130,102 results match your criteria current understanding


Toward a Liver Cell Atlas: Understanding Liver Biology in Health and Disease at Single-Cell Resolution.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.

Single-cell technologies are revolutionizing our understanding of cellular heterogeneity and functional diversity in health and disease. Here, we review the current knowledge and advances in liver biology using single-cell approaches. We focus on the landscape of the composition and the function of cells in a healthy liver in the context of its spatial organization. Read More

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Two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal and astrocytic responses: the influence of electrical stimulus parameters and calcium signaling mechanisms.

J Neural Eng 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Tianjin Medical University, Heping District, Tianjin, 300070, CHINA.

Objective: Electrical brain stimulation has been used to ameliorate symptoms associated with neurologic and psychiatric disorders. The astrocytic activation and its interaction with neurons may contribute to the therapeutic effects of electrical stimulation. However, how the astrocytic activity is affected by electrical stimulation and its calcium signaling mechanisms remain largely unknown. Read More

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Greater adolescent tiredness is related to more emotional arousal during a hyperventilation task: An area under the curve approach.

J Adolesc 2021 Jun 12;90:45-52. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

University of Arkansas, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Approximately 36% of adolescents report sleep problems (Crowley et al., 2018). Understanding the relation between sleep and emotional experience is crucial in understanding the high incidence of mental health concerns during adolescence. Read More

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Promoting cross-regional collaboration in antimicrobial stewardship: Findings of an infectious diseases working group survey in Arab countries of the Middle East.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Apr 24;14(7):978-984. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon. Electronic address:

Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a significant global issue that presents an increasing threat to patients' wellbeing. Although a global concern, the emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms is of particular significance in the Middle East. In recent years, this region has seen an alarming increase in antimicrobial resistance presenting a major challenge to physicians managing various infectious diseases. Read More

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COVID-19 versus SARS: A comparative review.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Apr 24;14(7):967-977. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Pathology, Sidra Medicine, Doha, Qatar; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine - Qatar, Doha, Qatar. Electronic address:

The two genetically similar severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, have each been responsible for global epidemics of vastly different scales. Although both viruses arose from similar origins, they quickly diverged due to differences in their transmission dynamics and spectrum of clinical presentations. The potential involvement of multiple organs systems, including the respiratory, cardiac, gastrointestinal and neurological, during infection necessitates a comprehensive understanding of the clinical pathogenesis of each virus. Read More

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The crucial role of heavy metals on the interaction of engineered nanoparticles with polystyrene microplastics.

Water Res 2021 Jun 1;201:117317. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, HKSAR, P.R.China; HKBU Institute of Research and Continuing Education, Shenzhen Virtual University Park, Shenzhen, P.R.China. Electronic address:

Despite continuous research on microplastics (MPs), studies exploring the complexity of interaction between MPs and other aqueous constituents in multi-solute systems are scarce. In this study, the uptake and release of nanoceria (CeNPs) by various polystyrene MPs (PSMPs) were investigated. Results showed that PSMPs in the presence of heavy metals (HMs) exhibited a substantially higher sorption affinity for isotropic charged CeNPs than PSMPs alone; this enhanced affinity was attributed to the formation of PSMP-HM-CeNP complexes. Read More

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Sensitive and quantitative detection of MHC-I displayed neoepitopes using a semi-automated workflow and TOMAHAQ mass spectrometry.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2021 Jun 12:100108. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Genentech, South San Francisco, 94080, California, USA. Electronic address:

Advances in several key technologies, including MHC peptidomics, have helped fuel our understanding of basic immune regulatory mechanisms and the identification of T cell receptor targets for the development of immunotherapeutics. Isolating and accurately quantifying MHC-bound peptides from cells and tissues enables characterization of dynamic changes in the ligandome due to cellular perturbations. However, the current multi-step analytical process is challenging, and improvements in throughput and reproducibility would enable rapid characterization of multiple conditions in parallel. Read More

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A review on application of next-generation sequencing methods for profiling of protozoan parasites in water: Current methodologies, challenges, and perspectives.

