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Applications of behavioral science to biodiversity management in agricultural landscapes: conceptual mapping and a California case study.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 May 14;193(Suppl 1):270. Epub 2021 May 14.

Gund Institute for Environment, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA.

The plot-level decisions of land managers (i.e., farmers, ranchers, and forest owners) influence landscape-scale environmental outcomes for biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Read More

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Land use land cover change and the resilience of social-ecological systems in a sub-region in South west Cameroon.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 May 13;193(6):338. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Geography, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, University of Buea, P.O. BOX 63, Buea, Cameroon.

The old paradigm of horizontal expansion of agricultural land and built-up areas over highland and lowland ecosystems remains highly prevalent in Cameroon, causing significant changes in LULC and undermining the resilience and sustainability of social-ecological systems. We analysed satellite imagery of 1986 and 2018 to examine the extent and spatial patterns of LULCC in Fako sub-region of Cameroon. In addition, we explored the likelihood of LULCC and magnitude of impact of the drivers and predictors of LULCC in the sub-region by engaging 25 stakeholders in a focus group survey. Read More

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Evidence of Spread of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Mediated by Internal Transportation of Ornamental Plants in Brazil.

Neotrop Entomol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Dept of Plant Pathology, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Two Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) species, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED), are major pests that are dispersed throughout the world. While MEAM1 was introduced in Brazil in the 1990s, MED was reported recently with limited spread. Here, a survey was performed to examine whether MED whiteflies are widely present in the Federal District region, in central Brazil. Read More

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First record of Trichodina heterodentata (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) in banded knifefish Gymnotus carapo (Gymnotidae) cultured in Brazil.

Braz J Biol 2021 10;82:e240840. Epub 2021 May 10.

Universidade Federal de Jataí - UFJ, Programa de Pós-graduação em Biociência Animal, Unidade Acadêmica Especial de Ciências Agrárias, Jataí, GO, Brasil.

The aim of this study was to report the first record of Trichodina heterodentata in banded knifefish Gymnotus carapo. Banded knifefish cultivated in the municipality of Jataí, state of Goiás, in the central western region of Brazil, experienced fish mortality rates of 3-4% per tank. Macroscopic analysis found that fish had lesions on their skin and gills. Read More

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First Report of Pantoea ananatis causing leaf spot disease of maize in Ecuador.

Plant Dis 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Universidad UTE , Centro de Investigación de Alimentos, Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador;

Maize (Zea mays) is the second most cultivated grain crop in Ecuador, with growing significance as a source of fodder and food. During the rainy season (November and December) of 2018 and 2019, a disease of maize that was not previously observed in Ecuador was found at commercial fields of Misqui Sara variety, at four parishes of canton Quito (Tumbaco, Pifo, Puembo, and Checa), province of Pichincha. Infected plants, at tassel initiation, displayed symptoms of localized chlorotic streaks on leaves that expanded with time, and around a month later turned necrotic. Read More

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Machine Learning-Based Classification for Crop-Type Mapping Using the Fusion of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery in a Semiarid Area.

Scientifica (Cairo) 2021 20;2021:8810279. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Faculty of Science Semlalia, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakesh 40000, Morocco.

The monitoring of cultivated crops and the types of different land covers is a relevant environmental and economic issue for agricultural lands management and crop yield prediction. In this context, this paper aims to use and evaluate the contribution of multisensors classification based on machine learning classifiers to crop-type identification in a semiarid area of Morocco. It is a very heterogeneous zone characterized by mixed crops (tree crops with annual crops, same crop with different phenological states during the same agricultural season, crop rotation, etc. Read More

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Engineering post-translational regulation of glutamine synthetase for controllable ammonia production in the plant-symbiont .

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, Stanford University

Nitrogen requirements for modern agriculture far exceed the levels of bioavailable nitrogen in most arable soils. As a result, the addition of nitrogen fertilizer is necessary to sustain productivity and yields, especially for cereal crops, the planet's major calorie suppliers. Given the unsustainability of industrial fertilizer production and application, engineering biological nitrogen fixation directly at the roots of plants has been a grand challenge for biotechnology. Read More

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Plasmopara viticola causing downy mildew on Vitis davidii in Korea.

Plant Dis 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

College of Natural Sciences, Kunsan National University, Department of Biology, 558 Daehak-ro, Gunsan, Korea (the Republic of), 54150;

Vitis davidii (Rom.Caill.) Foëx, commonly known as spine grape, is a deciduous climber native to China. Read More

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Potential of a novel scaffold composed of human platelet lysate and fibrin for human corneal endothelial cells.

Cell Tissue Bank 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Ocular Tissue Engineering Research Center, Research Institute for Ophthalmology and Vision Science, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, No.23, Paidarfard Street, Boostan 9 Street, Pasdaran Avenue, 1666673111, Tehran, Iran.

