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A cross-sectional survey of cannabis use by people with MS in Oregon and Southwest Washington.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jul 25;55:103172. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Department of Neurology Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Rd, Portland, OR 97239 USA; Department of Neurology, Portland VA Health Care System, 3710 SW US Veterans Hospital Rd, Portland, OR, 97239, USA.

Background: Evidence supports that cannabinoids reduce self-reported spasticity and neuropathic pain in people with MS (PwMS), and legal access to cannabis for medical and recreational use continues to rise. However, there are limited data regarding patterns of cannabis use and perceived benefits of cannabis among PwMS in the US. This study describes the prevalence of cannabis use, routes of administration, perceived benefit of cannabis for MS, and characteristics associated with cannabis use and perception of benefit among a population of PwMS living in two states where cannabis is legal for both medical and recreational use. Read More

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White matter microstructural associates of apathy-avolition in schizophrenia.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Jul 22;142:110-116. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Students' Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Interdisciplinary Neuroscience Research Program, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Apathy is present at the onset in nearly half the patients with schizophrenia. Current therapies lack the efficiency to improve apathy in patients. The presence of apathy is also associated with poorer outcomes. Read More

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Nitrate removal from groundwater using a batch and continuous flow hybrid Fe-electrocoagulation and electrooxidation system.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 28;297:113387. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Rio, GR-26504, Patras, Greece; Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (ICE-HT), Stadiou Str., Platani, GR-26504, Patras, Greece.

During the last two decades nitrate contaminated groundwater has become an extensive worldwide problem with wide-reaching negative effects on human health and the environment. In this study, a combination of electrocoagulation (EC) and electrooxidation (EO) was studied as a denitrification process to efficiently remove nitrates and ammonium (a by-product produced during EC) from real polluted groundwater. Initially, EC experiments under batch operating mode were performed using iron electrodes at different applied current density values (20-40 mA cm). Read More

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Risk factors for irreversible airway obstruction after infant bronchiolitis.

Respir Med 2021 Jul 24;187:106545. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Center for Child Health Research, Tampere University and University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; Department of Paediatrics, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.

Background: Increasing evidence shows that environmental factors in childhood play a role in development of irreversible airway obstruction. We evaluated early-life and preschool-age risk factors for irreversible airway obstruction in adolescence after bronchiolitis in infancy.

Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of data collected during prospective long-term follow-up of our post-bronchiolitis cohort. Read More

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Cost-Utility Analysis of Eculizumab for the Treatment of Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria from the Perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System.

Value Health Reg Issues 2021 Jul 28;26:113-125. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

Objective: To perform a first cost-utility analysis of eculizumab for the treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified Health System.

Methods: A Markov decision model was developed for 35-year-old patients with symptomatic paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. We used a cycle length of one month and a time horizon of 20 years. Read More

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Adaptive current-flow models of ECT: Explaining individual static impedance, dynamic impedance, and brain current density.

Brain Stimul 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, CUNY, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Improvements in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) outcomes have followed refinement in device electrical output and electrode montage. The physical properties of the ECT stimulus, together with those of the patient's head, determine the impedances measured by the device and govern current delivery to the brain and ECT outcomes.

Objective: However, the precise relations among physical properties of the stimulus, patient head anatomy, and patient-specific impedance to the passage of current are long-standing questions in ECT research and practice. Read More

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Standard therapy of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease shows limited efficacy in an open source hollow fiber system that simulates human plasma and epithelial lining fluid pharmacokinetics.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Radboudumc Center for Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Objectives: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteria can cause chronic pulmonary disease (PD). Current treatment regimens of azithromycin, ethambutol and rifampicin have culture conversion rates of around 65%. Dynamic, pre-clinical models to assess the efficacy of treatment regimens are important to guide clinical trial development. Read More

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Ebola outbreaks: a stress test of the preparedness of medicines regulatory systems for public health crises.

Drug Discov Today 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003 Lisbon, Portugal; Laboratory of Systems Integration Pharmacology, Clinical & Regulatory Science - Research Institute for Medicines (iMED.ULisboa), 1649-003 Lisbon, Portugal. Electronic address:

In a globalized world, infectious diseases of international concern are inevitable. When they (re-)emerge, the regulatory system works towards mitigating their impact. Ebola outbreaks marked a turning point in regulatory preparedness and efforts led to the accelerated development of therapeutic agents, in a catastrophic environment. Read More

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Biorelevant dissolution testing and physiologically based absorption modeling to predict in vivo performance of supersaturating drug delivery systems.

