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The development of artificial livers.

Curr Opin Organ Transplant 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: While liver transplantation is an established treatment for liver failure, the number of patients with liver failure amenable to such intervention far outnumbers the donor supply of livers. Technologies serving to bridge this gap are required. Artificial livers may serve as an alternative. Read More

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But they weren't being careful! Role of theory of mind in moral judgments about victim and transgressor negligence.

J Exp Child Psychol 2021 Jul 26;212:105234. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Psychology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.

Previous research showed that children are influenced not only by intentions and outcomes but also by transgressor negligence in their moral judgments. The current study investigated the role of transgressor and victim negligence on children's moral judgments. Children's false-belief theory of mind understanding (FBU ToM) was examined as a possible factor that might shape moral judgments in contexts involving negligence. Read More

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A need for trauma informed care curriculum: Experiences from Pakistan.

Asian J Psychiatr 2021 Jul 24;63:102791. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Psychiatry, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, PO Box 3500, Karachi, 74800, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Trauma is a major global health problem. Currently a trauma curriculum, from a psychological perspective, has not been uniformly incorporated in medical education. Nonetheless, professionals from various medical disciplines have an integral role in providing trauma care to survivors. Read More

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Role of IL-6 in the commitment of T cell subsets.

Cytokine 2021 Jul 26;146:155654. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Institute for Experimental Neuroimmunology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Munich, Germany.

IL-6 gained much attention with the discovery that this cytokine is a non-redundant differentiation factor for Th17 cells and T follicular helper cells. Adaptive immune responses to fungi and extracellular bacteria are impaired in the absence of IL-6. IL-6 is also required for the induction of ROR-γt Treg cells, which are gatekeepers of homeostasis in the gut lamina propria in the presence of commensal bacteria. Read More

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Exercise training improves participation in persons with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Sport Health Sci 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N6N5, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: While previous studies have examined the effects of exercise training on other International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) component levels in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), the effects of exercise training on participation remains unclear. The objectives of this review were to: (1) systematically characterize the use of outcome measures that capture participation in exercise training studies; (2) quantify the effect of exercise training on participation in persons with MS.

Methods: A search of 6 electronic databases (CINAHL, Sport Discuss, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, Scopus) was conducted to identify controlled and non-controlled trials involving exercise training and participation in persons with MS. Read More

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ROLE OF STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY FOR THE TREATMENT OF BRAIN METASTASIS IN THE ERA OF IMMUNOTHERAPY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ON CURRENT EVIDENCES AND PREDICTING FACTORS.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2021 Jul 26:103431. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Neurosurgery and Gamma Knife Radiosurgery, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute University, Milan, Italy.

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in combination with immunotherapy (IT) is increasingly used in the setting of melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) brain metastases (BM). The synergistic properties of this treatment combination are still not deeply understood. IT-SRS appropriate combination has been envisioned as a strategic point in patients' management. Read More

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LPXRFa and its receptor in yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi): molecular cloning, ontogenetic expression profiles, and stimulatory effects on growth hormone and gonadotropin gene expression.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Jul 26:113872. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries and Food Production Processes, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

Despite its functional significance in mammals and birds, the biological role of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in reproduction is still far from being fully understood in teleosts. In the current study, we have identified LPXRFa, the piscine ortholog of GnIH, and its cognate receptor (LPXRFa-R) in yellowtail kingfish (YTK), which is considered as a promising species for aquaculture industry worldwide. The YTK cDNA sequence of lpxrfa was 534 base pair (bp) in length and encoded a 178-amino acids (aa) preprohormone. Read More

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Polymers with Dynamic Bonds: Adaptive Functional Materials for a Sustainable Future.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, United States.

Polymeric materials play critical role in many current technologies. Among them, adaptive polymeric materials with dynamic (reversible) bonds exhibit unique properties and provide exciting opportunities for various future technologies. Dynamic bonds enable structural rearrangements in polymer networks in specific conditions. Read More

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The role of interleukin-1β in the immune response to contact allergens.

