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Erector spinae plane block in acute interventional pain management: a systematic review.

Scand J Pain 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nazarbayev University School of Medicine, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.

Erector Spinae Plane Block (ESPB) was described by Forero in 2016. ESPB is currently widely used in acute postoperative pain management. The benefits of ESPB include simplicity and efficacy in various surgeries. Read More

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Dual-target compounds for Alzheimer's disease: Natural and synthetic AChE and BACE-1 dual-inhibitors and their structure-activity relationship (SAR).

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Apr 24;221:113492. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease and represents the major cause of dementia worldwide. Currently, there are no available treatments capable to deliver disease-modifying effects, and the available drugs can only alleviate the symptoms. The exact pathology of AD is not yet fully understood and several hallmarks such as the presence of amyloid-β (Aβ) senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) as well as the loss of cholinergic function have been associated to AD. Read More

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Biofilm characteristics and transcriptomic analysis of Haemophilus parasuis.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Apr 29;258:109073. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Diseases and Human Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. Electronic address:

Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis) is a conditional pathogen with the ability to form biofilms which can lead to ineffective drug treatment and severe chronic infections resulting in significant economic losses to the pig industry. Currently, knowledge of biofilm formation by H. Read More

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Porcine circovirus type 2 infection attenuates the K63-linked ubiquitination of STING to inhibit IFN-β induction via p38-MAPK pathway.

Vet Microbiol 2021 May 4;258:109098. Epub 2021 May 4.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, China. Electronic address:

Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) has been proved to increase the risk of other pathogens infection via immunosuppression. Although the co-infection of PCV2 and porcine parvovirus (PPV) is commonly observed in worldwide, the relative immune mechanisms promoting PPV infection in PCV2-infected piglets are currently unknown. Herein, we found that PCV2 infection suppressed IFN-β expression and promoted PPV infection in the piglets. Read More

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Multi-response optimal hot pressurized liquid recovery of extractable polyphenols from leaves of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Mol.] Stuntz).

Food Chem 2021 Mar 29;357:129729. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, P.O. Box 306, Santiago 7820436, Chile. Electronic address:

Multi-response optimization of hot pressurized liquid extraction (HPLE) was applied for the first time to obtain maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Mol.] Stuntz) leaf extracts. The total polyphenol content (TPC), the antioxidant capacity (AC) as well as the total polyphenol purity of the maqui leaf extracts were accurately predicted (RSD < 8%) at the evaluated extraction scales. Read More

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Microplastics in seawater and zooplankton: A case study from Terengganu estuary and offshore waters, Malaysia.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 1;786:147466. Epub 2021 May 1.

Faculty of Science & Marine Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia.

Widespread accumulation and distribution of microplastics at the sea surface raise concerns as the habitat is a feeding ground for zooplankton. As primary consumers, these organisms are closely connected to microplastic input in the marine food chain. Little comparative information currently exists about this problem in estuary and offshore systems. Read More

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Deciphering the transformation mechanism of substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on Al(III)-montmorillonite: An experimental and density functional theory study.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 3;786:147493. Epub 2021 May 3.

College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China; Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and the Agri-environment in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture, Yangling 712100, China; State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China. Electronic address:

The researches on transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on clay minerals modified by metal ions have received increasing attention. However, the transformation of PAHs with electron-withdrawing or electron-donating substitutional groups on clay minerals is not well understood currently. In this study, the degradation of anthracene (ANT) with different substituents (including -CH, -CHO, -Br, -OMe, and -NO) on Al(III)-montmorillonite (MMT) was investigated in the dark. Read More

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Assessing the nationwide impact of COVID-19 mitigation policies on the transmission rate of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil.

Epidemics 2021 May 8;35:100465. Epub 2021 May 8.

