133,594 results match your criteria current knowledge


Pesticides are the dominant stressors for vulnerable insects in lowland streams.

Water Res 2021 May 17;201:117262. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of River Ecology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, 04318 Leipzig, Germany.

Despite elaborate regulation of agricultural pesticides, their occurrence in non-target areas has been linked to adverse ecological effects on insects in several field investigations. Their quantitative role in contributing to the biodiversity crisis is, however, still not known. In a large-scale study across 101 sites of small lowland streams in Central Europe, Germany we revealed that 83% of agricultural streams did not meet the pesticide-related ecological targets. Read More

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Green non-conventional techniques for the extraction of polyphenols from agricultural food by-products: A review.

J Chromatogr A 2021 May 28;1651:462295. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, Fisciano, (SA) 84084, Italy.

Food processing industry is accompanied with the generation of a great production of wastes and by-products exceptionally rich in bioactive compounds (especially phenolics), with antioxidant activity. The recovery of these health molecules constitutes a key point for the valorization of by-products, with the possibility of creating new ingredients to be used for the formulation of food and cosmetic products. One of the main limitations to reuse by-products is linked to the high cost to obtain bioactive compounds, consequently in order to exploit these resources commercially valuable it is necessary to develop innovative, economic and environmentally friendly extraction strategies. Read More

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Recent advances in technologies for removal and recovery of selenium from (waste)water: A systematic review.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 9;294:112926. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Coupure Links 653, 9000, Gent, Belgium. Electronic address:

Selenium (Se) is distributed into different environmental compartments by natural and anthropogenic activities, and generally discharged in the form of selenate [SeO] and selenite [SeO], which are both toxic. Physical-chemical and biological treatment processes have been reported to exhibit good treatment efficiencies for Se from aqueous streams, only a few demonstrated to achieve effluent concentrations <5 μg/L. Moreover, there are only a few numbers of studies that describe the progress in technological developments over the last decade. Read More

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Personalised Accelerometer Cut-point Prediction for Older Adults' Movement Behaviours using a Machine Learning approach.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 May 18;208:106165. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Computer Science, Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, L39 4QP, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Body-worn accelerometers are the most popular method for objectively assessing physical activity in older adults. Many studies have developed generic accelerometer cut-points for defining activity intensity in metabolic equivalents for older adults. However, methodological diversity in current studies has led to a great deal of variation in the resulting cut-points, even when using data from the same accelerometer. Read More

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Circadian clock genes as promising therapeutic targets for autoimmune diseases.

Autoimmun Rev 2021 Jun 9:102866. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China. Electronic address:

Circadian rhythm is a natural, endogenous process whose physiological functions are controlled by a set of clock genes. Disturbance of the clock genes have detrimental effects on both innate and adaptive immunity, which significantly enhance pro-inflammatory responses and susceptibility to autoimmune diseases via strictly controlling the individual cellular components of the immune system that initiate and perpetuate the inflammation pathways. Autoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis (RA), often exhibit substantial circadian oscillations, and circadian rhythm is involved in the onset and progression of autoimmune diseases. Read More

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Lineage-specific gene evolution of innate immunity in Bombyx mori to adapt to challenge by pathogens, especially entomopathogenic fungi.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jun 9:104171. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Environment and Plant Protection Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou, 571101, China; Sericulture Research Center, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou, 571101, China. Electronic address:

Bombyx mori is a model species of Lepidoptera, in which 21 gene families and 220 genes have been identified as involved in immunity. However, only 45 B. mori - Drosophila melanogaster - Anopheles gambiae - Apis mellifera - Tribolium castaneum 1:1:1:1:1 orthologous genes were identified. Read More

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Ultrafiltration in acute heart failure: Current knowledge and fields for further research.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Heart Diseases, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death in developed countries and remains a significant burden to the healthcare system. Fluid overload is a process responsible for the majority of the heart failure symptoms. Pharmacotherapy is a first-line treatment for this condition; however, due to the phenomenon of diuretic resistance, drug therapy can frequently be insufficient. Read More

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Bumblebee resilience to climate change, through plastic and adaptive responses.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Laboratory of Agrozoology, Department Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000, Ghent, Belgium.

