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Individuals With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease Benefit From Audiovisual Speech Cues and Supportive Sentence Context.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2021 Apr 16:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Psychology/Centre for Research in Human Development, Concordia University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Purpose Speech perception in noise becomes difficult with age but can be facilitated by audiovisual (AV) speech cues and sentence context in healthy older adults. However, individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) may present with deficits in AV integration, potentially limiting the extent to which they can benefit from AV cues. This study investigated the benefit of these cues in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), individuals with AD, and healthy older adult controls. Read More

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Sustained intrinsic WNT and BMP4 activation impairs hESC differentiation to definitive endoderm and drives the cells towards extra-embryonic mesoderm.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8242. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Research Group Reproduction and Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Laarbeeklaan 103, Jette, 1090, Brussels, Belgium.

We identified a human embryonic stem cell subline that fails to respond to the differentiation cues needed to obtain endoderm derivatives, differentiating instead into extra-embryonic mesoderm. RNA-sequencing analysis showed that the subline has hyperactivation of the WNT and BMP4 signalling. Modulation of these pathways with small molecules confirmed them as the cause of the differentiation impairment. Read More

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Smelling in the dark: phylogenomic insights into the chemosensory system of a subterranean beetle.

Mol Ecol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institute of Evolutionary Biology (CSIC - Universitat Pompeu Fabra), Passeig Marítim, 37-49. 08003, Barcelona, Spain.

The chemosensory system has experienced relevant changes in subterranean animals, facilitating the perception of specific chemical signals critical to survive in their particular environment. However, the genomic basis of chemoreception in cave-dwelling fauna is largely unexplored. We generated de novo transcriptomes for antennae and body samples of the troglobitic beetle Speonomus longicornis (whose characters suggest an extreme adaptation to a deep subterranean environment) in order to investigate the evolutionary origin and diversification of the chemosensory gene repertoire across coleopterans through a phylogenomic approach. Read More

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Barriers and Facilitators to Substance Use Disorder Treatment in Low-and Middle-Income Countries: A Qualitative Review Synthesis.

Subst Use Misuse 2021 Apr 14:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Psychiatry and National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, New Delhi, India.

Background And Aims: One of the ways to address the treatment gap for substance use disorders is to understand the barriers and facilitators to treatment. This study aimed to synthesize the literature on barriers and facilitators of treatment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs).

Methods: We search Medline electronic database to identify English language peer reviewed empirical studies, both qualitative and quantitative which reported barriers and/or facilitators of treatment of substance use disorders. Read More

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Interventions to change purchasing behaviour in supermarkets: A systematic review and intervention content analysis.

Health Psychol Rev 2021 Apr 13:1-184. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Public Health England.

Rates of overweight and obesity are increasing globally, presenting an ongoing public health challenge. A significant proportion of food consumed at home is purchased in supermarkets. This systematic review and intervention content analysis used behavioural science frameworks to characterise the content and function of interventions targeting supermarket shoppers' purchasing behaviour, and to explore if coherence between intervention content and function was linked to intervention effectiveness. Read More

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A complex of distal appendage-associated kinases linked to human disease regulates ciliary trafficking and stability.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710

Cilia biogenesis is a complex, multistep process involving the coordination of multiple cellular trafficking pathways. Despite the importance of ciliogenesis in mediating the cellular response to cues from the microenvironment, we have only a limited understanding of the regulation of cilium assembly. We previously identified Tau tubulin kinase 2 (TTBK2) as a key regulator of ciliogenesis. Read More

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Mutual functional dependence of cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) and cofilin1 in neuronal actin dynamics and growth cone function.

Prog Neurobiol 2021 Apr 10:102050. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Molecular Neurobiology Group, Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University of Marburg, 35032, Marburg, Germany; Center for Mind, Brain and Behavior (CMBB), University of Marburg and Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, 35032, Marburg, Germany; DFG Research Training Group, Membrane Plasticity in Tissue Development and Remodeling, GRK 2213, Philipps-University of Marburg, 35032, Marburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Neuron connectivity depends on growth cones that navigate axons through the developing brain. Growth cones protrude and retract actin-rich structures to sense guidance cues. These cues control local actin dynamics and steer growth cones towards attractants and away from repellents, thereby directing axon outgrowth. Read More

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Damage-Induced Calcium Signaling and Reactive Oxygen Species Mediate Macrophage Activation in Zebrafish.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:636585. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

LPHI, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, Montpellier, France.