Int J Pharm 2021 Jul 28:120958. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector 67, S.A.S. Nagar, Mohali, Punjab, India-160062. Electronic address:

Supersaturating drug delivery systems (SDDS) enhance the oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs by achieving a supersaturated state in the gastrointestinal tract. The maintenance of a supersaturated state is decided by the complex interplay among inherent properties of drug, excipients and physiological conditions of gastrointestinal tract. The biopharmaceutical advantage through SDDS can be mechanistically investigated by coupling biopredictive dissolution testing with physiologically based absorption modeling (PBAM). Read More

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Early changes of immunoreactivity to Orexin in hypothalamus and to RFamide peptides in brainstem during the development of hypertension.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jul 28:136144. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, an Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam 1105 BA, The Netherlands; Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Institute for Biomedical Research, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico (Present address RMB). Electronic address:

Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is an important function of the nervous system and essential for maintaining blood pressure levels in the physiological range. In hypertension, BRS is decreased both in man and animals. Although increased sympathetic activity is thought to be the main cause of decreased BRS, hence the development of hypertension, the BRS is regulated by both sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) nervous system. Read More

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The relationship between diabetes and surgical site infection following coronary artery bypass graft surgery in current-era models of care.

J Hosp Infect 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital; Department of Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne.

Background: Although diabetes is a recognised risk factor for post-operative infections, the seminal Portland Diabetic Project studies in cardiac surgery demonstrated intravenous insulin infusions following open-cardiac surgery achieved near normal glycaemia and decreased deep sternal wound infection to similar rates to those without diabetes.

Aim: We sought to examine a contemporary cohort of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABGS) to evaluate the relationship between diabetes, hyperglycaemia and risk of surgical site infection (SSI) in current-era models of care.

Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent CABGS between 2016 and 2018 were identified through a state-wide data repository for healthcare-associated infections. Read More

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Ferritin nanocage: a promising and designable multi-module platform for constructing dynamic nanoassembly-based drug nanocarrier.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2021 Jul 28:113892. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

CAS Engineering Laboratory for Nanozyme, Key Laboratory of Protein and Peptide Pharmaceutical, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Beijing 100101, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101408, China; Nanozyme Medical Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China. Electronic address:

Ferritin has been widely recognized as an ideal drug delivery vehicle owing to its unique cage-like structure. Coupled with intrinsic targeting ability and excellent biosafety, ferritin-based drug delivery system, recently coined as ferritin drug carrier (FDC), has sparked great interest among researchers and shown promising application potential in the biomedical field. However, the flexibility and accuracy of traditional FDCs are limited when facing with complex disease microenvironments. Read More

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Challenging patient phenotypes in the management of anemia of chronic kidney disease.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jul 31:e14681. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often complicated by anemia, which is associated with disease progression and increased hospital visits, decreased quality of life, and increased mortality.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search of English language peer-reviewed articles in PubMed/MedLine published between 1998 and 2020 related to the treatment of anemia of CKD was conducted. The United States Renal Database System and Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) data reports, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the US Food and Drug Administration websites, and published congress abstracts in 2020 were surveyed for relevant information. Read More

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Study on ecological adaptability construction characteristics of residential buildings in Kangba area, Tibet, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

College of Enviromental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266100, China.

Located in the southwest of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Tibet is characterized by high cold, high radiation, and large differences in temperature between day and night. Tibetan residential buildings are famous for adapting to the harsh ecological environment and maintaining durability. Based on the residential buildings in Tibet, this paper extracts the technical process and color decoration culture in the construction process in order to adapt to the harsh natural environment. Read More

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Establish an assessment framework for risk and investment under climate change from the perspective of climate justice.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Urban Planning, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, 70101, Taiwan.

Under the threat of climate change, the issue of climate justice has gradually received international attention in recent years. Climate justice focuses on the unfair phenomena in various regions caused by climate change. At present, some countries are facing "double inequality," that is, the reverse and separate distribution of "natural hazard" and "social resilience" and that of "risk" and "responsible input. Read More

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A systematic review of carbohydrate-based microneedles: current status and future prospects.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2021 Jul 31;32(8):89. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy & Technology Management, SVKM's NMIMS, Vile Parle [W], Mumbai, 400056, Maharashtra, India.