Bumblebees are ubiquitous, cold-adapted eusocial bees found worldwide from subarctic to tropical regions of the world. They are key pollinators in most temperate and boreal ecosystems, and both wild and managed populations are significant contributors to agricultural pollination services. Despite their broad ecological niche at the genus level, bumblebee species are threatened by climate change, particularly by rising average temperatures, intensifying seasonality and the increasing frequency of extreme weather events. Read More

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Cardiooncology-dealing with modern drug treatment, long-term complications, and cancer survivorship.

Clin Exp Metastasis 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Dept. of Cardiology and Angiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.

Modern treatment strategies have improved prognosis and survival of patients with malignant diseases. The key components of tumor treatment are conventional chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapies, and immunotherapy. Cardiovascular side-effects may occur in the early phase of tumor therapy or even decades later. Read More

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tRNA-like structures and their functions.

FEBS J 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

State Key laboratory for Cellular Stress Biology, Innovation Center for Cell Signaling Network, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, 361102, Fujian, China.

tRNA-like structures (TLSs) were first identified in the RNA genomes of turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV). Since then, TLSs have been found in many other species including mammals, and the RNAs harboring these structures range from viral genomic RNAs to mRNAs and non-coding RNAs. Some progress has also been made on understanding their functions that include regulation of RNA replication, translation enhancement, RNA-protein interaction and more. Read More

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The rationale for orthodontic retention: piecing together the jigsaw.

Authors:
Declan Millett

Br Dent J 2021 Jun 11;230(11):739-749. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Orthodontic Unit, Cork University Dental School and Hospital, University College Cork, Ireland.

Retaining teeth in their corrected positions following orthodontic treatment is one of the most challenging aspects of orthodontic practice. Despite much research, the rationale for retention is not entirely clear. Teeth tend to revert to their pre-treatment positions due to periodontal and gingival, soft tissue, occlusal and growth factors. Read More

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Allele frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms of clinically important drug-metabolizing enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 in a Thai population.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12343. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.

Prior knowledge of allele frequencies of cytochrome P450 polymorphisms in a population is crucial for the revision and optimization of existing medication choices and doses. In the current study, the frequency of the CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, CYP2C19*6, CYP2C19*17, and CYP3A4 (rs4646437) alleles in a Thai population across different regions of Thailand was examined. Tests for polymorphisms of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 were performed using TaqMan SNP genotyping assay and CYP2C19 was performed using two different methods; TaqMan SNP genotyping assay and Luminex x Tag V3. Read More

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Molecular mechanism of interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and host cells and interventional therapy.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 Jun 11;6(1):233. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

College of Life Sciences, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, China.

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has resulted in an unprecedented setback for global economy and health. SARS-CoV-2 has an exceptionally high level of transmissibility and extremely broad tissue tropism. However, the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for sustaining this degree of virulence remains largely unexplored. Read More

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Self-reported knowledge of national guidelines for clinical screening for hip dysplasia: a web-based survey of midwives and general practitioners in Denmark.

BJGP Open 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Research Unit for General Practice, Denmark, Aalborg University, Aalborg.

Background: The positive predictive value of clinical hip examinations performed by generalist health professionals in screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is low.

Aim: To assess the self-reported recognition of nationally recommended clinical hip examinations in the screening programme for DDH in Denmark among midwives, general practitioners (GPs), and GPs in training.

Design & Setting: A web based open survey study among Danish midwives, GPs and GPs in training METHOD: Respondents were asked to identify which of six written statements of clinical hip examinations were featured in the national Danish guidelines on DDH screening. Read More

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Current practices in the instruction of lifestyle medicine in medical curricula.

Patient Educ Couns 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, USA.

Objective: A review of current practices of educational interventions for lifestyle medicine was performed to inform the design of interventions with long-term goals of improving patient outcomes.