Cell-based therapies have been emerged to find innovative solutions for corneal endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study is to investigate the suitability of a blended scaffold containing human platelet lysate (HPL) and fibrin not only for cultivating human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) but also for serving as a scaffold for the respected cells. We isolated HCECs from human donors and encapsulated the cells with three concentrations of HPL/Fibrin scaffold, namely HPL/Fibrin 1, HPL/Fibrin 2 and HPL/Fibrin 3, by adding 28. Read More

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In vitro susceptibility of human subtypes to simeprevir.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Apr 2;28(4):2491-2501. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Introduction And Aim: is a common enteric parasite, having a worldwide distribution. Many antimicrobial agents are effective against it, yet side effects and drug resistance have been reported. Thus, ongoing trials are being conducted for exploring anti- alternatives. Read More

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CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of DMR6 Orthologue in banana (Musa spp.) confers enhanced resistance to bacterial disease.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nairobi, Kenya.

Banana (Musa spp.) is an important staple food crop and a source of income for resource-poor farmers in more than 136 tropical and sub-tropical countries with an annual production of 155 million tons (FAOSTAT, 2018). Many diseases severely constrain banana production, particularly where many pathogens co-exist (Tripathi et al. Read More

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Genetic diversity, population structure, and relationships of apricot (Prunus) based on restriction site-associated DNA sequencing.

Hortic Res 2020 May 1;7(1):69. Epub 2020 May 1.

College of Horticulture and Forestry, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang, 830052, China.

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant form of genomic polymorphisms and are widely used in population genetics research. Here, high-throughput sequencing was used to examine the genome-level diversity, population structure, and relationships of apricot, which are important for germplasm conservation and molecular breeding. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was adopted to sequence 168 Prunus spp. Read More

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Exploring the evolutionary characteristics between cultivated tea and its wild relatives using complete chloroplast genomes.

BMC Ecol Evol 2021 Apr 30;21(1):71. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Hunan Research Center of Engineering Technology for Utilization of Environmental and Resources Plant, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, 410004, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Cultivated tea is one of the most important economic and ecological trees distributed worldwide. Cultivated tea suffer from long-term targeted selection of traits and overexploitation of habitats by human beings, which may have changed its genetic structure. The chloroplast is an organelle with a conserved cyclic genomic structure, and it can help us better understand the evolutionary relationship of Camellia plants. Read More

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Comparison of Phenolic and Flavonoid Compound Profiles and Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase Inhibition Properties of Cultivated Soybean () and Wild Soybean ().

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 20;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Tobacco Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao 266101, China.

Wild soybean ( Sieb.et WS) has been used as a traditional food in China for many years and contains significantly higher levels of isoflavones than cultivated soybean (; CS), but the secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and the phenolic composition differences between them, remain unclear. The results showed that WS possessed significantly higher total phenolic and flavonoid content and exhibited better antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activities as well as excellent protective effects against HO-induced oxidative injury in a human endothelial cell line. Read More

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Phenotypic Diversity and Productivity of Subspecies from Drought-Prone Environments in Mediterranean Type Climates.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 24;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

CRI-La Cruz, Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuaria, La Cruz 228000, Chile.

The phenotypic diversity and productivity of a diverse alfalfa ( subspp.) panel of cultivars, landraces and wild relatives with putative drought tolerance were evaluated in two Mediterranean environments (central Chile and Southern Australia). In Chile, 70 accessions were evaluated in rainfed conditions and in Australia 30 accessions under rainfed and irrigated conditions, during three growing seasons. Read More

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Custard Apple ( L.) Leaves: Nutritional Composition, Phytochemical Profile, and Health-Promoting Biological Activities.

Biomolecules 2021 Apr 21;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Christian-Albrecht's University, 24105 Kiel, Germany.

L. (custard apple) belongs to the family Annonaceae and is an important tropical fruit cultivated in the West Indies, South and Central America, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, India, Mexico, the Bahamas, Bermuda, and Egypt. Leaves of custard apple plants have been studied for their health benefits, which are attributed to a considerable diversity of phytochemicals. Read More

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An Improved Encoder-Decoder Network Based on Strip Pool Method Applied to Segmentation of Farmland Vacancy Field.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;23(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

College of Logistics and Transportation, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, Hunan, China.

In the research of green vegetation coverage in the field of remote sensing image segmentation, crop planting area is often obtained by semantic segmentation of images taken from high altitude. This method can be used to obtain the rate of cultivated land in a region (such as a country), but it does not reflect the real situation of a particular farmland. Therefore, this paper takes low-altitude images of farmland to build a dataset. Read More

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Tartary Buckwheat in Human Nutrition.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 5;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Nutrition Institute, Tržaška 40, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Tartary buckwheat ( Gaertn.) originates in mountain areas of western China, and it is mainly cultivated in China, Bhutan, northern India, Nepal, and central Europe. Tartary buckwheat shows greater cold resistance than common buckwheat, and has traits for drought tolerance. Read More

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Algerian Olive Germplasm and Its Relationships with the Central-Western Mediterranean Varieties Contributes to Clarify Cultivated Olive Diversification.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Council for Agricultural Research and Economics-Research Centre for Olive, Fruit and Citrus Crops, 87036 Rende, Italy.