Contact Dermatitis 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

The LEO Foundation Skin Immunology Research Center, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine that has an effect on almost every cell lineage in the body. By blocking IL-1β and investigating the IL-1β signaling pathway, several studies have demonstrated a central role of IL-1β in the response to contact allergens. This review summarizes the current literature regarding the basic immunological mechanisms mediated by IL-1β in the different phases of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and highlights potential IL-1β-targeted treatment options, which in the future may be relevant in the treatment of patients with ACD. Read More

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Telomere Shortening and Fusions: A Link to Aneuploidy in Early Human Embryo Development.

Obstet Gynecol Surv 2021 Jul;76(7):429-436

Professor and Chair, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York University, Langone Medical Center, New York, NY.

Importance: It is known that oocytes undergo aging that is caused by exposure to an aged ovarian microenvironment. Telomere length in mouse and bovine oocytes declines with age, and age-associated telomere shortening in oocytes is considered a sign of poor development competency. Women with advanced age undergoing assisted reproductive technologies have poor outcomes because of increasing aneuploidy rates with age. Read More

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Role of information in consumers' preferences for eco-sustainable genetic improvements in plant breeding.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(7):e0255130. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Napoli, Italy.

Consumers' preferences for products derived from genetic improvements and innovations in plant breeding are often conditioned by technophobia and negative public imaginaries. The current study addresses this issue by analyzing consumers' monetary preferences for a win-win innovation (generating gains for both private actors and the community) in the viticulture sector, namely fungus resistant grapes (FRG). The use of these grapes reduces the quantity of chemical inputs applied to vineyards, simultaneously improving firms' economic performance. Read More

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Introduced and native vertebrates in pink-footed shearwater (Ardenna creatopus) breeding colonies in Chile.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(7):e0254416. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Oikonos Ecosystem Knowledge, San Juan Bautista, Robinson Crusoe Island, Valparaíso Region, Chile.

Biodiversity conservation planning requires accurate, current information about species status and threats. Although introduced mammals are the greatest threat to seabirds globally, data on introduced species is lacking for many seabird breeding islands. To inform conservation planning, we used trail cameras to document the presence, relative abundance, and seasonal and diel attendance of introduced and native vertebrates within pink-footed shearwater (Ardenna creatopus) breeding colonies on Isla Mocha (five colonies, 2015-2020) and Isla Robinson Crusoe (Juan Fernández Archipelago), Chile (one colony, 2019-2020). Read More

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Return of individual research results: What do participants prefer and expect?

PLoS One 2021 29;16(7):e0254153. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America.

Newer data platforms offer increased opportunity to share multidimensional health data with research participants, but the preferences of participants for which data to receive and how is evolving. Our objective is to describe the preferences and expectations of participants for the return of individual research results within Project Baseline Health Study (PBHS). The PBHS is an ongoing, multicenter, longitudinal cohort study with data from four initial enrollment sites. Read More

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Parental Death During Adolescence: A Review of the Literature.

Omega (Westport) 2021 Jul 29:302228211033661. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

While extensive research exists on parental loss in childhood and the related psychological interventions, little has been done in the adolescent population. Adolescence is a particular phase of life characterized by a singular psychological, emotional, neurological, and endocrinological development, paralleled by the process of self-affirmation and an opening toward social relationships. This complex neuropsychological phase should thus be understood independently from children and adults. Read More

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Sarcopenia versus cancer cachexia: the muscle wasting continuum in healthy and diseased aging.

Biogerontology 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

CIAFEL, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Dr. Plácido da Costa 91, 4200-450, Porto, Portugal.