Methods: Systematic review of PubMed, MedEdPORTAL, and Cochrane using keywords "lifestyle medicine," "education," "medical students," and "medical school" was done by 3 independent reviewers. Location, learner, curricular hours, focus, outcomes, and impact are reported. Read More

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Where is critical analysis of power and positionality in knowledge translation?

Health Res Policy Syst 2021 Jun 11;19(1):92. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Faculty of Applied Science, School of Nursing, University of British Columbia, T201-2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5, Canada.

In Canada, the Eurocentric epistemological foundations of knowledge translation (KT) approaches and practices have been significantly influenced by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) KT definition. More recently, integrated knowledge translation (IKT) has emerged in part as epistemic resistance to Eurocentric discourse to critically analyse power relations between researcher and participants. Yet, despite the proliferation of IKT literature, issues of power in research relationships and strategies to equalize relationships remain largely unaddressed. Read More

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The effectiveness of smart home technologies to support the health outcomes of community-dwelling older adults living with dementia: A scoping review.

Int J Med Inform 2021 Jun 4;153:104513. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia; Australian Aged Care Technologies Collaborative, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: To map the current state-of-knowledge about the effectiveness of smart home technologies to support the health outcomes of community-dwelling older adults living with dementia.

Design: A scoping review following the methodological frameworks described by Arksey and O'Malley (2005) and Levac et al. (2010). Read More

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Age-related amyloidosis outside the brain: A state-of-the-art review.

Ageing Res Rev 2021 Jun 8:101388. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan. Electronic address:

Inside and outside the brain, accumulation of amyloid fibrils plays key roles in the pathogenesis of fatal age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis. Although the incidence of all amyloidoses increases with age, for some types of amyloidosis aging is known as the main direct risk factor, and these types are typically diseases of elderly people. More than 10 different precursor proteins are known to cause age-associated amyloidosis; these proteins include amyloid β protein, α-synuclein, transthyretin, islet amyloid polypeptide, atrial natriuretic factor, and the newly discovered epidermal growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1. Read More

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Changes in kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis during gait: systematic review.

Spine J 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Science, Little Rock, AR; Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, ID.

Background Context: Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is one of the most common orthopaedic conditions and affects more than half a million people over the age of 65 in the US. Patients with LSS have gait dysfunction and movement deficits due to pain and symptoms caused by compression of the nerve roots within a narrowed spinal canal.

Purpose: The purpose of the current systematic review was to summarize existing literature reporting biomechanical changes in gait function that occur with LSS, and identify knowledge gaps that merit future investigation in this important patient population. Read More

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Metazoan Evolution and Diversity of Glutamate Receptors and Their Auxiliary Subunits.

Neuropharmacology 2021 Jun 8:108640. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Molecular Physiology of the Synapse Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. Proteins involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission, and chiefly glutamate receptors and their auxiliary subunits, play key roles in nervous system function. Thus, understanding their evolution and uncovering their diversity is essential to comprehend how nervous systems evolved, shaping cognitive function. Read More

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Integrated Review of the Assessment of Newborns With Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Objective: To critically review and summarize current knowledge regarding the assessment of newborns with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS).

Data Sources: We searched the following databases for articles on the assessment of newborns with NAS that were published in English between January 2014 and June 2020: PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Keywords and Medical Subject Heading terms used to identify relevant research articles included neonatal abstinence syndrome; Finnegan Scale; eat, sleep, console; epigenetics; genetics; pharmacokinetics; and measurement. Read More

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Utilising an integrated approach to developing liking for and consumption of vegetables in children.

Physiol Behav 2021 Jun 8:113493. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

Children eat too few vegetables and this is attributed to disliked flavours and texture as well as low energy density. Vegetables confer selective health benefits over other foods and so children are encouraged to eat them. Parents and caregivers face a challenge in incorporating vegetables into their child's habitual diet. Read More

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Multidrug-resistant species: underestimated fungal pathogens posing imminent threats in clinical settings.