J Microbiol Methods 2021 Jun 12:106269. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute for Water and Wastewater Technology, Durban University of Technology, Durban 4000, South Africa. Electronic address:

The advancement in metagenomics techniques has provided novel tools for profiling human parasites in environmental matrices, such as water and wastewater. In this article, we review the current workflow methods and provide recommendations for the standardization of techniques. The current methods for sample collection, storage, concentration, extraction, sequencing DNA, and bioinformatic analysis are not fully adequate for the analysis of protozoans in environmental samples. Read More

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Beta2-microglobulin(B2M) in cancer immunotherapies: Biological function, resistance and remedy.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

The Comprehensive Cancer Centre of Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School & Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210008, China. Electronic address:

Cancer immunotherapies have made much headway during the past decades. Techniques including the immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) and adoptive cell therapy (ACT) have harvested impressive efficacy and provided far-reaching tools for treating cancer patients. However, due to inadequate priming of the immune system, a certain subgroup of patients remains resistant to cancer immunotherapies during or after the treatment. Read More

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The funny current in genetically modified mice.

Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, INSERM, Montpellier, France; LabEx Ion Channels Science and Therapeutics (ICST), France. Electronic address:

Since its first description in 1979, the hyperpolarization-activated funny current (I) has been the object of intensive research aimed at understanding its role in cardiac pacemaker activity and its modulation by the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. I was described in isolated tissue strips of the rabbit sinoatrial node using the double-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Since then, the rabbit has been the principal animal model for studying pacemaker activity and I for more than 20 years. Read More

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Motive Control of Unconscious Inference: The Limbic Base of Adaptive Bayes.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Brain Electrophysiology Laboratory Company, University of Oregon, United States.

Current computational models of neocortical processing, described as predictive coding theory, are providing new ways of understanding Helmholtz's classical insight that perception cannot proceed in a data-driven fashion, but instead requires unconscious inference based on prior experience. Predictive coding is a Bayesian process, in which the operations at each lower level of the cortical hierarchy are predicted by prior projections of expectancies from a higher level, and are then updated by error-correction with lower level evidence. To generalize the predictive coding model to the human neocortex as a whole requires aligning the Bayesian negotiation of prior expectancies with sensory and motor evidence not only within the connectional architecture of the neocortex (primary sensory/motor, unimodal association areas, and heteromodal association areas) but also with the limbic cortex that forms the base for the adaptive control of the heteromodal areas and thereby the cerebral hemisphere as a whole. Read More

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Cardiac Amyloidosis: Multimodal Imaging of Disease Activity and Response to Treatment.

Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Jun 15;14(6):e009025. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Amyloidosis Center, Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, MA (F.L.R.).

Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is a disease characterized by the deposition of misfolded protein deposits in the myocardial interstitium. Although advanced CA confers significant morbidity and mortality, the magnitude of deposition and ensuing clinical manifestations vary greatly. Thus, an improved understanding of disease pathogenesis at both cellular and functional levels would afford critical insights that may improve outcomes. Read More

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Systems-level approaches for understanding and engineering of the oleaginous cell factory Yarrowia lipolytica.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Concerns about climate change and the search for renewable energy sources together with the goal of attaining sustainable product manufacturing have boosted the use of microbial platforms to produce fuels and high-value chemicals. In this regard, Y. lipolytica has been known as a promising yeast with potentials in diverse array of biotechnological applications such as being a host for different oleochemicals, organic acid and recombinant protein production. Read More

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The converging path of protein SUMOylation in phytohormone signalling: highlights and new frontiers.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute (NABI), Sector-81 (Knowledge City), S.A.S. Nagar, Mohali, Punjab, 140306, India.

Key Message: The intersection of phytohormone signalling pathways with SUMOylation, a key post-translational modification, offers an additional layer of control to the phytohormone signalling for sophisticated regulation of plant development. Plants live in a constantly changing environment that are often challenging for the growth and development of plants. Phytohormones play a critical role in modulating molecular-level changes for enabling plants to resist climatic aberrations. Read More

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Analyzing signaling activity and function in hematopoietic cells.

