496 results match your criteria cryptococcosis active


Dermoscopic Features of Giant Molluscum Contagiosum in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2020 Dec;28(7):233-235

Martyna Sławińska MD, PhD, Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology Medical University of Gdańsk, Smoluchowskiego 17 Street, 80-214 Gdańsk;

Giant molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a peculiar variant of the disease with the presence of multiple or single lesions larger than 5 mm. In contrast to typical molluscum contagiosum, dermoscopic features of giant lesions have been poorly described, and none of the reports included multiple giant lesions in an immunocompromised patient. We present a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosed with multiple giant molluscum contagiosum along with the dermoscopic features of this entity. Read More

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December 2020

Epidemiological, clinical and biological profile of neuromeningeal cryptococcosis among people living with HIV in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Pan Afr Med J 2020 2;37:302. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Service of Molecular Biology, Department of Clinical Microbiology, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium.

Neuromeningeal cryptococcosis (NMC) is one of the most frequent opportunistic infections (OI) in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. In Kinshasa, the latest data on cryptococcosis were published in 1996. The objective was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and biological profiles of NMC in HIV-infected people living in Kinshasa. Read More

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Thoracic Endemic Fungi in the United States: Importance of Patient Location.

Radiographics 2021 Mar-Apr;41(2):380-398. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

From the Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia, 1 Hospital Dr, Columbia, MO 65212 (J.R.K., A.H.); Department of Radiology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif (L.F.B.); Departments of Diagnostic Radiology (C.F.) and Pathology (D.S.), Oregon Health Sciences & University, Portland, Ore; and Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kan (C.M.W.).

The digitization of radiographic studies along with high-speed transmission of images has formed the basis of teleradiology, which has become an integral component in the workflow of a contemporary radiology practice. It is with this advent and growing utilization of teleradiology that the significance of the source location of images has gained importance. Specifically, the importance of where the patient resides and what endemic fungi occur in that location cannot be underestimated. Read More

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February 2021

Small-molecule inhibitors for the Prp8 intein as antifungal agents.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jan;118(2)

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12208;

Self-splicing proteins, called inteins, are present in many human pathogens, including the emerging fungal threats () and (), the causative agents of cryptococcosis. Inhibition of protein splicing in sp. interferes with activity of the only intein-containing protein, Prp8, an essential intron splicing factor. Read More

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January 2021

Opportunistic Invasive Fungal Infections Mimicking Progression of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Clin Lung Cancer 2021 Mar 13;22(2):e193-e200. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Electronic address:

Background: Many studies have shown that invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, and mucormycosis can mimic radiographic and clinical features of primary lung cancer. However, more research surveying the incidence and outcomes of these fungal infections among patients with a history of lung cancer is needed. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence and clinical outcomes of opportunistic invasive fungal infections that can mimic tumors in non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Read More

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Tuberculosis preventive therapy (TPT) to prevent tuberculosis co-infection among adults with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: A clinician's perspective.

J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis 2020 Aug 13;20:100180. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

As part of the END TB strategy, the World Health organization (WHO) recommends provision of tuberculosis preventive therapy (TPT) to all people at high risk of developing active TB disease. Patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis are severely immunocompromised and therefore should be eligible for TPT. In this commentary we discuss the challenges associated with starting tuberculosis preventive therapy in patients with HIV associated cryptococcal meningitis in a clinical setting, we highlight the benefit, existing gaps and research opportunities of tuberculosis preventive therapy in this patient population. Read More

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Retrospective Hospital-based Study of Opportunistic Neuroinfections in HIV/AIDS.

Neurol India 2020 Jul-Aug;68(4):875-879

Department of Neurology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, Nehrunagar, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.

Background: Patients with retroviral disease are prone to opportunistic infections (OIs) of the central nervous system which cause significant mortality and morbidity. Cryptococcosis, tuberculosis, and toxoplasma are the most commonneuroinfections occurring at all stages of the disease.

Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical pattern of OIs and in-hospital mortality in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Read More

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Molecular Epidemiology Reveals Low Genetic Diversity among Isolates from People Living with HIV in Lima, Peru, during the Pre-HAART Era.

Pathogens 2020 Aug 18;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Molecular Mycology Research Laboratory, Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Westmead Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, The University of Sydney, Research and Education Network-Westmead Hospital, Westmead Institute for Medical Research, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia.

Cryptococcosis, a mycosis presenting mostly as meningoencephalitis, affecting predominantly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people, is mainly caused by . The genetic variation of 48 isolates, recovered from 20 HIV-positive people in Lima, Peru, during the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, was studied retrospectively. The mating type of the isolates was determined by PCR, and the serotype by agglutination and -restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Read More

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Acute paraparesis in HIV-infected patient after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

J Neurovirol 2020 10 15;26(5):793-796. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of General Medicine, Government Medical College Hospital, Level 4 D Block, Sector 32, Chandigarh, 160030, India.

