinical CVD at baseline. Read More

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Suppression of trimethylamine N-oxide with DMB mitigates vascular dysfunction, exercise intolerance, and frailty associated with a Western-style diet in mice.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2022 Aug 11. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, United States.

Consumption of a Western-style diet (WD; high fat, high sugar, low fiber) is associated with impaired vascular function and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which could be mediated partly by increased circulating concentrations of the gut microbiome-derived metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). We investigated if suppression of TMAO with 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB; inhibitor of microbial TMA lyase) in mice could prevent: 1) WD-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and aortic stiffening; and 2) WD-induced reductions in endurance exercise tolerance and increases in frailty, as both are linked to WD, vascular dysfunction, and increased CVD risk. C57BL/6N mice were fed standard chow or WD (41% fat, ~25% sugar, 4% fiber) for 5 months beginning at ~2 months of age. Read More

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Assessment of relationship between retinal perfusion and retina thickness in healthy children and adolescents.

PLoS One 2022 11;17(8):e0273001. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

Eye Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: To determine the correlations between inner, mid, and outer retinal thickness (RT) and allied retinal and choroidal vascular densities (VD) at macula in normal healthy children and adolescents.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included a total of 108 eyes of 59 subjects. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA-Optovue) was used to measure the thickness of the inner-retina (IRT), mid-retina (MRT), and outer-retina (ORT) at foveal (central 1mm), parafoveal (1-3 mm), and perifoveal (3-6 mm) areas, as well as the corresponding VD of the superficial capillary plexus (SVD), deep capillary plexus (DVD), and choricapillaris (CVD). Read More

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Large-Scale Ultrafast Strain Engineering of CVD-Grown Two-Dimensional Materials on Strain Self-Limited Deformable Nanostructures toward Enhanced Field-Effect Transistors.

Nano Lett 2022 Aug 11. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

The Institute of Technological Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, People's Republic of China.

Strain engineering of 2D materials is capable of tuning the electrical and optical properties of the materials without introducing additional atoms. Here, a method for large-scale ultrafast strain engineering of CVD-grown 2D materials is proposed. Locally nonuniform strains are introduced through the cooperative deformation of materials and [email protected] oxide nanoparticles through cold laser shock. Read More

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New Perspectives on Micronised Purified Flavonoid Fraction in Chronic Venous Disease: From Microvalves to Clinical Effectiveness.

Adv Ther 2022 Aug 11. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

Department of Surgery, Vascular Screening and Diagnostic Centre, University of Nicosia Medical School, Engomi, 2 Kyriacou Matsi Street, Ayios Dhometios, 2368, Nicosia, Cyprus.

The importance of chronic venous disease (CVD), as a cause of reduced quality of life and increased costs to healthcare systems, is expected to rise in parallel with population aging and the increasing prevalence of obesity. Venoactive drugs (VADs) are frequently used to treat the symptoms and signs of CVD. The most commonly used and widely studied VAD, micronised purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF), is effective at all stages of CVD, and has been shown to significantly reduce leg pain, leg heaviness and swelling, as well as ankle oedema and functional discomfort, in clinical trials. Read More

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Hypertension, remnant cholesterol and cardiovascular disease: evidence from the China health and retirement longitudinal study.

J Hypertens 2022 Aug 9. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Wuxi Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China.

Objective: Previous studies had reported the significant association between hypertension, remnant cholesterol (RC) and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of present study was to evaluate the combined effect of hypertension and RC on the risk of CVD.

Methods: A total of 9456 participants from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were included. Read More

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Trans women have worse cardiovascular biomarker profiles than cisgender men independent of hormone use and HIV serostatus.

AIDS 2022 Aug 11. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Feminizing hormonal therapy (FHT) and HIV potentially alter cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in transgender women (TW).

Methods: TW were enrolled in Los Angeles, CA and Houston, TX and frequency-matched to Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study cisgender men (CM) on age, race, substance use and abacavir use. Biomarkers of CVD risk and inflammation were assessed via ELISA. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of Colchicine in Prevention of Secondary Cardiovascular Outcomes Among Patients With Coronary Vessel Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

Cureus 2022 Jul 9;14(7):e26680. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Critical Care Medicine, United Medical and Dental College, Karachi, PAK.

Coronary vessel disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that impacts the blood vessels and heart and is one of the leading causes of disability and death. CVD includes cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease, both illnesses of the vessels transporting the oxygenated blood to the brain or heart. Colchicine is an inexpensive and old drug with strong anti-inflammatory effects. Read More

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Association of comorbidities with the COVID-19 severity and hospitalization: A study among the recovered individuals in Bangladesh.

Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2022 Jul-Aug;16(4):30-45

Department of Microbiology and Veterinary Public Health, Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Khulshi, Chattogram, Bangladesh.

Objectives: We aimed at the identification of the association of comorbidities with the COVID-19 severity and hospitalization.

Methods: It is a retrospective cross-sectional study to investigate the variation in age, sex, dwelling, comorbidities, and medication with the COVID-19 severity and hospitalization by enrolling 1025 recovered individuals while comparing their time of recovery with or without comorbidities.