J Exp Med 2021 Jul 15;218(7). Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zurich, Basel, Switzerland.

Cells constantly sense their environment, allowing the adaption of cell behavior to changing needs. Fine-tuned responses to complex inputs are computed by signaling pathways, which are wired in complex connected networks. Their activity is highly context-dependent, dynamic, and heterogeneous even between closely related individual cells. Read More

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Preferences in digital smartphone mental health applications among adolescents: a qualitative study.

JMIR Form Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Health Service and Population Research Department, IOPPN, Kings' College London, UK, Centre for Research in Individual Differences, Department of Psychology, London, GB.

Background: Mental health digital applications (apps) hold promise to provide scalable solutions to individual self-care, education, and illness prevention. However, a problem with these apps is that they lack engaging user interfaces and experiences, potentially resulting in high attrition. While guidelines for new digital interventions in adults have begun to examine engagement, there is a paucity of evidence on how to best address digital interventions in adolescents. Read More

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Comparing cyberbullying prevalence and process before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Soc Psychol 2021 Jun 15:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Iowa State University.

The psychological consequences of the global COVID-19 pandemic are just now starting to be understood; however, the behavioral consequences are less understood. Thus, the current report examined whether cyberbullying processes and frequency are affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. We compared US adult participant data from six months before the start of the pandemic (July 2019; n = 181) to data collected in the middle of the pandemic (May, 2020; n = 173) to determine if there are any significant differences in anonymity perceptions, belief in the irrelevance of muscularity for online bullying (BIMOB), cyberbullying attitudes, and cyberbullying perpetration. Read More

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MDSCs interactions with other immune cells and their role in maternal-fetal tolerance.

Int Rev Immunol 2021 Jun 15:1-18. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

MDSCs (myeloid-derived suppressor cells) are a population of immature and heterogeneous bone marrow cells with immunosuppressive functions, and they are mainly divided into two subgroups: granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSCs) and monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs). Immunosuppression is the main and most important function of MDSCs, and they mainly exert an inhibitory effect through endoplasmic reticulum stress and some enzymes related to inhibitors, as well as some cytokines and other factors. In addition, MDSCs also interact with other immune cells, especially NK cells, DCs and Tregs, to participate in immune regulation. Read More

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Reliability and validity of Six-Spot Step Test (SSST) in stroke survivors.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.

Background: The Six-Spot Step Test (SSST) was originally developed to assess walking ability while challenging balance during walking in patients with multiple sclerosis. It provides more comprehensive information on ambulatory abilities than several existing measures such as the Timed Up & Go test (TUG test), the Functional Gait Assessment, and the Dynamic Gait Index. To assess the advanced balance control ability of stroke survivors, we modified the SSST to serve this purpose. Read More

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Studying human nociceptors: from fundamentals to clinic.

Brain 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK.

Chronic pain affects one in five of the general population and is the third most important cause of disability-adjusted life-years globally. Unfortunately, treatment remains inadequate due to poor efficacy and tolerability. There has been a failure in translating promising preclinical drug targets into clinic use. Read More

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Plexcitons, electric field gradient and electron-phonon coupling in tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS).

Nanoscale 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China. and Collaborative Innovation Center of Light Manipulations and Applications, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250358, P. R. China.

Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (TERS) provides very high spatial resolution and detection sensitivity, so it has important applications in nano-scale molecular analysis. Plexciton is a polarization mode caused by a strongly coupled interaction between plasma excitons and excitons. It is a hot topic in plasma photonics research. Read More

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Current Advancements in Animal Models of Postsurgical Lymphedema: A Systematic Review.

Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, 12223, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Los Angeles, California, United States.

