151 results match your criteria cultural faunal

Late Pleistocene human paleoecology in the highland savanna ecosystem of mainland Southeast Asia.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 18;11(1):16756. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Geosciences, Biogeology, University of Tübingen, Hölderlinstraße 12, 72074, Tübingen, Germany.

The late Pleistocene settlement of highland settings in mainland Southeast Asia by Homo sapiens has challenged our species's ability to occupy mountainous landscapes that acted as physical barriers to the expansion into lower-latitude Sunda islands during sea-level lowstands. Tham Lod Rockshelter in highland Pang Mapha (northwestern Thailand), dated between 34,000 and 12,000 years ago, has yielded evidence of Hoabinhian lithic assemblages and natural resource use by hunter-gatherer societies. To understand the process of early settlements of highland areas, we measured stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of Tham Lod human and faunal tooth enamel. Read More

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Collagen stable isotope data from East and Northeast Asia, c. 7000 BC-1000 AD.

Christina Cheung

Data Brief 2021 Aug 10;37:107214. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

EA - Eco-anthropologie (UMR 7206), Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France.

Stable isotope analysis is routinely used in archaeology to answer questions related to past diets. As the technique matures, data from archaeological sites have been generated at an exponential rate over the past several decades, thus provided an invaluable opportunity to examine past dietary practices and subsistence economies in much larger geographical and temporal settings. In Asia, a significant proportion of isotopic data is published in non-English journals or in grey literature, therefore remains largely inaccessible to general researchers. Read More

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First direct evidence of conservative foraging ecology of early Gigantopithecus blacki (~2 Ma) in Guangxi, southern China.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 09 8;176(1):93-108. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: Gigantopithecus blacki, the largest hominoid known, is one of the representative Pleistocene mammals in southern China and northern Southeast Asia. Here we investigate the feeding ecology of G. blacki in its core habitat (Guangxi, Southern China) during the early Early Pleistocene, which was the early period in its evolution. Read More

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September 2021

A 115,000-year-old expedient bone technology at Lingjing, Henan, China.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0250156. Epub 2021 May 6.

CNRS UMR5199 -PACEA, Université de Bordeaux, France.

Activities attested since at least 2.6 Myr, such as stone knapping, marrow extraction, and woodworking may have allowed early hominins to recognize the technological potential of discarded skeletal remains and equipped them with a transferable skillset fit for the marginal modification and utilization of bone flakes. Identifying precisely when and where expedient bone tools were used in prehistory nonetheless remains a challenging task owing to the multiple natural and anthropogenic processes that can mimic deliberately knapped bones. Read More

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New hominin remains and revised context from the earliest Homo erectus locality in East Turkana, Kenya.

Nat Commun 2021 04 13;12(1):1939. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Paleomagnetic Laboratory 'Fort Hoofddijk', Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

The KNM-ER 2598 occipital is among the oldest fossils attributed to Homo erectus but questions have been raised about whether it may derive from a younger horizon. Here we report on efforts to relocate the KNM-ER 2598 locality and investigate its paleontological and geological context. Although located in a different East Turkana collection area (Area 13) than initially reported, the locality is stratigraphically positioned below the KBS Tuff and the outcrops show no evidence of deflation of a younger unit, supporting an age of >1. Read More

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Stable isotope analysis of human bone from Ganj Dareh, Iran, ca. 10,100 calBP.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(3):e0247569. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.

We report here on stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope values from bone collagen of human (n = 20) and faunal (n = 11) remains from the Early Neolithic site of Ganj Dareh, Iran, dating to ca. 10,100 cal. BP. Read More

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September 2021

Short-term occupations at high elevation during the Middle Paleolithic at Kalavan 2 (Republic of Armenia).

PLoS One 2021 4;16(2):e0245700. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia.

The Armenian highlands encompasses rugged and environmentally diverse landscapes and is characterized by a mosaic of distinct ecological niches and large temperature gradients. Strong seasonal fluctuations in resource availability along topographic gradients likely prompted Pleistocene hominin groups to adapt by adjusting their mobility strategies. However, the role that elevated landscapes played in hunter-gatherer settlement systems during the Late Pleistocene (Middle Palaeolithic [MP]) remains poorly understood. Read More

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Lipid residues in pottery from the Indus Civilisation in northwest India.

J Archaeol Sci 2021 Jan;125:105291

Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3DZ, UK.

This paper presents novel insights into the archaeology of food in ancient South Asia by using lipid residue analysis to investigate what kinds of foodstuffs were used in ceramic vessels by populations of the Indus Civilisation in northwest India. It examines how vessels were used in urban and rural Indus settlements during the Mature Harappan period (.2600/2500-1900 BC), the relationship between vessels and the products within them, and identifies whether changes in vessel use occurred from the Mature Harappan to Late Harappan periods, particularly during climatic instability after 4. Read More

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January 2021

The marine fishes of St Eustatius Island, northeastern Caribbean: an annotated, photographic catalog.