Neurological syndromes occur in around 40-70% of HIV-infected people. Direct central nervous system involvement by the virus usually manifests as HIV encephalitis, HIV leucoencephalopathy, vacuolar leucoencephalopathy or vacuolar myelopathy. Indirect involvement is usually associated with neurotropic opportunistic infections which include tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis and viral encephalitis such as herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, cytomegalovirus and Human polyomavirus 2. Read More

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October 2020

First case of minimal change nephrotic syndrome resolving with antifungal therapy for isolated pleural cryptococcal infection.

IDCases 2020 21;21:e00838. Epub 2020 May 21.

Division of Nephrology, University of Florida, College of Medicine, United States.

We report the case of a 71-year-old male with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus who presented with lower extremity edema and acute renal failure. He was diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome secondary to minimal change disease (MCD). Treatment with steroids was withheld due to concern for hyperglycemia in the context of his poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Read More

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An unusual case of tropical pyomyositis: cryptococcal pyomyositis.

Trop Doct 2020 Jul 2;50(3):263-266. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Clinical Pharmacist, Department of Infectious Diseases, Apollo Hospitals, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

The more common manifestations of cryptococcal infections are restricted to the central nervous system and lungs. A young man, suffering from idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 20%, presented with subacute, painful tender swelling in both legs initially attributed to congestive cardiac failure. No response to diuretics was achieved. Read More

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Diagnostic and management considerations in the modern patient with AIDS: a case of concurrent disseminated Kaposi sarcoma and colesional .

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Apr 14;13(4). Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), disseminated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has become much rarer in the USA. We report a case of a 34-year-old man with KS of the skin, oropharynx, lung and rectum. Within the same lung nodule, we discovered significant burden of colesional in the context of a positive asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia, which was a previously unreported occurrence. Read More

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Incorporation of 2-amino-thiophene derivative in nanoparticles: enhancement of antifungal activity.

Braz J Microbiol 2020 Jun 5;51(2):647-655. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Laboratory of Medical Mycology, Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nanoparticles (nanospheres and nanocapsules) of the promising antifungal 2-amino-thiophene (6CN10) and 6CN10 complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (6CN10:HP-β-CD) in vitro and compared with free drug against Candida and Cryptococcus, using a microdilution method to measure susceptibility. The Candida and Cryptococcus clinical strains were identified using phenotypic methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF). To measure in vitro antifungal susceptibility, we used microdilution trials. Read More

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Antifungal Susceptibility of Clinical Isolates and Artificially Produced Multi-azole-resistant Strains of Cryptococcus neoformans (formerly: Cryptococcus grubii) to Ravuconazole.

Med Mycol J 2020 ;61(1):11-13

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Nihon University College of Bioresouce Sciences.

Ravuconazole (RVCZ) is a newly available human azole drug in Japan since 2018 and is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent that exhibits excellent activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans (formerly: Cryptococcus grubii). The drug is also highly active against isolates that are resistant to fluconazole (FLCZ). In the present study, the in vitro susceptibility to ravuconazole (RVCZ) of Japanese clinical isolates and multi-azole-resistant strains of C. Read More

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Cryptococcosis.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020 02 30;41(1):69-79. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Medicine, Birmingham VA Medical Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Cryptococcosis has become an important infection in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Although is mainly recognized by its ability to cause meningoencephalitis, it can infect almost any organ of the human body, with pulmonary infection being the second most common disease manifestation. In cases of meningitis, symptom onset may be insidious, but headaches, fevers, or mental status changes should warrant diagnostic testing. Read More

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February 2020

Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3--benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl--benzoquinone.

Nat Prod Res 2020 Jan 30:1-9. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

National Centre for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, Mississippi, USA.

In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3--benzyl-carvotacetone ( and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl--benzoquinone () were synthesized from piperitone (). In this work, we describe the synthesis of and other analogues from . Luche reduction of to -piperitol (, followed by benzylation yielded 3--benzyl-piperitol (). Read More

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January 2020

Case Report: Fingolimod and Cryptococcosis: Collision of Immunomodulation with Infectious Disease.

Int J MS Care 2019 Nov-Dec;21(6):275-280

The use of immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive therapies in multiple sclerosis (MS) has allowed practitioners to regulate MS disease activity, with the caveat that these potent medications may render patients susceptible to opportunistic infections. The approval of fingolimod presented the first oral option for relapsing MS. Since 2015, postmarketing safety data have documented several published cases of cryptococcal meningitis and disseminated cryptococcosis associated with fingolimod use. Read More

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January 2020

Subtle Cryptococcal Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome.

