161,384 results match your criteria current epidemiological

[Antibacterial Prophylaxis in Children and Adolescents Undergoing Therapy for Cancer - Statement of the Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology (GPOH) and of the German Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases (DGPI) on Two Current International Guidelines].

Klin Padiatr 2021 May 10;233(3):101-106. Epub 2021 May 10.

Infectious Disease Research Program, Center for Bone Marrow Transplantation, Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University Children's Hospital, Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

Immunocompromised children and adolescents receiving treatment for cancer have an increased risk for potentially life-threatening infectious complications such as blood stream infections with Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Therefore, several centers for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology administer antibacterial prophylaxis to these patients to lower morbidity and mortality. Two pediatric specific guidelines on antibacterial prophylaxis were recently published. Read More

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Neutralizing antibody vaccine for pandemic and pre-emergent coronaviruses.

Nature 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Viral Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Betacoronaviruses (betaCoVs) caused the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreaks, and the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Vaccines that elicit protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and betaCoVs circulating in animals have the potential to prevent future betaCoV pandemics. Here, we show that macaque immunization with a multimeric SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) nanoparticle adjuvanted with 3M-052/Alum elicited cross-neutralizing antibody (cross-nAb) responses against batCoVs, SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, and SARS-CoV-2 variants B. Read More

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Surveillance and molecular characterization of human sapovirus in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Brazil, 2010 to 2017.

J Clin Virol 2021 Apr 26;140:104844. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Adolfo Lutz Institute, Virology Centre, Av. Dr Arnaldo, no: 355, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Human sapoviruses (HuSaV) are associated with acute gastroenteritis (AGE), causing sporadic cases and outbreaks in patients worldwide. In Brazil, however, there are few reports describing the prevalence of HuSaV in patients with AGE.

Objective: Describing the diversity of HuSaV in Brazil by detecting and molecularly characterizing HuSaV among patients with AGE during an 8-year period (2010-2017). Read More

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Pituicytoma: Report of three cases and a systematic literature review.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Apr 24;205:106650. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan hospital, Capital Medical University, 119 South Fourth Ring West Road, Fengtai District, Beijing 100070, China. Electronic address:

Pituicytoma is a rare subtype of WHO grade I glioma that originates in the neurohypophysis or infundibulum. Here we presented 3 cases of histopathologically diagnosed pituicytoma and subsequently performed a corresponding systematic literature review. A comprehensive literature search of the PubMed database was conducted. Read More

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Chondrosarcoma of the Spine: A Narrative Review.

Spine J 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD USA 21287. Electronic address:

Chondrosarcoma is an uncommon primary bone tumor with an estimated incidence of 0.5 per 100,000 patient-years. Primary chondrosarcoma of the mobile spine and sacrum cumulatively account for less than 20% of all cases, most commonly causing patients to present with focal pain with or without radiculopathy or myelopathy secondary to neural element compression. Read More

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Advantages and disadvantages of disulfiram coadministered with popular addictive substances.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 7:174143. Epub 2021 May 7.

Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 01-163 Warsaw, Poland; Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Centre for Preclinical Research (CBP), Medical University of Warsaw, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland.

Disulfiram (DSF) is a well-known anti-alcohol agent that inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase and results in extreme 'hangover' symptoms when consumed with alcohol. This drug, however, has been suggested as useful in other forms of drug addiction due to its beneficial potential in both drug abuse reduction and withdrawal. However, among other drugs used in alcohol dependence, it carries the greatest risk of pharmacological interactions. Read More

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The Association between Lung Hyperinflation and Coronary Artery Disease in Smokers.

Chest 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Departments of Medicine. Electronic address:

Background: Smokers manifest varied phenotypes of pulmonary impairment.

Research Question: Which pulmonary phenotypes are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in smokers?

Study Design: & Methods: We analyzed data from the Pittsburgh SCCOR cohort (n=481), and the COPDGene cohort (n=2580). Participants were current and former smokers with >10 pack-years of tobacco exposure. Read More

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Racial Segregation and Respiratory Outcomes among Urban Black Residents with and at Risk of COPD.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Johns Hopkins University, Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States;

Rationale: Racial residential segregation has been associated with worse health outcomes, but the link with COPD morbidity has not been established.