Crit Rev Microbiol 2021 Jun 11:1-20. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Species of and related genera are widely used in biotechnology and, hence, many species have their genome sequenced. Importantly, yeasts of the genus have been increasingly identified as a cause of life-threatening invasive trichosporonosis (IT) in humans and are associated with an exceptionally high mortality rate. spp. Read More

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High risk of early sub-therapeutic penicillin concentrations after intramuscular benzathine penicillin G injections in Ethiopian children and adults with rheumatic heart disease.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 11;15(6):e0009399. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Introduction: Intramuscular benzathine penicillin G (BPG) injections are a cornerstone of secondary prophylaxis to prevent acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Uncertainties regarding inter-ethnic and preparation variability, and target exposure profiles of BPG injection are key knowledge gaps for RHD control.

Methods: To evaluate BPG pharmacokinetics (PK) in patients receiving 4-weekly doses in Ethiopia, we conducted a prospective cohort study of ARF/RHD patients attending cardiology outpatient clinics. Read More

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Multiyear Group and Medical Center Patch Test Frequency Data: Confounding Variables.

Dermatitis 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

From the Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco Medical School.

Patch test frequency data have been extensively published by research groups, such as the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group, North American Contact Dermatitis Group, Dermato-Allergology Study and Research Group, and European Environmental Contact Dermatitis Research Group. As this knowledge accumulation is widely applied in clinical and public health settings, we describe confounding factors to consider when using such data for medical policy considerations. These concepts can also be used in individual reports of new allergens or series of cases. Read More

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The Regulatory Function of Tandem Repeat VNTR2-1 in hTERT Gene Involves Basic Helix-loop-helix Family Transcription Factors.

Environ Mol Mutagen 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

College of Pharmacy of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Washington State University Spokane, Washington, United State of America.

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that synthesizes telomere end sequence. The expression of hTERT gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of human telomerase, is restricted to highly proliferative tissues and is undetectable in most somatic cells. Abnormal activation of hTERT gene is found in 90% of human tumors. Read More

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Coping with stress in a warming Gulf: the postlarval American lobster's cellular stress response under future warming scenarios.

Cell Stress Chaperones 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME, 04469, USA.

The Gulf of the Maine (GoM) is one of the fastest warming bodies of water in the world, posing serious physiological challenges to its marine inhabitants. Marine organisms can cope with the cellular and molecular stresses created by climate change through changes in gene expression. We used transcriptomics to examine how exposure to current summer temperatures (16 °C) or temperature regimes reflective of projected moderate and severe warming conditions (18 °C and 22 °C, respectively) during larval development alters expression of transcripts affiliated with the cellular stress response (CSR) in postlarval American lobsters (Homarus americanus). Read More

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Acupuncture treatment for emotional problems in infertile women: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e26306

Department of Korean Medicine Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pusan National University Korean Medicine Hospital.

Background: Infertility causes emotional and psychological problems, including anxiety, depression, low self-efficacy, and chronic mental stress in women. These emotional problems can negatively affect fertility treatment. Numerous studies have reported the clinical therapeutic effects of acupuncture on emotional problems; however, the efficacy and safety of acupuncture treatment for emotional problems in infertile women remain unclear. Read More

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Web-Based Self-management Program (SPACE for COPD) for Individuals Hospitalized With an Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Nonrandomized Feasibility Trial of Acceptability.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 Jun 11;9(6):e21728. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Centre for Exercise and Rehabilitation Science, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Background: Hospital admissions due to the acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are costly for individuals and health services. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is known to reduce hospital readmissions when delivered after hospitalization, but the uptake and completion of PR following hospitalization remains poor (<10% of those eligible in the UK audit data). A web-based platform of the SPACE (Self-management Program of Activity Coping and Education) for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) has previously shown promising results in patients with stable COPD but has not been tested following an AECOPD. Read More

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Influences of Environmental Exposures on Preterm Lung Disease.

Expert Rev Respir Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Pulmonary and Sleep, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Introduction: Environmental factors play a critical role in the progression or resolution of chronic respiratory diseases. However, studies are limited on the impact of environmental risk factors on individuals born prematurely with lung disease after they leave the neonatal intensive care unit and are discharged into the home environment.

Areas Covered: In this review we cover current knowledge of environmental exposures that impact outcomes in preterm respiratory disease, including air pollution, infections, and disparities. Read More

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