Zookeys 2020 30;1007:145-180. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Vertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560, USA National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution Washington United States of America.

Sint Eustatius (Statia) is a 21 km island situated in the northeastern Caribbean Sea. The most recent published sources of information on that island's marine fish fauna is in two non-governmental organization reports from 2015-17 related to the formation of a marine reserve. The species-list in the 2017 report was based on field research in 2013-15 using SCUBA diving surveys, shallow "baited underwater video surveys" (BRUVs), and data from fishery surveys and scientific collections over the preceding century. Read More

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December 2020

Investigating Neolithic caprine husbandry in the Central Pyrenees: Insights from a multi-proxy study at Els Trocs cave (Bisaurri, Spain).

PLoS One 2021 6;16(1):e0244139. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Departamento de Prehistoria y Arqueología, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.

Sheep remains constitute the main archaeozoological evidence for the presence of Early Neolithic human groups in the highlands of the Southern Pyrenees but understanding the role of herding activities in the Neolithisation process of this mountain ecosystem calls for the analysis of large and well-dated faunal assemblages. Cova de Els Trocs (Bisaurri, Huesca, Spain), a cave located at 1564 m a.s. Read More

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Magdalenian and Epimagdalenian chronology and palaeoenvironments at Kůlna Cave, Moravia, Czech Republic.

Archaeol Anthropol Sci 2021 17;13(1). Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Institute of Archaeology, University College London, London, UK.

Kůlna Cave is the only site in Moravia, Czech Republic, from which large assemblages of both Magdalenian and Epimagdalenian archaeological materials have been excavated from relatively secure stratified deposits. The site therefore offers the unrivalled opportunity to explore the relationship between these two archaeological phases. In this study, we undertake radiocarbon, stable isotope (carbon, nitrogen and sulphur), and ZooMS analysis of the archaeological faunal assemblage to explore the chronological and environmental context of the Magdalenian and Epimagdalenian deposits. Read More

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December 2020

Paleoparasitology and archaeoparasitology in Iran: A retrospective in differential diagnosis.

Alireza Sazmand

Int J Paleopathol 2021 Mar 19;32:50-60. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bu-Ali Sina University, 6517658978, Hamedan, Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: This paper reviews paleo- and archaeoparasitology publications to date, from Iran. The primary focus is the importance of differential diagnosis and the crucial role of interdisciplinary collaborations among parasitologists and other specialists.

Methods: All relevant articles and theses published in Iran through October 2020 are included and evaluated, with particular emphasis on the diagnostic process. Read More

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Olduvai's oldest Oldowan.

J Hum Evol 2021 01 30;150:102910. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Archaeology Unit, Department of History, University of Dar Es Salaam, P.O. Box 35051, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

Previously, Olduvai Bed I excavations revealed Oldowan assemblages <1.85 Ma, mainly in the eastern gorge. New western gorge excavations locate a much older ∼2. Read More

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January 2021

Monumental landscapes of the Holocene humid period in Northern Arabia: The mustatil phenomenon.

Holocene 2020 Dec 17;30(12):1767-1779. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.

Between 10 and six thousand years ago the Arabian Peninsula saw the most recent of the 'Green Arabia' periods, when increased rainfall transformed this generally arid region. The transition to the Neolithic in Arabia occurred during this period of climatic amelioration. Various forms of stone structures are abundant in northern Arabia, and it has been speculated that some of these dated to the Neolithic, but there has been little research on their character and chronology. Read More

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December 2020

Diet and subsistence in Bronze Age pastoral communities from the southern Russian steppes and the North Caucasus.

PLoS One 2020 14;15(10):e0239861. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Integrative Prehistory and Archaeological Science IPAS, Basel University, Basel, Switzerland.

The flanks of the Caucasus Mountains and the steppe landscape to their north offered highly productive grasslands for Bronze Age herders and their flocks of sheep, goat, and cattle. While the archaeological evidence points to a largely pastoral lifestyle, knowledge regarding the general composition of human diets and their variation across landscapes and during the different phases of the Bronze Age is still restricted. Human and animal skeletal remains from the burial mounds that dominate the archaeological landscape and their stable isotope compositions are major sources of dietary information. Read More

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November 2020

The Zagros Epipalaeolithic revisited: New excavations and 14C dates from Palegawra cave in Iraqi Kurdistan.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(9):e0239564. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Sulaymaniyah Directorate of Antiquities and Heritage, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