Objectives: To investigate whether racial residential segregation is associated with COPD morbidity among urban Black adults with or at risk of COPD.

Methods: Racial residential segregation was assessed using isolation index, based on 2010 decennial census and baseline address, for Black former and current smokers in the multi-center SPIROMICS study of adults with or at risk for COPD. Read More

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The Effects of Chronic Exposure to Ambient Traffic-Related Air Pollution on Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes in Wildtype and Genetically Predisposed Male and Female Rats.

Environ Health Perspect 2021 May 10;129(5):57005. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of California Davis (UC Davis) School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, California, USA.

Background: Epidemiological data link traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) to increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Preclinical data corroborating this association are largely from studies of male animals exposed acutely or subchronically to high levels of isolated fractions of TRAP. What remains unclear is whether chronic exposure to ambient TRAP modifies AD risk and the influence of sex on this interaction. Read More

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Arsenic Exposure and Melanoma Among US Adults Aged 20 or Older, 2003-2016.

Public Health Rep 2021 May 10:333549211008886. Epub 2021 May 10.

12284 Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.

Objectives: Chronic exposure to arsenic has been reported as a risk factor for nonmelanoma skin cancer, notably squamous cell carcinoma. However, current knowledge is limited about the association between arsenic exposure and melanoma. Our objectives were to (1) measure the association between total urinary arsenic levels and melanoma compared with nonmelanoma skin cancer and no cancer and (2) analyze the association between water source and melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Read More

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Seasonal Influenza Prevention and Control Progress in Latin America and the Caribbean in the Context of the Global Influenza Strategy and the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

4Center for Global Health, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado.

Each year in Latin America and the Caribbean, seasonal influenza is associated with an estimated 36,500 respiratory deaths and 400,000 hospitalizations. Since the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, the Region has made significant advances in the prevention and control of seasonal influenza, including improved surveillance systems, burden estimates, and vaccination of at-risk groups. The Global Influenza Strategy 2019-2030 provides a framework to strengthen these advances. Read More

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Patient self-report versus medical records for smoking status and alcohol consumption at Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services.

Aust N Z J Public Health 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Health Behaviour Research Collaborative, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, New South Wales.

Objective: This study assessed the level of agreement, and predictors of agreement, between patient self-report and medical records for smoking status and alcohol consumption among patients attending one of four Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHSs).

Methods: A convenience sample of 110 ACCHS patients self-reported whether they were current smokers or currently consumed alcohol. ACCHS staff completed a medical record audit for corresponding items for each patient. Read More

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Selected thyreology problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism - did anything change?

Endokrynol Pol 2021 ;72(2):170-178

Chair and Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Internal Medicine, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) observed the scale of epidemic risk and declared the state of the COVID-19 pandemic. Most countries, including Poland, implemented national and local emergency management plans to deal with the imminent threat of SARS-CoV-2 infection, one of the most serious in this century, according to many experts. In the era of pandemic, during which an epidemiological regime and social distancing are constantly recommended, and routine medical care and planned surgical procedures have been postponed or significantly reduced, patients and their physicians have to struggle on a daily basis with difficult access to diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Read More

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January 2021

Glutathione S-Transferase Gene Associations and Gene-Environment Interactions for Asthma.

Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2021 May 10;21(5):31. Epub 2021 May 10.

Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Level 3 207 Bouverie Street, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: Asthma is one of the most common chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Airway oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between oxidative and antioxidative processes in the airways. There is evidence that chronic damage caused by oxidative stress may be involved in asthmatic inflammation and reduced lung function. Read More

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Preeclampsia Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Pregnancy Outcomes in Sweden and China.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e218401. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Importance: Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Within-country studies have reported racial differences in the presentation and outcome, but little is known about differences between countries.

