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The Current Role of Platelet Function Testing in Clinical Practice.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Lismore Cancer and Haematology Unit, Lismore Base Hospital, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia.

Platelet dysfunction, whether hereditary or acquired, may increase an individual's risk of spontaneous, posttraumatic, or postoperative bleeding. Conversely, increased platelet reactivity on antiplatelet agents following vascular (in particular, coronary vascular) intervention may increase the risk of thrombosis and adverse vascular events. The aim of platelet function testing is to identify and characterize platelet dysfunction in these settings to inform bleeding/ thrombosis risk and guide perioperative prophylactic management strategies. Read More

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Anti-Xa Monitoring of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is commonly used for preventing or treating venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) during pregnancy. The physiological changes in maternal metabolism have led to discussions on optimal LMWH dosing strategy and possible need for monitoring. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and discuss whether LMWH dose adjustment according to anti-Xa provides superior effectiveness and safety compared with weight adjusted or fixed dosed LMWH in pregnant women. Read More

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COVID-19 and Antiphospholipid Antibodies: Time for a Reality Check?

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Section of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) comprise a panel of autoantibodies that reflect a potential prothrombotic risk in several autoimmune conditions, most notably antiphospholipid (antibody) syndrome (APS). aPL can be divided into those that form part of the laboratory criteria for APS, namely, lupus anticoagulant (LA), as well as anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) and anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2GPI) of the immunoglobulin G and M classes, and those that form a group considered as "noncriteria antibodies." The noncriteria antibodies include, for example, antiphosphatidylserine antibodies (aPS), antiprothrombin antibodies (aPT), and antiphosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex antibodies (aPS/PT). Read More

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Contemporary Clinical Use of Aspirin: Mechanisms of Action, Current Concepts, Unresolved Questions, and Future Perspectives.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

The ability of aspirin to inhibit platelet aggregation has positioned this agent within the most frequently used drugs worldwide. The aim of this article is to review the contemporary clinical use of aspirin and also to discuss unresolved issues not yet translated into clinical practice. Results from several clinical trials have led to strong guideline recommendations for aspirin use in the acute management and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Read More

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Current and Evolving Indications for Simultaneous Liver Kidney Transplantation.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Comprehensive Transplant Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

This review will discuss the etiologies of kidney disease in liver transplant candidates, provide a historical background of the prior evolution of simultaneous liver-kidney (SLK) transplant indications, discuss the current indications for SLK including Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network policies and Model for End Stage Liver Disease exception points, as well as provide an overview of the safety net kidney transplant policy. Finally, the authors explore unanswered questions and future research needed in SLK transplantation. Read More

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Toward a Liver Cell Atlas: Understanding Liver Biology in Health and Disease at Single-Cell Resolution.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.

Single-cell technologies are revolutionizing our understanding of cellular heterogeneity and functional diversity in health and disease. Here, we review the current knowledge and advances in liver biology using single-cell approaches. We focus on the landscape of the composition and the function of cells in a healthy liver in the context of its spatial organization. Read More

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Drug-Induced Vanishing Bile Duct Syndrome: From Pathogenesis to Diagnosis and Therapeutics.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET-UNR), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Rosario, Argentina.

The most concerned issue in the context of drug/herb-induced chronic cholestasis is vanishing bile duct syndrome. The progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts leading to ductopenia is usually not dose dependent, and has a delayed onset that should be suspected when abnormal serum cholestasis enzyme levels persist despite drug withdrawal. Immune-mediated cholangiocyte injury, direct cholangiocyte damage by drugs or their metabolites once in bile, and sustained exposure to toxic bile salts when biliary epithelium protective defenses are impaired are the main mechanisms of cholangiolar damage. Read More

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[Rehabilitation after stroke].

Authors:
Christian Dohle

Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2021 Jun 15;146(12):809-817. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Neurorehabilitation to alleviate permanent disabilities after stroke is in Germany organised within the so called neurological phase model. This article provides an overview on its organisation and content as well as the restrictions imposed by social law. As an example for therapies, evidence-based motor rehabilitation strategies are presented and linked to their neurophysiological principles. Read More

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[Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis - treatment recommendations].

Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2021 Jun 15;146(12):793-800. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

For the asymptomatic carotid stenosis, defined as an atherosclerotic carotid stenosis without neurological symptoms for more than 6 months, there are in contrast to a symptomatic carotid stenosis still no reliable treatment recommendations. Possible therapy recommendations based on current data are presented below. Read More

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Fathers' Heightened Stress Responses to Recounting their NICU Experiences Months after Discharge: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania.

Objective:  The acute and traumatic events associated with having a newborn who requires admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) may elicit long-term concerns for parents postdischarge. Cognitive processing of taxing events influences recurring stress responses, which can be inferred via biomarkers such as salivary cortisol (sCort) and skin conductance (SC). In addition, personal narratives provide an important insight into individual perceptions and coping strategies. Read More

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MrgprdCre lineage neurons mediate optogenetic allodynia through an emergent polysynaptic circuit.