Immediately after a wound, macrophages are activated and change their phenotypes in reaction to danger signals released from the damaged tissues. The cues that contribute to macrophage activation after wounding are still poorly understood. Calcium signaling and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), mainly hydrogen peroxide, are conserved early wound signals that emanate from the wound and guide neutrophils within tissues up to the wound. Read More

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Manuscript in preparation as a Report for Journal of Insect Physiology. The Nasonov gland pheromone as a potential source of death cue in Apis cerana.

J Insect Physiol 2021 Apr 8:104238. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650000, Yunnan China. Electronic address:

The ability to detect and remove dead adult bees is an essential part of honeybee colony fitness that prevents the spread of pathogens. Fatty acid olfactory cues stimulate undertaking behavior among different social species within Hymenoptera, but the chemicals responsible for the death cue in Apis cerana have not yet been identified. We explored the Nasonov gland as a potential source of these chemicals in A. Read More

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Myod1 and GR coordinate myofiber-specific transcriptional enhancers.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR7104, INSERM U1258, IGBMC, F-67400 Illkirch, France.

Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue the size of which can be remodeled through the concerted actions of various cues. Here, we investigated the skeletal muscle transcriptional program and identified key tissue-specific regulatory genetic elements. Our results show that Myod1 is bound to numerous skeletal muscle enhancers in collaboration with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to control gene expression. Read More

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Succession of Dung-Inhabiting Beetles and Flies Reflects the Succession of Dung-Emitted Volatile Compounds.

J Chem Ecol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Entomology, Branisovska 31, 370 05, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.

Chemical cues, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are often essential for insects to locate food. Relative to the volume of studies on the role of VOCs in insect-plant relationships, the role of VOCs emitted by dung and carrion in mediating the behavior of insect decomposers is understudied. Such relationships may provide a mechanistic understanding of the temporal axis of community assembly processes in decomposing insect communities. Read More

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COVID-19 Pandemic on Fire: Evolved Propensities for Nocturnal Activities as a Liability Against Epidemiological Control.

Front Psychol 2021 22;12:646711. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Humans have been using fire for hundreds of millennia, creating an ancestral expansion toward the nocturnal niche. The new adaptive challenges faced at night were recurrent enough to amplify existing psychological variation in our species. Night-time is dangerous and mysterious, so it selects for individuals with higher tendencies for paranoia, risk-taking, and sociability (because of security in numbers). Read More

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Subcellular Dissection of a Simple Neural Circuit: Functional Domains of the Mauthner-Cell During Habituation.

Front Neural Circuits 2021 22;15:648487. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

MTA-ELTE Motor Pharmacology Research Group, Budapest, Hungary.

Sensorimotor integration is a pivotal feature of the nervous system for ensuring a coordinated motor response to external stimuli. In essence, such neural circuits can optimize behavioral performance based on the saliency of environmental cues. In zebrafish, habituation of the acoustic startle response (ASR) is a simple behavior integrated into the startle command neurons, called the Mauthner cells. Read More

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Single-cell resolution of lineage trajectories in the Arabidopsis stomatal lineage and developing leaf.

Dev Cell 2021 Apr;56(7):1043-1055.e4

Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5020, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5020, USA. Electronic address:

Dynamic cell identities underlie flexible developmental programs. The stomatal lineage in the Arabidopsis leaf epidermis features asynchronous and indeterminate divisions that can be modulated by environmental cues. The products of the lineage, stomatal guard cells and pavement cells, regulate plant-atmosphere exchanges, and the epidermis as a whole influences overall leaf growth. Read More

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An extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma/anti-sigma factor system regulates hypochlorous acid resistance and impacts expression of the type IV secretion system in .

J Bacteriol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Key Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health of Ministry of Agriculture, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, 150069, China

The intracellular bacterial pathogen causes persistent infections in various mammalian species. To survive and replicate within macrophages, these bacteria must be able to withstand oxidative stresses and express the type IV secretion system (T4SS) to evade host immune responses. The extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor system is a major signal transduction mechanism in bacteria that senses environmental cues and responds by regulating gene expression. Read More

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Benefits and limitations of telegenetics: A literature review.

