8,341 results match your criteria csf plasma


Immune cell profiling of COVID-19 patients in the recovery stage by single-cell sequencing.

Cell Discov 2020 May 4;6(1):31. Epub 2020 May 4.

National Center for Liver Cancer, Second Military Medical University, 200438, Shanghai, China.

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has recently affected over 1,200,000 people and killed more than 60,000. The key immune cell subsets change and their states during the course of COVID-19 remain unclear. We sought to comprehensively characterize the transcriptional changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during the recovery stage of COVID-19 by single-cell RNA sequencing technique. Read More

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A blood-based diagnostic test incorporating plasma Aβ42/40 ratio, ApoE proteotype, and age accurately identifies brain amyloid status: findings from a multi cohort validity analysis.

Mol Neurodegener 2021 May 1;16(1):30. Epub 2021 May 1.

C2N Diagnostics, 20 S Sarah Street, St. Louis, MO, 63108, USA.

Background: The development of blood-based biomarker tests that are accurate and robust for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology have the potential to aid clinical diagnosis and facilitate enrollment in AD drug trials. We developed a high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS)-based test that quantifies plasma Aβ42 and Aβ40 concentrations and identifies the ApoE proteotype. We evaluated robustness, clinical performance, and commercial viability of this MS biomarker assay for distinguishing brain amyloid status. Read More

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Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid inflammation and the blood-brain barrier in older surgical patients: the Role of Inflammation after Surgery for Elders (RISE) study.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Apr 30;18(1):103. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Our understanding of the relationship between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) remains limited, which poses an obstacle to the identification of blood-based markers of neuroinflammatory disorders. To better understand the relationship between peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) markers of inflammation before and after surgery, we aimed to examine whether surgery compromises the blood-brain barrier (BBB), evaluate postoperative changes in inflammatory markers, and assess the correlations between plasma and CSF levels of inflammation.

Methods: We examined the Role of Inflammation after Surgery for Elders (RISE) study of adults aged ≥ 65 who underwent elective hip or knee surgery under spinal anesthesia who had plasma and CSF samples collected at baseline and postoperative 1 month (PO1MO) (n = 29). Read More

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Application of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier integrity.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Apr 27;127:171-183. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

School for Mental Health and Neuroscience (MHeNs), Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, the Netherlands; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, P.O. Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht, the Netherlands; School for Cardiovascular Diseases (CARIM), Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, the Netherlands.

VERHEGGEN, I.C.M. Read More

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Liquid Biomarkers for Improved Diagnosis and Classification of CNS Tumors.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 27;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

MacFeeters-Hamilton Center for Neuro-Oncology Research, 4-305 Princess Margaret Cancer Research Tower, 101 College Street, Toronto, ON M5G 1L7, Canada.

Liquid biopsy, as a non-invasive technique for cancer diagnosis, has emerged as a major step forward in conquering tumors. Current practice in diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumors involves invasive acquisition of tumor biopsy upon detection of tumor on neuroimaging. Liquid biopsy enables non-invasive, rapid, precise and, in particular, real-time cancer detection, prognosis and treatment monitoring, especially for CNS tumors. Read More

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Profiling of Cerebrospinal Fluid Lipids and Their Relationship with Plasma Lipids in Healthy Humans.

Metabolites 2021 Apr 24;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Mental Disorder Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo 187-8502, Japan.

Lipidomics provides an overview of lipid profiles in biological systems. Although blood is commonly used for lipid profiling, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is more suitable for exploring lipid homeostasis in brain diseases. However, whether an individual's background affects the CSF lipid profile remains unclear, and the association between CSF and plasma lipid profiles in heathy individuals has not yet been defined. Read More

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Exosomal Aβ-Binding Proteins Identified by "In Silico" Analysis Represent Putative Blood-Derived Biomarker Candidates for Alzheimer´s Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 11;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Neurosciences and Signalling Group, Department of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedicine (iBiMED), University of Aveiro (UA), 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

The potential of exosomes as biomarker resources for diagnostics and even for therapeutics has intensified research in the field, including in the context of Alzheimer´s disease (AD). The search for disease biomarkers in peripheral biofluids is advancing mainly due to the easy access it offers. In the study presented here, emphasis was given to the bioinformatic identification of putative exosomal candidates for AD. Read More

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Immunomodulatory Activities of L. Leaf Juice in a Non-Lethal, Symptomatic Dengue Mouse Model.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 21;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, National Institute of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Shah Alam 40170, Malaysia.

The role of L. leaf juice in immune dysregulation caused by dengue virus infection remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory activities of the freeze-dried leaf juice (FCPLJ) on AG129 mice infected with a clinical DENV-2 (DMOF015) isolate. Read More

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ctDNA-Based Liquid Biopsy of Cerebrospinal Fluid in Brain Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 21;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology (VHIO), Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, 08035 Barcelona, Spain.