Pain 2021 Jul;162(7):2120-2131

Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Abstract: Most cutaneous C fibers, including both peptidergic and nonpeptidergic subtypes, are presumed to be nociceptors and respond to noxious input in a graded manner. However, mechanically sensitive, nonpeptidergic C fibers also respond to mechanical input in the innocuous range, so the degree to which they contribute to nociception remains unclear. To address this gap, we investigated the function of nonpeptidergic afferents using the MrgprdCre allele. Read More

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From Proteinuria to Fibrosis: An Update on Pathophysiology and Treatment Options.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2021 Jun 15:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Renal Medicine, St. George Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Proteinuria is a key biomarker in nephrology. It is central to diagnosis and risk assessment and the primary target of many important therapies. Etiologies resulting in pathological proteinuria include congenital and acquired disorders, as well as both glomerular (immune/non-immune mediated) and tubular defects. Read More

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Development of a Management Algorithm for Acute and Chronic Radiation Urethritis and Cystitis.

Urol Int 2021 Jun 15:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Urology, St. Antonius Hospital, Gronau, Germany.

Objective: The purpose of this review was to summarize the current literature on the assessment and treatment of radiation urethritis and cystitis (RUC) for the development of an evidenced-based management algorithm.

Material And Methods: The PubMed/MEDLINE database was searched by a multidisciplinary group of experts in January 2021.

Results: In total, 48 publications were identified. Read More

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Long Noncoding RNA GAS5 Targeting miR-221-3p/Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2B Axis Regulates Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Cycle and Proliferation.

Pathobiology 2021 Jun 15:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Introduction: Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is more aggressive than the most common papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, the current research on FTC is less than PTC. Here, we investigated the effects of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) GAS5 and miR-221-3p in FTC. Read More

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Two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal and astrocytic responses: the influence of electrical stimulus parameters and calcium signaling mechanisms.

J Neural Eng 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Tianjin Medical University, Heping District, Tianjin, 300070, CHINA.

Objective: Electrical brain stimulation has been used to ameliorate symptoms associated with neurologic and psychiatric disorders. The astrocytic activation and its interaction with neurons may contribute to the therapeutic effects of electrical stimulation. However, how the astrocytic activity is affected by electrical stimulation and its calcium signaling mechanisms remain largely unknown. Read More

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Hierarchical CoFe LDH/MOF nanorods array with strong coupling effect grown on carbon cloth enables efficient oxidation of water and urea.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shangda Road 99, Shanghai, 200444, CHINA.

The construction of bifunctional non-noble electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and urea oxidation reaction (UOR) is urgent for overall water and urea splitting. Herein, a facile one-step chemical etching- reconstruction strategy is presented for fabricating one-dimensional hierarchical nanorods array composed of CoFe layered double hydroxide (LDH)/MOF supported on carbon cloth as OER and UOR catalysts. By precisely controlling the etching rate, the ligands from Co-MOFs are partially removed, and corresponding metal centers coordinates with hydroxyl ions to generate ultrathin amorphous CoFe LDH nanosheets. Read More

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Online detection of movement during natural and self-initiated reach-and-grasp actions from EEG signals.

J Neural Eng 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute of Neural Engineering, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 16/IV, Graz, Steiermark, 8010, AUSTRIA.

Movement intention detection using electroencephalography (EEG) is a challenging but important component of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for people with motor disabilities. Objective​: The goal of this study is to exploit low-frequency time-domain EEG signals, concretely movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs), to perform asynchronous online detection of movement. The experimental paradigm must be easily transferable to people without any residual upper-limb movement function. Read More

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Seasonal dynamics of biochemical composition and fatty acids of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in the Southeast Pacific Ocean off the coast of Chile.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Jun 9;169:105388. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Centro de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Ambientes Sustentables (CIBAS), Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Casilla 297, Concepción, Chile. Electronic address:

In the Southeast Pacific Ocean, Xiphias gladius migrates through the Chilean coastal zone for feeding. Here, it forages for different prey items from autumn to spring, acquiring a great variety of energy and nutritional reserves. We evaluated seasonal variations in the biochemical reserves (i. Read More

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Magnetoencephalography to confirm epileptiform discharges mimicking small sharp spikes in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 May 8;132(8):1785-1789. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Epileptology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan; Department of Collaborative Laboratory of Electromagnetic Neurophysiology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.

Objective: To determine whether magnetoencephalography (MEG) can identify epileptiform discharges mimicking small sharp spikes (SSSs) on scalp electroencephalography (EEG) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed simultaneous scalp EEG and MEG recordings of 83 consecutive patients with TLE and 49 with extra-TLE (ETLE).