J Genet Couns 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of General Genetics, Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Telegenetics involves the use of technology (generally video conferencing) to remotely provide genetic services. A telegenetics platform is critical for those with limitations or vulnerabilities compromising their ability to attend clinic in-person, including individuals in rural areas. As the demand for remote genetics services increases, and amidst the COVID-19 pandemic with social distancing practices in place, we conducted a literature review to examine the benefits and limitations of telegenetics and explore the views of patients and health professionals utilizing telegenetics. Read More

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Biophysical and epigenetic regulation of cancer stemness, invasiveness and immune action.

Curr Tissue Microenviron Rep 2020 Dec 2;1(4):277-300. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The tumor microenvironment (TME) is an amalgam of multiple dysregulated biophysical cues that can alter cellular behavior through mechanotransductive signaling and epigenetic modifications. Through this review, we seek to characterize the extent of biophysical and epigenetic regulation of cancer stemness and tumor-associated immune cells in order to identify ideal targets for cancer therapy.

Recent Findings: Recent studies have identified cancer stemness and immune action as significant contributors to neoplastic disease, due to their susceptibility to microenvironmental influences. Read More

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December 2020

Forma mentis networks map how nursing and engineering students enhance their mindsets about innovation and health during professional growth.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2020 2;6:e255. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

i4Helse, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway.

Reconstructing a "forma mentis", a mindset, and its changes, means capturing how individuals perceive topics, trends and experiences over time. To this aim we use forma mentis networks (FMNs), which enable direct, microscopic access to how individuals conceptually perceive knowledge and sentiment around a topic, providing richer contextual information than machine learning. FMNs build cognitive representations of stances through psycholinguistic tools like conceptual associations from semantic memory (free associations, i. Read More

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Visual Search in 3D: Effects of Monoscopic and Stereoscopic Cues to Depth on the Validity of Feature Integration Theory and Perceptual Load Theory.

Front Psychol 2021 17;12:596511. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

School of Psychology, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Previous research has successfully used feature integration theory to operationalise the predictions of Perceptual Load Theory, while simultaneously testing the predictions of both models. Building on this work, we test the extent to which these models hold up in a 3D world. In two experiments, participants responded to a target stimulus within an array of shapes whose apparent depth was manipulated using a combination of monoscopic and stereoscopic cues. Read More

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Metamemory for pictures of naturalistic scenes: Assessment of accuracy and cue utilization.

Mem Cognit 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, University of Mannheim, A 5, 6, C 203, 68159, Mannheim, Germany.

Memory for naturalistic pictures is exceptionally good. However, little is known about people's ability to monitor the memorability of naturalistic pictures. We report the first systematic investigation into the accuracy and basis of metamemory in this domain. Read More

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Proteogenomic Characterization of the Cement and Adhesive Gland of the Pelagic Gooseneck Barnacle .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 25;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

CIIMAR-Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Rua General Norton de Matos s/n, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal.

We focus on the stalked goose barnacle adhesive system, an opportunistic less selective species for the substrate, found attached to a variety of floating objects at seas. Adhesion is an adaptative character in barnacles, ensuring adequate positioning in the habitat for feeding and reproduction. The protein composition of the cement multicomplex and adhesive gland was quantitatively studied using shotgun proteomic analysis. Read More

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The Role of Autophagy and lncRNAs in the Maintenance of Cancer Stem Cells.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 11;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Cellular and Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) possess properties such as self-renewal, resistance to apoptotic cues, quiescence, and DNA-damage repair capacity. Moreover, CSCs strongly influence the tumour microenvironment (TME) and may account for cancer progression, recurrence, and relapse. CSCs represent a distinct subpopulation in tumours and the detection, characterisation, and understanding of the regulatory landscape and cellular processes that govern their maintenance may pave the way to improving prognosis, selective targeted therapy, and therapy outcomes. Read More

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A Raf-like kinase is required for smoke-induced seed dormancy in .