Center for Data and Knowledge Integration for Health (CIDACS), Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Bahia, Brazil; Centre of Mathematics of the University of Porto (CMUP), Department of Mathematics, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

COVID-19 is now identified in almost all countries in the world, with poorer regions being particularly more disadvantaged to efficiently mitigate the impacts of the pandemic. In the absence of efficient therapeutics or large-scale vaccination, control strategies are currently based on non-pharmaceutical interventions, comprising changes in population behavior and governmental interventions, among which the prohibition of mass gatherings, closure of non-essential establishments, quarantine and movement restrictions. In this work we analyzed the effects of 707 governmental interventions published up to May 22, 2020, and population adherence thereof, on the dynamics of COVID-19 cases across all 27 Brazilian states, with emphasis on state capitals and remaining inland cities. Read More

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Designing potential siRNA molecule for the nucleocapsid(N) gene silencing of different SARS-CoV-2 strains of Bangladesh: Computational approach.

Comput Biol Chem 2021 May 6;92:107486. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, 1000, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA (+) virus first identified in China and then became an ongoing global outbreak. In most cases, it is fatal in humans due to respiratory malfunction. Extensive researches are going to find an effective therapeutic technique for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Read More

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Optimization and application of high-throughput supported liquid extraction for simultaneous determination of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in serum.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Mar 24;1173:122672. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shanxi 710061, PR China. Electronic address:

The demand for analysis of carotenoids (CAR) and fat-soluble vitamins (FSV) is continuously expanding, but currently used sample preparation methods either require complicated extraction procedure or large sample volume, let alone the reliability of the results. This study aimed to develop a fast, high-efficient, and high-throughput method based on supported liquid extraction (SLE) for the simultaneous extraction of FSV and CAR from human serum before using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis. The optimization of SLE parameters was achieved through response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design (BBD) and included serum-water-extraction solvent ratio and eluent volume. Read More

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Climate change impact on EU rivers' dilution capacity and ecological status.

Water Res 2021 Apr 22;199:117166. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA). Carrer Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona, Spain; University of Girona. Plaça de Sant Domènec 3, 17004 Girona, Spain. Electronic address:

Impacts from urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to receiving riverine surface water bodies (SWBs) depend on the load of contaminants discharged, as well as on their dilution capacity. Yet, climate change impacts on such dilution capacity and ultimately on the SWBs ecological status remain unclear. Here, we assess SWBs dilution capacity across the European continent to identify most vulnerable areas using information from centralized European databases. Read More

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Bipolar versus high-density surface electromyography for evaluating risk in fatiguing frequency-dependent lifting activities.

Appl Ergon 2021 May 10;95:103456. Epub 2021 May 10.

Centre of Precision Rehabilitation for Spinal Pain (CPR Spine), School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B152TT, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Workers often develop low back pain due to manually lifting heavy loads. Instrumental-based assessment tools are used to quantitatively assess the biomechanical risk in lifting activities. This study aims to verify the hypothesis that high-density surface electromyography (HDsEMG) allows an optimized discrimination of risk levels associated with different fatiguing lifting conditions compared to traditional bipolar sEMG. Read More

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Burosumab treatment for fibrous dysplasia.

Bone 2021 May 10:116004. Epub 2021 May 10.

Metabolic Bone Disorders Unit, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Fibrous dysplasia/McCune-Albright syndrome (FD/MAS) is a rare mosaic disorder of Gα activation. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF23)-mediated hypophosphatemia is a feature of FD/MAS that has been associated with poor skeletal outcomes. Standard therapy includes oral phosphorus and vitamin D analogs; however, treatment is limited by potential adverse renal and gastrointestinal effects. Read More

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Cost-Effectiveness of Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation versus MRI Surveillance for Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Radiation Oncology, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objectives: Due to conflicting prospective data, controversy exists regarding prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in extensive stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC). We evaluate the cost effectiveness of PCI versus MRI surveillance for patients with ES-SCLC based on currently available evidence and in the context of the purposed CMS alternative payment model.

Materials And Methods: A Markov state transition model was constructed to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing MRI surveillance alone with PCI for ES-SCLC. Read More

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Interventions to Reduce Meat Consumption by Appealing to Animal Welfare: Meta-Analysis and Evidence-Based Recommendations.