Muscle wasting is one of the major health problems in older adults and is traditionally associated to sarcopenia. Nonetheless, muscle loss may also occur in older adults in the presence of cancer, and in this case, it is associated to cancer cachexia. The clinical management of these conditions is a challenge due to, at least in part, the difficulties in their differential diagnosis. Read More

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Post-mastectomy Radiation Therapy in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients: Analysis of the BEATRICE Trial.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.

Purpose: Post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) improves locoregional control and overall survival in patients with breast cancer. With the evolution of systemic therapy, the benefit of PMRT in patients with triple-negative disease requires further evaluation.

Patients And Methods: BEATRICE is a phase III randomized clinical trial that examined the efficacy of bevacizumab in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Read More

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Habitat prediction modelling for vulture conservation in Gangetic-Thar-Deccan region of India.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jul 29;193(8):532. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

IIFM, Bhopal, India, 462003.

Ecologically and economically important obligate scavengers like vultures are under threat of extinction in the old world. Several resident and migratory vulture sites and individuals are hosted by the Gangetic-Thar-Deccan region of India with varied landscapes. The landscape is under threat from anthropogenic activities and climate change impacting the habitat. Read More

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Preimplantation genetic testing is not a preferred recommendation for patients with X chromosome abnormalities.

Hum Reprod 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Study Question: Should women with X chromosome abnormalities (XCAs) be recommended to have embryos selected by both morphological and cytogenetic assessment through preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) rather than morphological assessment only in conventional IVF/ICSI treatment?

Summary Answer: PGT is not a preferred recommendation for women with XCAs in the absence of other PGT indications.

What Is Known Already: XCAs are the most frequent sort of chromosomal aberrations in infertile women. Patients with a complete or partial absence of one X chromosome, diagnosed as Turner Syndrome (TS), demonstrate low spontaneous pregnancy rates (5-7%) and high miscarriage rates (22. Read More

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Bisphenol A and its analogues in outdoor and indoor air: Properties, sources and global levels.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 25;789:148013. Epub 2021 May 25.

Air Quality Processes Research Section, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T4, Canada. Electronic address:

Bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogues are high-volume production organic synthetic compounds used in the synthesis of plastics. BPA has been categorized as an endocrine disrupting compound due to its ability to disrupt the hormonal makeup of living organisms. Air and dust are common sources of exposure of BPA for living organisms and most sources are anthropogenic and a result of thermal destruction of BPA containing materials, import and export of recyclable materials (especially e-waste) and fugitive emissions near BPA handling facilities. Read More

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The role of spontaneous recovery effects in the context of German orthography instruction methods with delayed correction.

J Exp Psychol Appl 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Educational Psychology Research Group.

Extinction learning and recovery effects are known to be essential learning mechanisms. We investigated whether spontaneous recovery effects transfer to skill acquisition and play a role in the context of widely used but also criticized German orthography instruction methods that implement a prolonged phase of phonological spelling without correction. To test our hypothesis in a controlled manner, in the current experimental study, adult participants learned how to spell an artificial vocabulary with the help of a phonological spelling instruction method that emulates the criticized German orthography instruction methods. Read More

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Rules of engagement: A content analysis of accepted and rejected marriage proposals.

J Fam Psychol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Psychology.

Little research exists concerning the Western marriage proposal ritual, and rejected proposals are particularly understudied. The current research used the lens of life script theory to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze 374 first-person written accounts of accepted and rejected marriage proposals between men and women that were sampled from online forums. Rejected proposals were more likely than accepted proposals to violate the proposal script. Read More

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Ion Conduction Mechanism as a Fingerprint of Potassium Channels.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Medical Biotechnologies, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy.

K-channels are membrane proteins that regulate the selective conduction of potassium ions across cell membranes. Although the atomic mechanisms of K permeation have been extensively investigated, previous work focused on characterizing the selectivity and occupancy of the binding sites, the role of water molecules in the conduction process, or the identification of the minimum energy pathways enabling permeation. Here, we exploit molecular dynamics simulations and the analytical power of Markov state models to perform a comparative study of ion conduction in three distinct channel models. Read More

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Utilizing Multidisciplinary Medicine in Pain Management: A Narrative Review.