Objective: To compare preeclampsia prevalence, risk factors, and pregnancy outcomes between the Swedish and Chinese populations. Read More

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Interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and human long non-coding RNAs.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Cellular and Molecular Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a critical regulatory role in the host response to the viral infection. However, little is understood about the transcriptome architecture, especially lncRNAs pattern during the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the present study, using publicly available RNA sequencing data of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) samples from COVID-19 patients and healthy individuals, three interesting findings highlighted: (a) More than half of the interactions between lncRNAs-PCGs of BALF samples established by three trans-acting lncRNAs (HOTAIRM1, PVT1 and AL392172. Read More

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A Bayesian approach to comparing common models of life-course epidemiology.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Jacobs Center for Productive Youth Development, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Life-course epidemiology studies people's health over long periods, treating repeated measures of their experiences (usually risk factors) as predictors or causes of subsequent morbidity and mortality. Three hypotheses or models often guide the analyst in assessing these sequential risks: the accumulation model (all measurement occasions are equally important for predicting the outcome), the critical period model (only one occasion is important) and the sensitive periods model (a catch-all model for any other pattern of temporal dependence).

Methods: We propose a Bayesian omnibus test of these three composite models, as well as post hoc decompositions that identify their best respective sub-models. Read More

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A urinary peptidomic profile predicts outcome in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 May 3:100883. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Infectious Diseases/Tropical Medicine, Nephrology/KfH Renal Unit and Rheumatology, St. Georg Hospital Leipzig, Delitzscher Strasse 141, Leipzig DE 04129, Germany.

Background: COVID-19 prediction models based on clinical characteristics, routine biochemistry and imaging, have been developed, but little is known on proteomic markers reflecting the molecular pathophysiology of disease progression.

Methods: he multicentre (six European study sites) Prospective Validation of a Proteomic Urine Test for Early and Accurate Prognosis of Critical Course Complications in Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection Study (Crit-COV-U) is recruiting consecutive patients (≥ 18 years) with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. A urinary proteomic biomarker (COV50) developed by capillary-electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) technology, comprising 50 sequenced peptides and identifying the parental proteins, was evaluated in 228 patients (derivation cohort) with replication in 99 patients (validation cohort). Read More

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MethylDetectR: a software for methylation-based health profiling.

Wellcome Open Res 2020 7;5:283. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, EH4 2XU, UK.

DNA methylation is an important biological process which involves the reversible addition of chemical tags called methyl groups to DNA and affects whether genes are active or inactive. Individual methylation profiles are determined by both genetic and environmental influences. Inter-individual variation in DNA methylation profiles can be exploited to estimate or predict a wide variety of human characteristics and disease risk profiles. Read More

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December 2020

Emergomycosis, an Emerging Systemic Mycosis in Immunocompromised Patients: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 23;8:670731. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India.

Recently, the global emergence of emergomycosis, a systemic fungal infection caused by a novel dimorphic fungus species has been observed among immunocompromised individuals. Though initially classified under the genus , a taxonomic revision in 2017 based on DNA sequence analyses placed five -like fungi under a separate genus . These include , and . Read More

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Reference Values for Five-Repetition Chair Stand Test Among Middle-Aged and Elderly Community-Dwelling Chinese Adults.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 21;8:659107. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Clinical Research Center, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Previous studies on the five-repetition chair stand test (CS-5) are limited by the representativeness of the sample or the lack of reference equations for CS-5. Defined reference values for CS-5 in a large population are not available for middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults. We established age- and sex-stratified reference values for CS-5 times in a large population in China, and to investigate the associations between demographic and anthropometric factors and CS-5 times. Read More

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Quality of life in patients with Marfan syndrome: a cross-sectional study of 102 adult patients.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2021 Apr;11(2):602-610

Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Chair of Sport Psychology, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a genetically determined multiorgan disease that leads to severe physiological and psychological impairments in adult life. Little consensus exists regarding quality of life (QOL) in individuals with MFS. The present study sought to investigate QOL in a representative cohort of adults with MFS. Read More

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Provision of medical health care for adults with congenital heart disease associated with aortic involvement.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2021 Apr;11(2):518-528

Department of Medicine and Cardiology Center, Albert Szent-Györgyi Clinical Center, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.