Olive tree with its main final product, olive oil, is an important element of Mediterranean history, considered the emblematic fruit of a civilization. Despite its wide diffusion and economic and cultural importance, its evolutionary and phylogenetic history is still difficult to clarify. As part of the Mediterranean basin, Algeria was indicated as a secondary diversification center. Read More

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Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the plant specific LIM genes in Gossypium arboreum under phytohormone, salt and pathogen stress.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 28;11(1):9177. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Division of Crop Improvement, ICAR - Central Institute for Cotton Research (CICR), Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum) cultivated as 'desi cotton' in India, is renowned for its climate resilience and robustness against biotic and abiotic stresses. The genome of G. arboreum is therefore, considered as a valued reserve of information for discovering novel genes or gene functions for trait improvements in the present context of cotton cultivation world-wide. Read More

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Origin of agricultural plant pathogens: Diversity and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia fungi associated with native prairie grasses in the Sandhills of Nebraska.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(4):e0249335. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, United States of America.

The Sandhills of Nebraska is a complex ecosystem, covering 50,000 km2 in central and western Nebraska and predominantly of virgin grassland. Grasslands are the most widespread vegetation in the U.S. Read More

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Greenhouse gas emission from rice fields: a review from Indian context.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Central University of Jharkhand, Brambe, Ranchi, 835205, India.

Agricultural soil acts as a source and sink of important greenhouse gases (GHGs) like methane (CH), nitrous oxide (NO), and carbon dioxide (CO). Rice paddies have been a major concern to scientific community, because they produce the threatening and long-lasting GHGs mainly CH and NO. Around 30% and 11% of global agricultural CH and NO, respectively, emitted from rice fields. Read More

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Climatic conditions and farm practices affected the prevalence of Aspergillus section Flavi on different types of dairy goat's feed.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Jun 21;347:109205. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Laboratory of Food Safety and Food Integrity, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

The present work aimed to determine the prevalence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi on different types of dairy goat's feed samples obtained from four dairy goat's farms around the central region of Peninsular Malaysia, and to examine the effects of climatic conditions (temperature, relative humidity) of the dairy goat's farms, and their feeding and storage practices on the fungal prevalence of different types of dairy goat's feed. A total of 60 goat's feed samples were obtained, and their proximate composition and water activity were determined, following which they were cultivated on DRBC and AFPA for total fungal load and Aspergillus section Flavi load determination, respectively. Fungal isolates were identified morphologically, and toxigenicity potentials of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates were determined using CCA. Read More

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From Coping to Building Nurse Manager Resilience in Rural Workplaces in Western Canada.

J Nurs Manag 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

University of Manitoba, Helen Glass Centre for Nursing, College of Nursing, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, 89 Curry Place, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, R3T 2N2.

Aim: To investigate the role stressors, and how coping strategies cultivated nurse managers' resilience in rural workplaces.

Background: A stressful workplace can impair the mental and physical health of nurse managers leading to poor performance. Building and sustaining manager resilience in complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to attract and maintain competent and skilled managers. Read More

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Molecular phylogeny, pathogenic variability and phytohormone production of Fusarium species associated with bakanae disease of rice in temperate agro-ecosystems.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

SKUAST-Kashmir, Mountain Research Centre for Field Crops, Srinagar, J&K, India.

Bakanae is the emerging disease threating the rice cultivation globally. Yield reduction of 4-70% is recorded in different parts of the world. A total of 119 Fusarium isolates were collected from rice plants at different geographical locations and seeds of different rice cultivars. Read More

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Unusual host selection in larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) and its potential impact on stored almonds ().

Bull Entomol Res 2021 Apr 16:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Laboratorio de Entomología, Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de Zonas Áridas (IADIZA), CCT Mendoza CONICET, C.C. 507, 5500Mendoza, Argentina.

We present the first report of Amblycerus dispar (Sharp) attacking stored almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Read More

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Duohua huangjing (Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua) seedling basal rot caused by Fusarium redolens in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Chinese Herbal Medicines , NO.253,College Road, Enshi, HuBei, China, 445000;

Duohua huangjing (Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua) seedling basal stem rot caused by Fusarium redolens in China Tao Tang1, Fanfan Wang1, Jie Guo1, Xiaoliang Guo1, Yuanyuan Duan1,Jingmao You1* 1 Institute of Chinese Herbal Medicines, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Enshi, 445000, China. Duohua huangjing (Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua), a herbal medicine, that is mostly planted in several provinces in China. In April 2020, severe diseases with about 40% seedling losse was found in the Huangjing seedling base in Shiyan city, Hubei province. Read More

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Organic Carbon Linkage with Soil Colloidal Phosphorus at Regional and Field Scales: Insights from Size Fractionation of Fine Particles.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 05 15;55(9):5815-5825. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental and Resources Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Nano and colloidal particles (1-1000 nm) play important roles in phosphorus (P) migration and loss from agricultural soils; however, little is known about their relative distribution in arable crop soils under varying agricultural geolandscapes at the regional scale. Surface soils (0-20 cm depth) were collected from 15 agricultural fields, including two sites with different carbon input strategies, in Zhejiang Province, China, and water-dispersible nanocolloids (0.6-25 nm), fine colloids (25-160 nm), and medium colloids (160-500 nm) were separated and analyzed using the asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation technique. Read More

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