Pain Physician 2021 Aug;24(5):369-378

Department of Behavioral Sciences and Social Medicine, Florida State University; Center for Behavioral Health Integration, Florida State University.

Background: The role of psychological factors influencing chronic pain has been well documented. This review includes a historical perspective and current examination of the literature on psychological and behavioral health characteristics and their influence on chronic pain.

Objectives: To identify psychological and behavioral health factors involved with chronic pain, as well as the challenges and opportunities of integrating multidisciplinary care into a pain management practice. Read More

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An epigenomic landscape of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer using single-base resolution methylome and hydroxymethylome.

Clin Transl Med 2021 Jul;11(7):e498

Key Laboratory of Systems Biomedicine (Ministry of Education), Shanghai Centre for Systems Biomedicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Cervical cancer (CC) is the second leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression through DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation plays a pivotal role during tumorigenesis. In this study, to analyze the epigenomic landscape and identify potential biomarkers for CCs, we selected a series of samples from normal to cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CINs) to CCs and performed an integrative analysis of whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS-seq), oxidative WGBS, RNA-seq, and external histone modifications profiling data. Read More

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2D MXene Nanomaterials for Versatile Biomedical Applications: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

Small 2021 Jul 29:e2100946. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology (Shenzhen), Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Research on 2D nanomaterials is still in its early stages. Most studies have focused on elucidating the unique properties of the materials, whereas only few reports have described the biomedical applications of 2D nanomaterials. Recently, important questions about the interaction of 2D MXene nanomaterials with biological components have been raised. Read More

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Vitamin D metabolism and disorders in dogs and cats.

J Small Anim Pract 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and the Roslin Institute, The University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Campus, Roslin, Midlothian, UK.

Vitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium metabolism and in the development and maintenance of skeletal health of companion animals. There is also a growing interest in understanding the role vitamin D plays in non-skeletal health in both human and veterinary patients. This review provides an update of our current understanding of vitamin D biology in dogs and cats and gives an overview of how vitamin D metabolism can be assessed in companion animals. Read More

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Child abuse and automatic emotion regulation in children and adolescents.

Dev Psychopathol 2021 Jul 29:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Child abuse is associated with elevated risk for psychopathology. The current study examined the role of automatic emotion regulation as a potential mechanism linking child abuse with internalizing psychopathology. A sample of 237 youth aged 8-16 years and their caregivers participated. Read More

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Regulation Of Microtubule: Current Concepts And Relevance To Neurodegenerative Diseases.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Neuroscience Division, Department of Pharmacology, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga-142001 Punjab, India.

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are abnormalities linked to neuronal structure and irregularities associated with the proliferation of cells, transportation, and differentiation. NDD also involves synaptic circuitry and neural network alterations known as synaptopathies. Microtubules (MTs) and MTs-associated proteins help to maintain neuronal health as well as their development. Read More

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Emerging roles of long non-coding RNAs in spinal cord injury.

J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) 2021 May-Aug;29(2):23094990211030698

Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People's Republic of China.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the most serious complication of spinal injury and often leads to severe dysfunction of the limb below the injured segment. SCI causes not only serious physical and psychological harm to the patients, but imposes an enormous economic burden on the whole society. Great efforts have been made to improve the functional outcomes of patients with SCI; however, therapeutic advances have far been limited. Read More

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Circulating long non-coding RNA signature in knee osteoarthritis patients with postoperative pain one-year after total knee replacement.

Scand J Pain 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Health Science and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.

Objectives: The incidence of chronic postoperative pain after total knee replacement (TKR) is approx. 20%, and hence preoperative risk factors are important to identify. Recent studies have indicated that preoperative inflammatory markers might hold prognostic information for the development of chronic postoperative pain. Read More

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