Palegawra cave, alongside its neighbouring Zarzi, has been an emblematic site of the Epipalaeolithic (Zarzian) cultural horizon in the NW Zagros of Southwest Asia ever since its first exploration in 1951 by Bruce Howe and Robert Braidwood in the context of the Iraq-Jarmo project. At the time scientific excavation, sampling and analysis methods were either under-developed or did not exist. In this paper we present the first results of new excavations at Palegawra conducted in 2016-2017 by the Eastern Fertile Crescent (EFEC) project, a research collaboration of the University of Liverpool and the Sulaymaniyah Directorate of Antiquities and Heritage. Read More

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November 2020

Investigation of mammoth remains using the neutron activation analysis at the Training Reactor VR-1.

Appl Radiat Isot 2020 Dec 26;166:109292. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Brehova 7, Prague, 115 19, Czech Republic.

At the time when the importance of the interdisciplinary research increases, the nuclear analytical techniques supported by the small research reactors represent a useful tool for investigation of human society, culture, history etc. The historical, archaeological, and palaeontological samples and objects of cultural heritage can be easily studied using the radioanalytical methods such as the neutron activation analysis. This paper deals with the detailed investigation of fragments of mammoth remains from the Mid-Upper Palaeolithic site Pavlov VI by means of the instrumental neutron activation analysis at the Training Reactor VR-1 of the Czech Technical University in Prague. Read More

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December 2020

The timing and effect of the earliest human arrivals in North America.

Nature 2020 08 22;584(7819):93-97. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

The peopling of the Americas marks a major expansion of humans across the planet. However, questions regarding the timing and mechanisms of this dispersal remain, and the previously accepted model (termed 'Clovis-first')-suggesting that the first inhabitants of the Americas were linked with the Clovis tradition, a complex marked by distinctive fluted lithic points-has been effectively refuted. Here we analyse chronometric data from 42 North American and Beringian archaeological sites using a Bayesian age modelling approach, and use the resulting chronological framework to elucidate spatiotemporal patterns of human dispersal. Read More

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Fox dietary ecology as a tracer of human impact on Pleistocene ecosystems.

PLoS One 2020 22;15(7):e0235692. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Institute for Scientific Archaeology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Nowadays, opportunistic small predators, such as foxes (Vulpes vulpes and Vulpes lagopus), are well known to be very adaptable to human modified ecosystems. However, the timing of the start of this phenomenon in terms of human impact on ecosystems and of the implications for foxes has hardly been studied. We hypothesize that foxes can be used as an indicator of past human impact on ecosystems, as a reflection of population densities and consequently to track back the influence of humans on the Pleistocene environment. Read More

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September 2020

Isotopic evidence for initial coastal colonization and subsequent diversification in the human occupation of Wallacea.

Nat Commun 2020 04 29;11(1):2068. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

School of Culture, History and Language, College of Asia and the Pacific, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, 2600, Australia.

The resource-poor, isolated islands of Wallacea have been considered a major adaptive obstacle for hominins expanding into Australasia. Archaeological evidence has hinted that coastal adaptations in Homo sapiens enabled rapid island dispersal and settlement; however, there has been no means to directly test this proposition. Here, we apply stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis to human and faunal tooth enamel from six Late Pleistocene to Holocene archaeological sites across Wallacea. Read More

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Direct evidence of Neanderthal fibre technology and its cognitive and behavioral implications.

Sci Rep 2020 04 9;10(1):4889. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France, C2MRF, Palais du Louvre, Paris, France.

Neanderthals are often considered as less technologically advanced than modern humans. However, we typically only find faunal remains or stone tools at Paleolithic sites. Perishable materials, comprising the vast majority of material culture items, are typically missing. Read More

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The Maya Preclassic to Classic transition observed through faunal trends from Ceibal, Guatemala.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(4):e0230892. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Museo Regional de Arqueología la Democracia, Ministerio de Cultura y Deportes de Guatemala, Escuintla, Republic of Guatemala.

It is well known that the development of the ancient Maya civilization had significant and long-lasting impacts on the environment. This study assesses a large collection of faunal remains (>35,000 specimens) recovered over a span of several kilometers in and around the archaeological site of Ceibal, Guatemala, in order to determine whether the composition of animal resources was continuous throughout the site's history between 1000 BC and AD 1200, or whether there were any changes that could be attributed to sociopolitical or environmental causes. Results show a steep uniform decline in the number of freshwater mollusks across the site that occurred during the Preclassic to Classic transition, when large region-wide political changes, including the development of more complex and centralized political organization, took place throughout the Maya region. Read More

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Earliest African evidence of carcass processing and consumption in cave at 700 ka, Casablanca, Morocco.