Appetite 2021 May 10:105277. Epub 2021 May 10.

Stanford Solutions Science Lab, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University. Electronic address:

Reducing meat consumption may improve human health, curb environmental damage, and limit the large-scale suffering of animals reared in factory farms. Most attention to reducing consumption has focused on restructuring environments where foods are chosen or on making health or environmental appeals. However, psychological theory suggests that interventions appealing to animal welfare concerns might operate on distinct, potent pathways. Read More

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The combined effect of behavioural risk factors on disability in aging adults from the Canadian longitudinal study on aging.

Prev Med 2021 May 10:106609. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Labarge Centre for Mobility in Aging, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; McMaster Institute for Research on Aging, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

The objective of this study was to explore how behavioural risk factors (smoking, physical activity, and nutrition) cluster together and assess how clusters of behavioural risk factors are associated with functional disability by age and sex at the individual and population level. We used currently available baseline cross-sectional data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). The CLSA is a national, population-based longitudinal study established to understand and examine health of an aging population. Read More

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Basic Principles and New Advances in Kidney Imaging.

Kidney Int 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Over the past few years, clinical renal imaging has seen great advances, allowing assessments of kidney structure and morphology, perfusion, function and metabolism, oxygenation, as well as microstructure and interstitium. Medical imaging is becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of kidney physiology and pathophysiology, showing promise in management of patients with renal disease, in particular with regard to diagnosis, classification, and prediction of disease development and progression, monitoring response to therapy, detection of drug toxicity, and patient selection for clinical trials. A variety of imaging modalities, ranging from routine to advanced tools, are currently available to probe the kidney both spatially and temporally, particularly ultrasonography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, renal scintigraphy, and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. Read More

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Fenofibrate, a PPARα agonist, reduces hepatic fat accumulation through the upregulation of TFEB-mediated lipophagy.

Metabolism 2021 May 10:154798. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Recent studies have shown that dysregulation of autophagy is involved in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Transcription factors E3 (TFE3) and EB (TFEB) are master regulators of the transcriptional response of basic cellular processes such as lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy. Here, we investigated the role of fenofibrate, a PPARα agonist, in promotion of intracellular lipid clearance by upregulation of TFEB/TFE3. Read More

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Maternal Weight Gain and Pregnancy Outcomes in Twin Gestations.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lis Maternity Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Data on the optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) in twin pregnancies are limited. As a result, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) currently provides only provisional recommendations on GWG in this population.

Objective: To identify the optimal range of GWG in twin pregnancies and to estimate the association between inappropriate GWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Read More

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PI5P4Ks drive metabolic homeostasis through peroxisome-mitochondria interplay.

Dev Cell 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Cell and Molecular Biology of Cancer Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:

PI5P4Ks are a class of phosphoinositide kinases that phosphorylate PI-5-P to PI-4,5-P. Distinct localization of phosphoinositides is fundamental for a multitude of cellular functions. Here, we identify a role for peroxisomal PI-4,5-P generated by the PI5P4Ks in maintaining energy balance. Read More

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Pregnant women report being denied medications to treat severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy or hyperemesis gravidarum - findings from an Australian online survey.

Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

SA Pharmacy, Flinders Medical Centre, SA Health, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

We conducted an online survey of 249 Australian women who currently or previously experienced severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) or hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and examined their experiences in being denied medications during pregnancy. One in four women reported being denied medications for NVP/HG, which most commonly involved doxylamine and encounters with community pharmacists. Women's experiences reflected that lack of awareness of guidelines and unfavourable risk-benefit assessments appeared to be key barriers to facilitating medication access. Read More

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Seabirds As Possible Reservoirs of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae on Islands Used for Conservation Translocations in New Zealand.

J Wildl Dis 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, the causative agent of the disease erysipelas, is a gram-positive bacillus, and an opportunistic pathogen in diverse species of animals. In New Zealand, E. rhusiopathiae has killed endangered birds on offshore islands, including Kākāpō (Strigops habroptilus), Takahē (Porphyrio hochstetteri), and Kiwi (Apteryx spp. Read More

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The use of 33 MHz ultra-high-frequency ultrasonography for the evaluation of sweat glands in the axilla with osmidrosis.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251600. Epub 2021 May 13.