Results: COVID-19 patients mostly suffered from fever. Read More

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The effects of ginger and its constituents in the prevention of metabolic syndrome: A review.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2022 Jun;25(6):664-674

Pharmaceutical Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Metabolic syndrome is a multifactorial disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and hypertension risk factors. Moreover, metabolic syndrome is the most ordinary risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Numerous chemical drugs are being synthesized to heal metabolic risk factors. Read More

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An affordable approach to classifying type 2 diabetes based on fasting plasma glucose, TyG index and BMI: a retrospective cohort study of NHANES Data from 1988 to 2014.

Diabetol Metab Syndr 2022 Aug 10;14(1):113. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

College of Basic Medicine and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu, China.

Background: The β-cell function and insulin resistance required by existing methods of classifying type 2 diabetes are not routinely adopted in most medical institutions of developing countries and regions. This study aims to propose a novel, affordable classification approach and evaluate its predictive ability for several health and mortality outcomes, including cardiovascular health (CVH), retinopathy, chronic kidney disease (CKD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), advanced liver fibrosis, and mortality caused by all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer.

Methods: Based on 4060 participants with diabetes (aged ≥ 30 at the time of diagnosis) selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III & 1999-2014, we proposed a novel, but simple classification approach based on the threshold of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index and body mass index (BMI). Read More

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Associations of genetically predicted IL-6 signaling with cardiovascular disease risk across population subgroups.

BMC Med 2022 Aug 11;20(1):245. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

Genetics Department, Novo Nordisk Research Centre, Oxford, UK.

Background: Interleukin 6 (IL-6) signaling is being investigated as a therapeutic target for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). While changes in circulating high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) are used as a marker of IL-6 signaling, it is not known whether there is effect heterogeneity in relation to baseline hsCRP levels or other cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to explore the association of genetically predicted IL-6 signaling with CVD risk across populations stratified by baseline hsCRP levels and cardiovascular risk factors. Read More

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Age-specific difference in the association between prediabetes and subclinical atherosclerosis: an analysis of a chinese prospective cohort study.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2022 Aug 10;21(1):153. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Prediabetes is an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. However, the evidence of prediabetes as a cardiovascular risk factor is mainly derived from middle-aged adults. Recently, multiple studies supported that prediabetes in older adults would not lead to higher risk of CVD or mortality. Read More

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Associations between levels of oxidative nucleoside damage and cardiovascular risk in patients newly diagnosed with bipolar disorder and their unaffected relatives.

Transl Psychiatry 2022 Aug 10;12(1):327. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Copenhagen Affective Disorders Research Centre (CADIC), Psychiatric Center Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Enhanced oxidative stress-generated nucleoside damage may contribute to the increased cardiovascular disease mortality in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) but the association has never been investigated. We investigated the associations between oxidative stress-generated damage to DNA (8-oxodG) and RNA (8-oxoGuo), respectively, and three measures reflecting cardiovascular risk; namely, the Framingham 30-year risk score of cardiovascular diseases, the metabolic syndrome, and the insulin resistance index in 360 patients newly diagnosed with BD, 102 of their unaffected relatives (UR) and 197 healthy control individuals (HC). In sex- and age-adjusted models, the 30-year cardiovascular risk score increased by 20. Read More

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Dairy Milk Casein and Whey Proteins Differentially Alter the Postprandial Lipidome in Persons with Prediabetes: A Comparative Lipidomics Study.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Human Nutrition Program, Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, United States.

Dairy milk, likely through its bioactive proteins, has been reported to attenuate postprandial hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress responses implicated in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, how its major proteins, whey and casein, alter metabolic excursions of the lipidome in persons with prediabetes is unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whey or casein protein ingestion on glucose-induced alternations in lipidomic responses in adults (17 males and 6 females) with prediabetes. Read More

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Development and Validation of Risk Prediction Models for Coronary Heart Disease and Heart Failure After Treatment for Hodgkin Lymphoma.

J Clin Oncol 2022 Aug 10:JCO2102613. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Department of Epidemiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Purpose: Previous efforts to predict absolute risk of treatment-related cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have mostly focused on childhood cancer survivors. We aimed to develop prediction models for risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and heart failure (HF) for survivors of adolescent/adult Hodgkin lymphoma (HL).

Methods: For model development, we used a multicenter cohort including 1,433 5-year HL survivors treated between 1965 and 2000 and age 18-50 years at HL diagnosis, with complete data on administered chemotherapy regimens, radiotherapy volumes and doses, and cardiovascular follow-up. Read More

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Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism (786T/C) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors.

Expert Rev Hematol 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt.

Objectives: to detect eNOS gene polymorphism and its relation to cardiovascular complications in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors.

Methods: CBC, renal and liver function tests, lipid profile, Carotid artery Intima Media Thickness (CIMT) and Brachial artery Intima Media Thickness (BIMT). eNOS gene polymorphism were done in 40 childhood ALL survivors and 40 controls. Read More

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Prognostic values of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular events in South African health promotion.