Sci Rep 2020 03 16;10(1):4761. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

To date, in Africa, evidence for animal processing and consumption in caves routinely used as living spaces is only documented in the late Middle Pleistocene of the North and South of the continent and postdates the Middle Pleistocene in East Africa. Here we report the earliest evidence in a North-African cave (Grotte des Rhinocéros at Casablanca, Morocco) of cut, percussion and human gnawing marks on faunal remains directly associated with lithic knapping activities in the same space and in a well-documented stratified context. Ages for this Acheulean site are provided by the dating of herbivorous teeth to 690-720 ka and 520-550 ka (lower and upper sets) by combined Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and U-series techniques. Read More

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The spatial organization of craft production at the Kura-Araxes settlement of Köhne Shahar in northwestern Iran: A zooarchaeological approach.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(3):e0229339. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Anthropology, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, Michigan, United States of America.

The Kura-Araxes cultural tradition (ca. 3500-2200 BCE) was one of the most widespread archaeological horizons in Southwest Asian prehistory, spanning from the Caucasus to the southern Levant. Although several decades of research have considerably increased our knowledge about this Early Bronze Age tradition, the social and economic organization of its communities remains a matter of much debate. Read More

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The role of cultural norms in shaping attitudes towards amphibians in Cape Town, South Africa.

PLoS One 2020 24;15(2):e0219331. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Urban ecosystems are increasingly viewed as an important component within strategies for wildlife conservation but are shaped as much by natural systems as they are by social and political processes. At the garden scale, attitudes and preferences govern design and maintenance choices including the decision to encourage or discourage specific faunal presence. At the global scale, charismatic taxa that are well-liked attract more conservation funding and volunteer stewardship. Read More

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Pre-Columbian zoonotic enteric parasites: An insight into Puerto Rican indigenous culture diets and life styles.

PLoS One 2020 30;15(1):e0227810. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

The pre-Columbian Huecoid and Saladoid cultures were agricultural ethnic groups that supplemented their diets by fishing, hunting and scavenging. Archaeological deposits associated to these cultures contained a variety of faunal osseous remains that hinted at the cultures' diets. The present study identified zoonotic parasites that may have infected these two cultures as a result of their diets. Read More

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A multidisciplinary approach for investigating dietary and medicinal habits of the Medieval population of Santa Severa (7th-15th centuries, Rome, Italy).

PLoS One 2020 28;15(1):e0227433. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Centro di Antropologia Molecolare per lo Studio del DNA Antico, Department of Biology, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy.

A multidisciplinary approach, combining stable isotope analysis from bone proteins and investigations on dental calculus using DNA analysis, light microscopy, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, was applied to reconstruct dietary and medicinal habits of the individuals recovered in the cemetery of the Castle of Santa Severa (7th-15th centuries CE; Rome, Italy). Stable isotope analysis was performed on 120 humans, 41 faunal specimens and 8 charred seeds. Dental calculus analyses were carried out on 94 samples. Read More

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Preliminary observations on the Levantine Aurignacian sequence of Manot Cave: Cultural affiliations and regional perspectives.

J Hum Evol 2019 Dec 24:102705. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Archaeological Research Department, Israel Antiquities Authority, P.O. Box 586, Jerusalem, Israel.

A well-preserved sequence of Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) occupations has been revealed in the past decade in Manot Cave, the studies of which shed light on the cultural dynamics and subsistence patterns and paleoenvironment. Most intriguing is the series of overlying Levantine Aurignacian occupation layers, exposed near the entrance to the cave. Area E is considered the inner part of the main activity area in Manot Cave. Read More

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December 2019

Long-term effects of cultural filtering on megafauna species distributions across China.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 01 23;117(1):486-493. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Section for Ecoinformatics and Biodiversity, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark;

Human activities currently play a dominant role in shaping and eroding Earth's biodiversity, but the historical dynamics leading to this situation are poorly understood and contentious. Importantly, these dynamics are often studied and discussed without an emphasis on cultural evolution, despite its potential importance for past and present biodiversity dynamics. Here, we investigate whether cultural filtering, defined as the impact of cultural evolution on species presence, has driven the range dynamics of five historically widespread megafauna taxa (Asiatic elephant, rhinoceroses, tiger, Asiatic black bear, and brown bear) across China over the past 2 millennia. Read More

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January 2020

New findings on the significance of Jebel Moya in the eastern Sahel.

Azania 2019 Dec 27;54(4):425-444. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

This paper presents new excavation data and new radiometric dates for Jebel Moya, south-central Sudan. These data suggest revisions to previous chronological understandings of the site. New excavations, initiated in 2017, show a longer, more continuous occupation of the site than has been previously recognised. Read More

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December 2019