Results: SSSs in scalp EEG were detected in 15 (18. Read More

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A simplified model for simulating anaerobic digesters: Application to valorisation of bagasse and distillery spent wash.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jun 9;337:125395. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Multiphase Flows, Reactors and Intensification Group, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5AG, United Kingdom; Bernal Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick V94T9PX, Ireland. Electronic address:

Current anaerobic digestion (AD) design methods rely on crude empirical models or sophisticated anaerobic digestion models (like ADM1) requiring a large number of parameters which are difficult to obtain experimentally. A simplified model for simulating AD was developed in this work. The model requires knowledge of CH/CO ratio in biogas or indigestible fraction in substrate and batch biomethane potential (BMP) data for estimating three kinetic parameters (maximum specific growth rate, half velocity constant and cell death rate). Read More

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Dismantling the bacterial glycocalyx: Chemical tools to probe, perturb, and image bacterial glycans.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 Jun 7;42:116268. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Bowdoin College, 6600 College Station, Brunswick, ME 04011, USA. Electronic address:

The bacterial glycocalyx is a quintessential drug target comprised of structurally distinct glycans. Bacterial glycans bear unusual monosaccharide building blocks whose proper construction is critical for bacterial fitness, survival, and colonization in the human host. Despite their appeal as therapeutic targets, bacterial glycans are difficult to study due to the presence of rare bacterial monosaccharides that are linked and modified in atypical manners. Read More

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A rise in Proteobacteria is an indicator of gut-liver axis-mediated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fructose-fed adult mice.

Nutr Res 2021 May 21;91:26-35. Epub 2021 May 21.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases, Biomedical Center, Institute of Biology, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Current evidence suggests that high fructose intake results in gut dysbiosis, leading to endotoxemia and NAFLD onset. Thus, the hypothesis of the study was that an enhanced Proteobacteria proportion in the cecal microbiota could be the most prominent trigger of NAFLD through enhanced endotoxin (LPS) in adult high-fructose-fed C57BL/6 mice. Male C57BL/6 mice received a control diet (n = 10, C: 76% of energy as carbohydrates, 0% as fructose) or high-fructose diet (n = 10, HFRU: 76% of energy as carbohydrate, 50% as fructose) for 12 weeks. Read More

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Nutrient status and growth in vegan children.

Nutr Res 2021 May 18;91:13-25. Epub 2021 May 18.

Institute of Evolutionary Medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Vegan diets have risen in popularity over the past 9 years. However, few studies have examined nutrient status and the effect of a vegan diet on the growth of children. This study analysed the existing literature on the health impact and growth impact of selected nutrients in vegan children. Read More

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Refeeding syndrome occurs among older adults regardless of refeeding rates: A systematic review.

Nutr Res 2021 May 21;91:1-12. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo 0130, Norway; Regional Advisory Unit for Palliative Care, Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo 0424, Norway. Electronic address:

Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening clinical disorder that can occur when treating malnutrition. The aim was to examine the current knowledge of refeeding syndrome in patients ≥ 65 + years with special focus on the incidence of hypophosphatemia (HP) in relation to refeeding rate (kcal/kg/day), number of days until the lowest level of phosphate occurs (day of nadir), refeeding rates and adverse events, and death. Specifically, we hypothesized that higher energy provision would cause a higher incidence of HP. Read More

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Maternal posttraumatic stress and FKBP5 Genotype interact to predict trauma-related symptoms in preschool-age offspring.

J Affect Disord 2021 May 26;292:212-216. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Children of parents with posttraumatic stress (PTS) face heightened risk for developing emotional and behavioral problems, regardless of whether they experience a traumatic event themselves. The current study investigates whether child FKBP5, a stress relevant gene shown to interact with child trauma exposure to increase risk for PTS, also moderates the well-established link between maternal PTS and child symptoms.

Methods: Data are derived from a longitudinal lab-based study for which 205 dyads of trauma-exposed mothers and their preschool-age children from a sample enriched for violence exposure provided DNA samples and completed measures of maternal and child trauma-related symptoms. Read More

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Microplastic degradation methods and corresponding degradation mechanism: Research status and future perspectives.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 10;418:126377. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Joint Laboratory of Guangdong Province and Hong Kong Region on Marine Bioresource Conservation and Exploitation, College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; Institute of Eco-Environmental Research, Guangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanning 530007, China. Electronic address:

Microplastics (MPs) pollution has become a global environmental concern because of their severe threat to biota. However, limited studies on the elimination of MPs pollution were reported. The conventional treatment methods were not suitable for MPs owing to their smaller size than plastic items. Read More

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Anti-flagellin IgY antibodies protect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in both acute pneumonia and burn wound murine models in a non-type-specific mode.

Mol Immunol 2021 Jun 12;136:118-127. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Medicinal Plants Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is one of the most dominant causes of nosocomial infections in burn patients. Increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains highlights the need for novel antimicrobial agents. Flagellin, the main component protein of flagellum, is determined as the major antigen interacting with anti-P. Read More

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Extensive sex-specific and regional variations observed in the microbiome of Dermacentor reticulatus.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 Jun 4;12(5):101767. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical, Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA. Electronic address:

Recent progress in DNA sequencing technologies and advanced bioinformatic tools have enabled researchers to rapidly decipher the tick microbiome. To date, however, a number of microbiome studies performed on Dermacentor reticulatus ticks is still quite limited. Despite the importance of this ixodid tick for veterinary and human medicine, only two investigations have examined its microbiome. Read More

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