PLoS One 2022 10;17(8):e0271169. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Africa Unit for Transdisciplinary Health Reseach (AUTHeR), North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are increasing at an alarming rate among the South African population. This study aimed to determine the prognostic value of modifiable CVD risk factors for fatal and non-fatal events to inform cardiovascular health promotion practices in the South African public health system.

Methods: Data was collected from individuals participating in the South African leg of a multi-national prospective cohort study. Read More

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Cardiovascular Disease in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes: Looking Beyond Glycemic Control.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 130 N. Bellefield Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Despite improvements in treatment, people with type 1 diabetes continue to have increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Glycemic control does not fully explain this excess CVD risk, so a greater understanding of other risk factors is needed.

Recent Findings: The authors review the relationship between glycemia and CVD risk in adults with type 1 diabetes and summarize evidence regarding other factors that may explain risk beyond glycemia. Read More

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Associations and burdens of relative humidity with cause-specific mortality in three Chinese cities.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100005, China.

This study aimed to investigate the association between relative humidity (RH) and various cause of mortality, and then quantify the RH-related mortality fraction of low and high RH under the assumption that causal effects exist. Daily cause-specific mortality counts from 2008 to 2011, and contemporaneous meteorological data in three Chinese cities were collected. Distributed lag nonlinear models were adopted to quantify the nonlinear and delayed effects of RH on mortality risk. Read More

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Direct growth of h-BN multilayers with controlled thickness on non-crystalline dielectric substrates without metal catalysts.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

State Key Lab of Superhard Materials, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, Jilin, People's Republic of China.

We report an rGO-assisted CVD approach that enables the direct growth of high-quality single crystalline h-BN films with adjustable thickness and layered order on amorphous quartz and SiO/Si substrates at relatively low temperatures. This work demonstrates a viable prototype for growing continuous ultrathin h-BN films on desired substrates without the requirement of lattice orientation, thus offering a great opportunity for their appealing applications. Read More

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[Evidence of STA-MCA Bypass-History and Overseas Articles].

No Shinkei Geka 2022 Jul;50(4):735-744

Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine.

The superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery(STA-MCA)bypass technique developed by M. Gazi Yaşargil and Raymond M. P. Read More

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Comparative cryogenic extraction rehydration experiments reveal isotope fractionation during root water uptake in Gramineae.

New Phytol 2022 Aug 9. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Key Lab of Agricultural Water Resources, the Innovative Academy of Seed Design, the Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang, 050021, Hebei, China.

Determining whether isotope fractionation occurs during root water uptake is a prerequisite for using stem or xylem water isotopes to trace water sources. However, it is unclear whether isotope fractionation occurs during root water uptake in gramineous crops. We conducted prevalidation experiments to estimate the isotope measurement bias associated with cryogenic vacuum distillation (CVD). Read More

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Cardio-ankle vascular index is more closely associated than brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity with arterial damage and risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2022 Aug 9;22(1):365. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Division of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchikami-cho, Itabashi-ku, 173-8610, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: This study aimed to compare the usefulness of arterial stiffness parameters, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), for evaluating arterial damage and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in subjects with diabetes.

Methods: The study subjects were 277 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. All subjects were evaluated for vascular stiffness using CAVI (n = 154) or baPWV (n = 123). Read More

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Modelling prevalent cardiovascular disease in an urban Indigenous population.

Can J Public Health 2022 Aug 9. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objective: Studies have highlighted the inequities between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations with respect to the burden of cardiovascular disease and prevalence of predisposing risks resulting from historical and ongoing impacts of colonization. The objective of this study was to investigate factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) within and specific to the Indigenous peoples living in Toronto, Ontario, and to evaluate the reliability and validity of the resulting model in a similar population.

Methods: The Our Health Counts Toronto study measured the baseline health of Indigenous community members living in Toronto, Canada, using respondent-driven sampling. Read More

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Global spatiotemporal trends of cardiovascular diseases due to temperature in different climates and socio-demographic index regions from 1990 to 2019.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Aug 9. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, One University Place, Rensselaer, NY, 12144, USA.

With the rapidly changing climate, assessing the global trends of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) attributed to high and low temperatures in different climate zones and under varying socio-demographic levels is crucial for regulations, preparation, intervention, and clinical practice for CVD. Our study included 204 countries with global CVD data ranging from 1990 to 2019. We obtained the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR); disability-adjusted life rate of CVD attributed to high, low, and non-optimal temperatures; and socio-demographic index (SDI) data from the Global Health Data Exchange. Read More

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Report on Cardiovascular Health and Diseases in China 2021: An Updated Summary.

Authors:

Biomed Environ Sci 2022 Jul;35(7):573-603

In 2019, cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounted for 46.74% and 44.26% of all deaths in rural and urban areas, respectively. Read More

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Relation of Electrocardiographic Abnormal P-Wave Axis With Stroke Mortality in the General Population.

Am J Cardiol 2022 Aug 6. Epub 2022 Aug 6.

Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

The link between abnormal P-wave axis (aPWA) and incident ischemic stroke is well established. However, studies examining the association between aPWA and fatal stroke are rare. We hypothesized that aPWA is associated with fatal stroke. Read More

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