Significance: Secondary lymphedema is a debilitating disease caused by lymphatic dysfunction characterized by chronic swelling, dysregulated inflammation, disfigurement, and compromised wound healing. Since there is no effective cure, animal model systems that support basic science research into the mechanisms of secondary lymphedema are critical to advancing the field. Recent Advances: Over the last decade, lymphatic research has led to the improvement of existing animal lymphedema models and the establishment of new models. Read More

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Review: Unaccompanied refugee minors' perception of mental health services and professionals: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

Child Adolesc Ment Health 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Univ. Grenoble-Alpes/CNRS/TIMC-IMAG UMR 5525, Grenoble, France.

Background: Unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) are a population at risk of mental health problems and a population with whom the therapeutic alliance can be difficult to set up. The therapeutic alliance's quality can impact the result and effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions. The aim of the present study was to gather URMs' points of view about mental health services and mental health professionals (MHP) in the host country. Read More

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Resting Heart Rate Mediates the Relationship between Parenting Style and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Chinese Children.

Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Psychology, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, P. R. China.

Despite increasing knowledge of social and biological risk factors for callous-unemotional (CU) traits, relatively less is known about how these two sets of risk factors combine to affect these traits. The current longitudinal study investigated pathways from parenting style to CU traits via resting heart rate in a three-year project. Parents of 382 children completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire at Time 1 (children Mean age = 9. Read More

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Identifying the Inter-Domain Relations Among ODD, CD, and CU Traits in Preschool Children Using Network Analysis.

Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 40506, USA.

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are two of the most common forms of disruptive behavior disorders during childhood. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are an important factor in understanding the presentation of these externalizing forms of psychopathology. ODD, CD, and CU traits are highly related constructs, yet little work has examined how these externalizing forms of psychopathology are related at the domain level. Read More

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Objective Comparison of FDA-Approved Breast Implant Products in the USA: 5-Year Update.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: There are currently four companies offering FDA-approved breast implants: Allergan, Sientra, Mentor, and Ideal Implant. In 2015, our paper "Objective Comparison of Commercially Available Breast Implant Devices" sought to provide a unique conceptual framework to better understand the similarities and differences between FDA-approved breast implant products and tissue expanders. This paper uses the same variables, such as fill material, shape, relative dimensions, and surface coating, to aid understanding of both the surgical trainee and the operating surgeon of what devices each company offers, with a focus on how the market has evolved over the ensuing 5 years. Read More

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Inhibitory control in neuronal networks relies on the extracellular matrix integrity.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neurology and Center for Translational Neuro- and Behavioral Sciences (C-TNBS), University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstraße 55, 45122, Essen, Germany.

Inhibitory control is essential for the regulation of neuronal network activity, where excitatory and inhibitory synapses can act synergistically, reciprocally, and antagonistically. Sustained excitation-inhibition (E-I) balance, therefore, relies on the orchestrated adjustment of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic strength. While growing evidence indicates that the brain's extracellular matrix (ECM) is a crucial regulator of excitatory synapse plasticity, it remains unclear whether and how the ECM contributes to inhibitory control in neuronal networks. Read More

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Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of tuberculosis.

Eye (Lond) 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Neuro-Ophthalmology Services, Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Neuro-ophthalmic features are a known association in tuberculosis, especially common in central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB). They are mostly the result of the visual pathway and/or ocular motor and other cranial nerve involvement. Furthermore, toxic optic neuropathy and paradoxical response to anti-tubercular drugs (ATT) are also not uncommon. Read More

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Temporal patterns of physical activity in successful weight loss maintainers.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Background/objectives: Individuals successful at weight loss maintenance engage in high amounts of physical activity (PA). Understanding how and when weight loss maintainers accumulate PA within a day and across the week may inform PA promotion strategies and recommendations for weight management.

Methods: We compared patterns of PA in a cohort of weight loss maintainers (WLM, n = 28, maintaining ≥13. Read More

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Identification of transdiagnostic psychiatric disorder subtypes using unsupervised learning.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.

Psychiatric disorders show heterogeneous symptoms and trajectories, with current nosology not accurately reflecting their molecular etiology and the variability and symptomatic overlap within and between diagnostic classes. This heterogeneity impedes timely and targeted treatment. Our study aimed to identify psychiatric patient clusters that share clinical and genetic features and may profit from similar therapies. Read More

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