The correct characterisation of central nervous system (CNS) malignancies is crucial for accurate diagnosis and prognosis and also the identification of actionable genomic alterations that can guide the therapeutic strategy. Surgical biopsies are performed to characterise the tumour; however, these procedures are invasive and are not always feasible for all patients. Moreover, they only provide a static snapshot and can miss tumour heterogeneity. Read More

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Low Detection Rate of H3K27M Mutations in Cerebrospinal Fluid Obtained from Lumbar Puncture in Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Midline Gliomas.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Apr 9;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8585, Japan.

Recent studies have suggested the feasibility of detecting H3K27M mutations in the cerebrospinal fluid of diffuse midline glioma (DMG) patients. However, cerebrospinal fluid from patients in these studies were collected mainly during biopsy, ventriculo-peritoneal shunt procedures or postmortem. We assessed circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) extracted from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma in a series of 12 radiographically suspected and/or pathologically confirmed diffuse midline glioma patients and assessed for K27M mutation using digital droplet PCR. Read More

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Population Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modeling and Covariate Analyses of Neutropenia and Thrombocytopenia in Patients With Solid Tumors Treated With Lurbinectedin.

J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Pharma Mar, Colmenar Viejo, Madrid, 28770, Spain.

Lurbinectedin is a selective inhibitor of oncogenic transcription. Reversible myelosuppression is its most relevant toxicity. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses were conducted to characterize the time course of absolute neutrophil count and platelet count recovery and to detect and quantify the effect of relevant covariates in patients with advanced solid tumors treated with lurbinectedin. Read More

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Low-Level HIV RNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Neurocognitive Performance: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine Departments of Psychiatry bioMONTR Labs, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina Neurosciences Medicine, University of California, San Diego.

Background: Cognitive complications persist in persons with HIV (PWH) during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Low levels of HIV during ART could contribute to these complications. In this study, we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV using a single copy assay (SCA) to investigate a possible relationship between low level HIV and cognition. Read More

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Liquid PRF Reduces the Inflammatory Response and Osteoclastogenesis in Murine Macrophages.

Front Immunol 2021 9;12:636427. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Oral Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Macrophage activation and osteoclastogenesis are hallmarks of inflammatory osteolysis and may be targeted by the local application of liquid platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). Liquid PRF is produced by a hard spin of blood in the absence of clot activators and anticoagulants, thereby generating an upper platelet-poor plasma (PPP) layer, a cell-rich buffy coat layer (BC; termed concentrated-PRF or C-PRF), and the remaining red clot (RC) layer. Heating PPP has been shown to generate an albumin gel (Alb-gel) that when mixed back with C-PRF generates Alb-PRF having extended working properties when implanted . Read More

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Tau aggregation and increased neuroinflammation in athletes after sports-related concussions and in traumatic brain injury patients - A PET/MR study.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Apr 7;30:102665. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and repeated sports-related concussions (rSRCs) are associated with an increased risk for neurodegeneration. Autopsy findings of selected cohorts of long-term TBI survivors and rSRC athletes reveal increased tau aggregation and a persistent neuroinflammation. To assess in vivo tau aggregation and neuroinflammation in young adult TBI and rSRC cohorts, we evaluated 9 healthy controls (mean age 26 ± 5 years; 4 males, 5 females), 12 symptomatic athletes (26 ± 7 years; 6 males, 6 females) attaining ≥3 previous SRCs, and 6 moderate-to severe TBI patients (27 ± 7 years; 4 males, 2 females) in a combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) scanner ≥6 months post-injury. Read More

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Biallelic start loss variant, c.1A > G in GCSH is associated with variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia.

Clin Genet 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Medical Genetics, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India.

The glycine cleavage system H protein (GCSH) is an integral part of the glycine cleavage system with its additional involvement in the synthesis and transport of lipoic acid. We hypothesize that pathogenic variants in GCSH can cause variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH), a heterogeneous group of disorders with findings resembling a combination of severe NKH (elevated levels of glycine in plasma and CSF, progressive lethargy, seizures, severe hypotonia, no developmental progress, early death) and mitochondriopathies (lactic acidosis, leukoencephalopathy and Leigh-like lesions on MRI). We herein report three individuals from two unrelated Indian families with clinical, biochemical, and radiological findings of variant NKH, harboring a biallelic start loss variant, c. Read More

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Diagnostic and prognostic value of plasma neurofilament light and total-tau in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 Apr 21;13(1):86. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Neurology, National Reference Center for TSE Surveillance, University Medical Center, Robert-Koch Street 40, Göttingen, Germany.