Microneedles (MNs) are minimally invasive tridimensional biomedical devices that bypass the skin barrier resulting in systemic and localized pharmacological effects. Historically, biomaterials such as carbohydrates, due to their physicochemical properties, have been used widely to fabricate MNs. Owing to their broad spectrum of functional groups, carbohydrates permit designing and engineering with tunable properties and functionalities. Read More

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Quantitative decision making in animal health surveillance: Bovine Tuberculosis Surveillance in Belgium as case study.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Liège University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Fundamental and Applied Research for Animal and Health (FARAH) Centre, Research Unit of Epidemiology & Risk Analysis applied to veterinary sciences, Liège, Belgium.

Introduction: Despite eradication and control measures applied across Europe, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a constant threat. In Belgium, after several years of official bTB-free status, routine movement testing, as currently practiced, revealed itself inadequate to detect some herds affected by sporadic breakdowns. The aim of this study was to assess different surveillance system components that strike a balance between cost and effectiveness and to identify sustainable alternatives, which substantiate a bTB-free claim whilst ensuring early detection too, as well as acceptance by various animal health stakeholders. Read More

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Simultaneous removal of Cd (II), Ni (II), and Pb (II) from water by a submerged macrophyte pondweed (Potamogeton malaianus).

Water Environ Res 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

The current work investigated the potential of submerged macrophyte pondweed (Potamogeton malaianus) in treating cadmium, nickel, and lead-contaminated water through phytoremediation. The adsorption for the three metal ions occurred rapidly within 2 h and attained dynamic equilibrium in no more than 72 h. The removal efficiencies of Cd (II), Ni (II), and Pb (II) were high, passing 94% in both single- and multi-metal systems. Read More

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Roles of γδT cells in pregnancy and pregnancy-related complications.

Am J Reprod Immunol 2021 Jul 31:e13487. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Institute of Reproductive Health, Center for Reproductive Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P.R. China.

A successful pregnancy is a complex and unique process comprised of discrete events, including embryo implantation, placentation, and parturition. To maintain the balance between maternal-fetal immune tolerance and resistance to infections, the maternal immune system must have a high degree of stage-dependent plasticity throughout the period of pregnancy. Innate immunity is the frontline force for the establishment of early anti-infection and tolerance mechanisms in mammals. Read More

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Does the female seahorse still prefer her mating partner after a period of separation?

J Fish Biol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Key Laboratory of East China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation, Ministry of Agriculture; East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai, China.

For species showing sexual monogamy, once one male and one female form a mating pair bond, they will be faithful to each other in subsequent breeding events. However, if their pair bond is broken for some reason, do they continue to prefer their partner when they come together again for mating? In other words, can the broken pair bond of sexually monogamous species be repaired? This is an interesting question but not yet well answered. To address this question, in the present study, we used the lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus), a typical sexually monogamous species, to study the partner preference of a female individual who experienced a complete separation followed by a reunion with her partner. Read More

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Upgrade Rate and Predictive Factors for Breast Benign Intraductal Papilloma Diagnosed at Biopsy: A Meta-Analysis.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of General Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Current standard management for intraductal papilloma (IDP) diagnosed at biopsy indicates complete surgical resection, but there are increasing controversies over whether and when routine excision is indeed necessary.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the carcinoma upgrade rate and identify the associated predictive factors for IDP diagnosed at biopsy by meta-analysis.

Methods: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases for studies published from 2009 to 2020 that investigated the upgrade rate and predictive factors of IDP diagnosed at biopsy. Read More

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Geographic barriers to achieving universal health coverage: evidence from rural Madagascar.

Health Policy Plan 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

NGO PIVOT, BP23 Ranomafana, 312 Ifanadiana, Madagascar.

Poor geographic access can persist even when affordable and well-functioning health systems are in place, limiting efforts for universal health coverage (UHC). It is unclear how to balance support for health facilities and community health workers in UHC national strategies. The goal of this study was to evaluate how a health system strengthening (HSS) intervention aimed towards UHC affected the geographic access to primary care in a rural district of Madagascar. Read More

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Targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) signaling with natural products toward cancer chemotherapy.

J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of System Chemotherapy and Molecular Sciences, Division of Bioinformatics and Chemical Genomics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan.

Tumor cells are often exposed to hypoxia because of the lower oxygen supply deep inside the tumor tissues. However, tumor cells survive in these severe conditions by adapting to hypoxic stress through the induction of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) signaling. HIF-1 activation is responsible for the expression of numerous HIF-1 target genes, which are related to cell survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, cancer stemness, and metabolic reprogramming. Read More

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Boron rich nanotube drug carrier system is suited for boron neutron capture therapy.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 30;11(1):15520. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2, Canada.