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(14)

Division of Integrative Bioscience and Biotechnology, Sejong University, 05006 Seoul, Republic of Korea;

Plants sense and integrate diverse stimuli to determine the timing for germination. A smoke compound, 3,4,5-trimethylfuran-2()-one (trimethylbutenolide, TMB), has been identified to inhibit the seed germination of higher plants. To understand the mode of action, we examined various physiological and molecular aspects of the TMB-dependent inhibition of seed germination in The results indicated that the effect of TMB is due to the enhanced physiological dormancy, which is modulated by other dormancy regulatory cues such as after-ripening, stratification, and ABA/GA signaling. Read More

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Delineating proinflammatory microenvironmental signals by ex vivo modeling of the immature intestinal stroma.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 30;11(1):7200. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5000, Australia.

The intestinal stroma provides an important microenvironment for immune cell activation. The perturbation of this tightly regulated process can lead to excessive inflammation. We know that upregulated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the intestinal epithelium plays a key role in the inflammatory condition of preterm infants, such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Read More

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Use of NAD tagSeq II to identify growth phase-dependent alterations in RNA NAD capping.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(14)

Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, China;

Recent findings regarding nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-capped RNAs (NAD-RNAs) indicate that prokaryotes and eukaryotes employ noncanonical RNA capping to regulate gene expression. Two methods for transcriptome-wide analysis of NAD-RNAs, NAD captureSeq and NAD tagSeq, are based on copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click chemistry to label NAD-RNAs. However, copper ions can fragment/degrade RNA, interfering with the analyses. Read More

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Barriers and enablers to caregivers' responsive feeding behaviour: A systematic review to inform childhood obesity prevention.

Obes Rev 2021 Mar 29:e13228. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

School of Public Health, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork, Ireland.

Responsive infant feeding is a critical component of childhood obesity prevention. However, there is little guidance for caregivers on how to do this successfully. The first step to developing an intervention to promote responsive feeding is to systematically identify its barriers and enablers. Read More

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Comprehensive analysis of sucrolytic enzyme gene families in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

Phytochemistry 2021 May 27;185:112607. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Okayama University, Okayama, 700-8530, Japan.

Sucrose plays crucial roles in growth and responses of plants to the environment, including those in ornamental species. During post-harvest handling of cut flowers, sucrose degradation is an essential process of inter- and intra-cellular carbon partitioning affecting flower opening and senescence and, subsequently, flower quality. However, complete information about the molecular basis of sucrose degradation in ornamental flowers, which can be catalyzed by two kinds of sucrolytic enzymes, invertase (INV), and sucrose synthase (SUS), is not available from past reports. Read More

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Factors influencing patient participation in medication counseling at the community pharmacy: A systematic review.

Res Social Adm Pharm 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Social and Administrative Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 777 Highland Ave., Madison, WI, 53705, USA.

Background: Findings document that patient participation in pharmacy encounters is associated with favorable outcomes. However, there is a need to understand factors that may enhance or hinder patient engagement and pharmacist counseling behaviors during their medication discussions. This review aims to: (1) identify barriers and facilitators for patient engagement in pharmacy consultations, (2) explore the relationship between patient factors (such as demographics and communication behavior) and subsequent pharmacist counseling behavior. Read More

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The differential effects of vowel and onset consonant lengthening on speech segmentation: Evidence from Taiwanese Southern Min.

J Acoust Soc Am 2021 Mar;149(3):1866

Department of Linguistics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA.

A review of previous speech segmentation research suggests the prediction that listeners of Taiwanese Southern Min (TSM), a lexical tone language, would exploit vowel lengthening and syllable-onset consonant lengthening to locate word ends and beginnings, respectively. Yet, correlations between segment duration and tone identity in tone languages along with some TSM-specific phonological phenomena may work against such use. Two artificial language learning experiments examined TSM listeners' use of the lengthening cues. Read More

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Transcriptome Characterization and Expression Analysis of Chemosensory Genes in (Lepidoptera Crambidae), a Key Pest of Sugarcane.

Front Physiol 2021 5;12:636353. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Guangdong Engineering Research Center for Pesticide and Fertilizer, Institute of Bioengineering, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Insect chemoreception involves many families of genes, including odourant/pheromone binding proteins (), chemosensory proteins (), odourant receptors (), ionotropic receptors (), and sensory neuron membrane proteins (), which play irreplaceable roles in mediating insect behaviors such as host location, foraging, mating, oviposition, and avoidance of danger. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of olfactory reception in , which is a major pest of sugarcane. A set of 72 candidate chemosensory genes, including 31 , 15 , 11 , 13 , and two , were identified in four transcriptomes from different tissues and genders of . Read More

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