Background: Blood neurofilament light (Nfl) and total-tau (t-tau) have been described to be increased in several neurological conditions, including prion diseases and other neurodegenerative dementias. Here, we aim to determine the accuracy of plasma Nfl and t-tau in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementias and their potential value as prognostic markers of disease severity.

Methods: Plasma Nfl and t-tau were measured in healthy controls (HC, n = 70), non-neurodegenerative neurological disease with (NND-Dem, n = 17) and without dementia syndrome (NND, n = 26), Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 44), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, n = 83), dementia with Lewy bodies/Parkinson's disease with dementia (DLB/PDD, n = 35), frontotemporal dementia (FTD, n = 12), and vascular dementia (VaD, n = 22). Read More

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TREM2 expression in the brain and biological fluids in prion diseases.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Network Center for Biomedical Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED), L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain.

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is an innate immune cell surface receptor that regulates microglial function and is involved in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases. Its soluble form (sTREM2) results from shedding of the TREM2 ectodomain. The role of TREM2 in prion diseases, a group of rapidly progressive dementias remains to be elucidated. Read More

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Small noncoding RNA profiling across cellular and biofluid compartments and their implications for multiple sclerosis immunopathology.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(17)

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden;

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) and, in particular, microRNAs (miRNAs) have frequently been associated with MS. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of all classes of sncRNAs in matching samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cells, and cell-free CSF from relapsing-remitting (RRMS, = 12 in relapse and = 11 in remission) patients, secondary progressive (SPMS, = 6) MS patients, and noninflammatory and inflammatory neurological disease controls (NINDC, = 11; INDC, = 5). Read More

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Invasive cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in a Chinese boy with CARD9 deficiency showing unique radiological features, managed with surgical excision and antifungal treatment.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong; Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Hong Kong Children's Hospital, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

We report this rare case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in a previously healthy Chinese boy who was found to have Caspase Recruitment Domain Family Member 9 (CARD9) deficiency. Initial radiological features suggested a neoplastic cerebral lesion, histopathological examination supplemented by internal transcribed sequencing (ITS) of cerebral tissue confirmed the diagnosis of phaeohyphomycosis. He was treated with intravenous (IV) amphotericin B and voriconazole, guided by plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level monitoring at drug initiation. Read More

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IV and oral fosfomycin pharmacokinetics in neonates with suspected clinical sepsis.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Fosfomycin has the potential to be re-purposed as part of a combination therapy to treat neonatal sepsis where resistance to current standard of care (SOC) is common. Limited data exist on neonatal fosfomycin pharmacokinetics and estimates of bioavailability and CSF/plasma ratio in this vulnerable population are lacking.

Objectives: To generate data informing the appropriate dosing of IV and oral fosfomycin in neonates using a population pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma and CSF data. Read More

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Cytokine Profiling in Plasma from Patients with Brain Tumors Versus Healthy Individuals using 2 Different Multiplex Immunoassay Platforms.

Biomark Insights 2021 30;16:11772719211006666. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

The Andrew M. and Jane M. Bursky Center for Human Immunology and Immunotherapy Programs, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

We compared the performance of two 96-well multiplex immunoassay platforms in assessing plasma cytokine concentrations in patients with glioblastoma (GBM; n = 27), individuals with melanoma, breast or lung cancer metastases to the brain (n = 17), and healthy volunteers (n = 11). Assays included a bead-based fluorescence MILLIPLEX assay/Luminex (LMX) platform and 4 planar electrochemiluminescence kits from Meso Scale Discovery (MSD). The LMX kit evaluated 21 cytokines and the 3 MSD kits evaluated 20 cytokines in total, with 19 overlapping human cytokines between platforms (GM-CSF, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-23, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-3α, TNFα). Read More

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Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone Reduces Circulating Markers of Immune Activation in Parallel with Effects on Hepatic Immune Pathways in Individuals with HIV-Infection and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Metabolism Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Harvard Medical School (HMS), Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis modulates critical metabolic pathways; however, little is known regarding effects of augmenting pulsatile GH secretion on immune function in humans. This study used proteomics and gene set enrichment analysis to assess effects of a GH releasing hormone (GHRH) analog, tesamorelin, on circulating immune markers and liver tissue in people with HIV (PWH) and NAFLD.

Methods: 92 biomarkers associated with immunity, chemotaxis, and metabolism were measured in plasma samples from 61 PWH with NAFLD who participated in a double-blind, randomized trial of tesamorelin versus placebo for 12 months. Read More

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Quantification of Complement Proteins with Special Reference to C1q: Multiplex Versus ELISA Versus Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis Versus Nephelometry.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2227:33-41

Centre of Biomaterials Chemistry, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.