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a two-step therapeutic process that utilizes Boron-10 in combination with low energy neutrons to effectively eliminate targeted cells. This therapy is primarily used for difficult to treat head and neck carcinomas; recent advances have expanded this method to cover a broader range of carcinomas. However, it still remains an unconventional therapy where one of the barriers for widespread adoption is the adequate delivery of Boron-10 to target cells. Read More

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Development of a CNS-permeable reactivator for nerve agent exposure: an iterative, multi-disciplinary approach.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 30;11(1):15567. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Nuclear and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94550, USA.

Nerve agents have experienced a resurgence in recent times with their use against civilian targets during the attacks in Syria (2012), the poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal in the United Kingdom (2018) and Alexei Navalny in Russia (2020), strongly renewing the importance of antidote development against these lethal substances. The current standard treatment against their effects relies on the use of small molecule-based oximes that can efficiently restore acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Despite their efficacy in reactivating AChE, the action of drugs like 2-pralidoxime (2-PAM) is primarily limited to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and, thus, provides no significant protection to the central nervous system (CNS). Read More

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Photocrosslinkable liver extracellular matrix hydrogels for the generation of 3D liver microenvironment models.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 30;11(1):15566. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Kelvin Grove, Australia.

Liver extracellular matrix (ECM)-based hydrogels have gained considerable interest as biomimetic 3D cell culture environments to investigate the mechanisms of liver pathology, metabolism, and toxicity. The preparation of current liver ECM hydrogels, however, is based on time-consuming thermal gelation and limits the control of mechanical properties. In this study, we used detergent-based protocols to produce decellularized porcine liver ECM, which in turn were solubilized and functionalized with methacrylic anhydride to generate photocrosslinkable methacrylated liver ECM (LivMA) hydrogels. Read More

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Projections of surface air temperature required to sustain permafrost and importance of adaptation to climate change in the Daisetsu Mountains, Japan.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 30;11(1):15518. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Earth System Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan.

Permafrost is known to occur in high mountainous areas such as the Daisetsu Mountains in Japan, which are located at the southernmost limit of the permafrost distribution in the world. In this study, areas with climatic conditions suitable for sustaining permafrost in the Daisetsu Mountains are projected using bias-corrected and downscaled climate model outputs and statistical relationships between surface air temperatures and permafrost areas. Using freezing and thawing indices, the size of the area in the Daisetsu Mountains where climatic conditions were suitable for permafrost were estimated to be approximately 150 km in 2010. Read More

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The comparison between light-scattering detectors based on LED and photodiode for immunoprecipitation assays of transferrin and ferritin.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Aug 11;1175:338753. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry, Pasteura 1, 02-093, Warsaw, Poland.

Undoubtedly, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodiodes (PDs) are indispensable optoelectronic devices in modern analytical chemistry. LEDs can serve as either light emitters or detectors, thus being an alternative to the most popular detection systems consisted of PD. In this contribution, a comparison between LED-LED and LED-PD detectors, operating in turbidimetric and nephelometric modes, has been carried out for immunoprecipitation detection of transferrin and ferritin. Read More

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Maternal Metabolic Programming of the Developing Central Nervous System: Unified Pathways to Metabolic and Psychiatric Disorders.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

German Center for Diabetes Research, Neuherberg, Germany; Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research, Cologne, Germany; Policlinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Preventive Medicine, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany. Electronic address:

The perinatal period presents a critical time in offspring development where environmental insults can have damaging impacts on the future health of the offspring. This can lead to sustained alterations in offspring development, metabolism, and predisposition to both metabolic and psychiatric diseases. The central nervous system is one of the most sensitive targets in response to maternal obesity and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Read More

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A Call for an Ethics and Governance Action Plan to Harness the Power of Artificial Intelligence and Digitalization in Nephrology.

Semin Nephrol 2021 May;41(3):282-293

Centre for Biomedical Ethics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Digitalization in nephrology has progressed in a manner that is disparate and siloed, even though learning (under a broader Learning Health System initiative) has been manifested in all the main areas of clinical application. Most applications based on artificial intelligence/machine learning (AI/ML) are still in the initial developmental stages and are yet to be adequately validated and shown to contribute to positive patient outcomes. There is also no consistent or comprehensive digitalization plan, and insufficient data are a limiting factor across all of these areas. Read More

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