Background: All patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) are chronically ill from their cardiac disease. Despite the increasing evidence that aortic alterations are becoming relevant, the importance of aortopathy in CHD has long been underestimated. This study was conducted to determine the health status of patients and/or the provision of health services of adults with CHD (ACHD) with manifest aortopathy or at risk thereof. Read More

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Systematic assessment of health care perception in adults with congenital heart disease in Germany.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2021 Apr;11(2):481-491

Department of Congenital Heart Disease and Pediatric Cardiology, German Heart Center Munich, Technical University Munich, Germany.

Background: The number of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) is steadily rising due to increased survival rate and improved medical resources. Accordingly, more than 330,000 ACHD are currently living in Germany. Almost all of them require lifelong specialized medical follow-up for their chronic heart disease, often accompanied by residua, sequelae, or comorbidities. Read More

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Association of expression in gastric carcinoma and the significance of its clinicopathologic features in an Iranian patient.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2021 ;14(2):108-114

Research Center for Cancer Screening and Epidemiology, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of and the relationship between its expression with clinical characteristics in an Iranian gastric cancer patient.

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) play critical roles in the initiation and development of gastric cancer. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 () is a highly conserved lncRNA and plays key roles in various types of human cancer. Read More

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January 2021

Facing coronavirus disease 2019: What do we know so far? (Review).

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 20;21(6):658. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pharmacy, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266003, P.R. China.

Although the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which originated in China, as a public health emergency of international concern as early as January 30, 2020, the current COVID-19 epidemic is spreading rapidly. As of April 19, 2020, total of 2,392,165 confirmed cases had been reported in 211 countries and regions, with 614,421 (25.68%) cured cases and 164,391 (6. Read More

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A Novel Signature for Predicting Prognosis of Smoking-Related Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Front Genet 2021 22;12:666371. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

Tobacco smoking is an established risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We obtained smoking-related SCC, including cervical SCC (CSCC), esophageal SCC (ESCC), head and neck SCC (HNSC), and lung SCC (LUSC), from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to investigate the association between smoking status (reformed and current smoking) and prognosis. We found that reformed smokers had a better prognosis than current smokers in CSCC ( = 0. Read More

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The Incidence of Stroke in Indigenous Populations of Countries With a Very High Human Development Index: A Systematic Review Protocol.

Front Neurol 2021 22;12:661570. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Population and Global Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.

Despite known Indigenous health and socioeconomic disadvantage in countries with a Very High Human Development Index, data on the incidence of stroke in these populations are sparse. With oversight from an Indigenous Advisory Board, we will undertake a systematic review of the incidence of stroke in Indigenous populations of developed countries or regions, with comparisons between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations of the same region, though not between different Indigenous populations. Using PubMed, OVID-EMBASE, and Global Health databases, we will examine population-based incidence studies of stroke in Indigenous adult populations of developed countries published 1990-current, without language restriction. Read More

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Effectiveness of Trainings of General Practitioners on Antibiotic Stewardship: Methods of a Pragmatic Quasi-Experimental Study in a Controlled Before-After Design in South-East-Lower Saxony, Germany (WASA).

Front Pharmacol 2021 22;12:533248. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany.

Antibiotic resistance is a serious threat to global public health. It reduces the effectiveness of treatments for serious bacterial infections and thus increases the risk of fatal outcomes. Antibiotic prescriptions are often not in line with clinical evidence-based guidelines. Read More

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From hepatitis A to E: A critical review of viral hepatitis.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;27(16):1691-1715

Transplant Department, Cleveland Clinic Florida, Weston, FL 33331, United States.

Viral infections affecting the liver have had an important impact on humanity, as they have led to significant morbidity and mortality in patients with acute and chronic infections. Once an unknown etiology, the discovery of the viral agents triggered interest of the scientific community to establish the pathogenesis and diagnostic modalities to identify the affected population. With the rapid scientific and technological advances in the last centuries, controlling and even curing the infections became a possibility, with a large focus on preventive medicine through vaccination. Read More

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