Accurate determination of complement component C1q is hampered by the fact that C1q is an immune complex binding protein. Consequently, immunochemical techniques which rely on immune complex formation in fluid phase such as nephelometry and turbidimetry tend to give results which differ from those obtained by, for example, ELISA and other solid phase-based assays. In this chapter, we discuss the pros and cons of different techniques for the quantification of C1q and present a comprehensive protocol for a newly developed magnetic bead-based sandwich immunoassay which has replaced nephelometry in our complement diagnostic laboratory at the University Hospital in Uppsala. Read More

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January 2021

IgG intrathecal synthesis in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) according to the HIV-1 subtypes and pattern of HIV RNA in CNS and plasma compartments.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 Jun 8;355:577542. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

We hypothesized that humoral immunity stimulation in the CNS in HIV-1C patients would be lower than that in HIV-1B due to a defective Tat chemokine dimotif (C30C31) that might influence cellular trafficking and CNS inflammation. Sixty-eight paired CSF and blood samples from people with HIV (PWH), free of CNS opportunistic infections, were included, HIV-1B (n = 27), HIV-1C (n = 26), and HIV negative (n = 25). IgG intrathecal synthesis was assayed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Read More

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The Innate Immune Response Characterizes Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome.

J Clin Immunol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Neurology with Institute of Translational Neurology, University of Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, D-48149, Münster, Germany.

While posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is often characterized by an inflammatory cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) profile, knowledge of immune cell patterns in PRES is lacking. Thus, we retrospectively characterized CSF and peripheral blood (PB) from 15 PRES patients, which we analyzed by multidimensional flow cytometry (FC). Results were compared to 72 controls, as well as to 9 patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML, as a relevant differential diagnosis) and 15 multiple sclerosis patients (MS, as a classical neuroinflammatory disorder), respectively. Read More

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Evaluation of SAMP8 Mice as a Model for Sleep-Wake and Rhythm Disturbances Associated with Alzheimer's Disease: Impact of Treatment with the Dual Orexin (Hypocretin) Receptor Antagonist Lemborexant.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Eisai Inc., Woodcliff Lake, NJ, USA.

Background: Many patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) display circadian rhythm and sleep-wake disturbances. However, few mouse AD models exhibit these disturbances. Lemborexant, a dual orexin receptor antagonist, is under development for treating circadian rhythm disorders in dementia. Read More

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Quantification of 4-Methylimidazol in NMRI Mice Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) by Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

Iran J Pharm Res 2020 ;19(4):143-150

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

A sensitive method using ion-pair extraction was developed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for measurement of 4-methylimidazole (4-MI) in NMRI mice plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Detection was done by electrospray positive ionization mass spectrometry in the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The validation method was applied to quantification of 4-MI in plasma and CSF samples using oral doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg in NMRI mice. Read More

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January 2020

Gintonin facilitates brain delivery of donepezil, a therapeutic drug for Alzheimer disease, through lysophosphatidic acid 1/3 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors.

J Ginseng Res 2021 Mar 16;45(2):264-272. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Ginsentology Research Laboratory and Department of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029, South Korea.

Background: Gintonin is a ginseng-derived exogenous G-protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand, which exhibits and functions against Alzheimer disease (AD) through lysophosphatidic acid 1/3 receptors. A recent study demonstrated that systemic treatment with gintonin enhances paracellular permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) through the LPA1/3 receptor. However, little is known about whether gintonin can enhance brain delivery of donepezil (DPZ) (Aricept), which is a representative cognition-improving drug used in AD clinics. Read More

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Effect of cerebrospinal fluid pressure elevation on spinal cord perfusion during aortic cross-clamping with distal aortic perfusion.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

University Department for Cardiac Surgery, Leipzig Heart Center, Leipzig, Germany.

Objectives: Distal aortic perfusion (DaP) is a widely accepted protective adjunct facilitating early reinstitution of visceral perfusion during extended thoracic and thoraco-abdominal aortic repair. DaP has also been suggested to secure distal inflow to the paraspinal collateral network via the hypogastric arteries and thereby reduce the risk of spinal cord ischaemia. However, an increase in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure is frequently observed during thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Read More

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Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor mRNA and Neuroprotective Immunity in Parkinson's disease.

Biomaterials 2021 May 31;272:120786. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, Center for Neurodegenerative Disorders, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198, USA. Electronic address:

Restoring numbers and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a novel therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative disorders. Whether Treg function is boosted by adoptive cell transfer, pharmaceuticals, or immune modulators, the final result is a robust anti-inflammatory and neuronal sparing response. Herein, a newly developed lipid nanoparticle (LNP) containing mRNA encoding granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (Gm-csf mRNA) was developed to peripherally induce Tregs and used for treatment in preclinical Parkinson's disease (PD) models. Read More

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