ViewClinic Momonosato, Tamano, Japan.

Background: This study aimed to assess the use of 33 MHz ultra-high-frequency ultrasonography (33MHz-UHFUS) for evaluating axillary sweat glands with osmidrosis in comparison with histological techniques. Axillary osmidrosis is a common problem in Asian societies, and the number and size of apocrine sweat glands have a strong relationship with osmidrosis severity. Currently, there are no methods to evaluate sweat gland distribution non-invasively. Read More

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Surgical treatment for cryptoglandular and Crohn's perianal fistulas: Protocol of an umbrella review.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251460. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Anorectal Surgery, Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: A high prevalence of cryptoglandular and Crohn's perianal fistulas has been reported worldwide, and several surgical options are available for the management of anal fistula, with varying clinical efficacy. However, currently, the available evidence for the effectiveness of these surgical approaches are lacking and of concern in terms of the credibility and strength. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the credibility of the published systematic reviews and meta-analyses that assess the efficacy and safety of the surgical options for cryptoglandular and Crohn's perianal fistulas through an umbrella review. Read More

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Evaluation of the effects of differences in silicone hardness on rat model of lumbar spinal stenosis.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251464. Epub 2021 May 13.

Jaseng Spine and Joint Research Institute, Jaseng Medical Foundation, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), one of the most commonly reported spinal disorders, can cause loss of sensation and dyskinesia. In currently used animal models of LSS, the spinal cord is covered entirely with a silicone sheet, or block-shaped silicone is inserted directly into the spinal canal after laminectomy. However, the effects of differences between these implant materials have not been studied. Read More

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Common genetic variants associated with obesity in an African-American and Hispanic/Latino population.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250697. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

Introduction: Over 35% of all adults in the world are currently obese and risk of obesity in racial or ethnic minority groups exist in the US, but the causes of these differences are not all known. As obesity is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease, an improved understanding of risk factors across racial and ethnic groups may improve outcomes.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if susceptibility to obesity is associated with genetic variation in candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in African Americans and Hispanic/Latinos. Read More

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BMSCs differentiated into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes alleviated the inflammation and demyelination of EAE mice models.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0243014. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, P R China.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex, progressive neuroinflammatory disease associated with autoimmunity. Currently, effective therapeutic strategy was poorly found in MS. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is widely used to study the pathogenesis of MS. Read More

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Strengthening data collection for neglected tropical diseases: What data are needed for models to better inform tailored intervention programmes?

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 May 13;15(5):e0009351. Epub 2021 May 13.

Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Locally tailored interventions for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are becoming increasingly important for ensuring that the World Health Organization (WHO) goals for control and elimination are reached. Mathematical models, such as those developed by the NTD Modelling Consortium, are able to offer recommendations on interventions but remain constrained by the data currently available. Data collection for NTDs needs to be strengthened as better data are required to indirectly inform transmission in an area. Read More

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Analytical Methods for Determination of Antiviral Drugs in Different Matrices: Recent Advances and Trends.

Crit Rev Anal Chem 2021 May 13:1-33. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

Viruses are the main pathogenic substances that cause severe diseases in humans and other living things. They are among the most common microorganisms, and consequently, antiviral drugs have emerged to prevent and treat viral infections. Antiviral drugs are an essential drug group considering their prescription and consumption rates for different diseases and indications. Read More

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Confirmatory factor analysis of imPACT cognitive tests in high school athletes.

Psychol Assess 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

ImPACT is the most commonly utilized computerized neurocognitive assessment for the clinical management of sport concussion. The cognitive composite scores that ImPACT currently reports include Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Visual Motor Speed, Reaction Time, and Impulse Control. However, exploratory factor analytic studies report that two or more factors may better represent ImPACT's latent structure, suggesting that the current cognitive composites may not adequately represent the cognitive constructs ImPACT assesses. Read More

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