Authors:
Ranjan K Singh

Cureus 2019 Nov 12;11(11):e6138. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Internal Medicine, Anti-Retroviral Therapy Centre, District Hospital, Khagaria, IND.

Patients with HIV and opportunistic infections (OIs), such as tuberculosis and cryptococcosis, have been recognised to have immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) following initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The initiation of HAART boosts CD4 T cells, which result in exacerbations of OIs. We have identified deterioration of neural lesion in imaging after the initiation of HAART in a patient with HIV/cryptococcal infection, although patient's clinical conditions have not deteriorated. Read More

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November 2019

Pathways to care and outcomes among hospitalised HIV-seropositive persons with cryptococcal meningitis in South Africa.

PLoS One 2019 12;14(12):e0225742. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Centre for Healthcare-Associated Infections, Antimicrobial Resistance and Mycoses, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, a division of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Introduction: Cryptococcus causes 15% of AIDS-related deaths and in South Africa, with its high HIV burden, is the dominant cause of adult meningitis. Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) mortality is high, partly because patients enter care with advanced HIV disease and because of failure of integrated care following CM diagnosis. We evaluated pathways to hospital care, missed opportunities for HIV testing and initiation of care. Read More

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Harnessing the Activity of the Fungal Metalloprotease, Mpr1, To Promote Crossing of Nanocarriers through the Blood-Brain Barrier.

ACS Infect Dis 2020 01 18;6(1):138-149. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine , University of California , 3503 Genome and Biomedical Sciences Facility, 451 Health Sciences Drive , Davis , California 95616 , United States.

(Cn) is the leading cause of fungal meningitis primarily in immunosuppressed patients. Cn invades the central nervous system by overcoming the highly restricted blood-brain barrier (BBB). We previously determined that a secreted fungal metalloprotease, Mpr1, that also confers crossing ability to yeast upon Cn expression in is central to this process. Read More

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January 2020

A Highly Active Triterpene Derivative Capable |of Biofilm Damage to Control spp.

Biomolecules 2019 12 5;9(12). Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Centro de Biotecnologia, PPGBCM, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul 91501-970, Brazil.

is an encapsulated yeast responsible for more than 180,000 deaths per year. The standard therapeutic approach against cryptococcosis is a combination of amphotericin B with flucytosine. In countries where cryptococcosis is most prevalent, 5-fluorocytosine is rarely available, and amphotericin B requires intravenous administration. Read More

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December 2019

New Insights Into Cryptococcus Spp. Biology and Cryptococcal Meningitis.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2019 10 31;19(10):81. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Molecular Mycology Unit, UMR2000, CNRS, Institut Pasteur, 25 - 28 Rue du Dr Roux, 75015, Paris, France.

Purpose Of Review: Defective cell-mediated immunity is a major risk factor for cryptococcosis, a fatal disease if untreated. Cryptococcal meningitis (CM), the main presentation of disseminated disease, occurs through hematogenous spread to the brain from primary pulmonary foci, facilitated by yeast virulence factors. We revisit remarkable recent improvements in the prevention, diagnosis and management of CM. Read More

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October 2019

Lower Mortality Rates from Cryptococcosis in Women and Whites with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the United States.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2020 02 29;7(1):117-120. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, 3701 Kirby Drive, Suite 600, Houston, TX, 77098, USA.

Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic mycotic infection often found in pigeon droppings and other bird excrement. This serious disease is often fatal and, not unexpectedly, far more common in patients with immune deficiency, including those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It has been hypothesized that women with cryptococcosis and HIV have a more favorable mortality experience than men. Read More

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February 2020

Interactions between immune response to fungal infection and microRNAs: The pioneer tuners.

Mycoses 2020 Jan 19;63(1):4-20. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Department of Medical Mycology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Due to their physiological and biological characteristics, numerous fungi are potentially emerging pathogens. Active dynamicity of fungal pathogens causes life-threatening infections annually impose high costs to the health systems. Although immune responses play crucial roles in controlling the fate of fungal infections, immunocompromised patients are at high risk with high mortality. Read More

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January 2020

Structural analysis of fungal pathogenicity-related casein kinase α subunit, Cka1, in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.

Sci Rep 2019 10 7;9(1):14398. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Department of Systems Biology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

CK2α is a constitutively active and highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase that is involved in the regulation of key cellular metabolic pathways and associated with a variety of tumours and cancers. The most well-known CK2α inhibitor is the human clinical trial candidate CX-4945, which has recently shown to exhibit not only anti-cancer, but also anti-fungal properties. This prompted us to work on the CK2α orthologue, Cka1, from the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, which causes life-threatening systemic cryptococcosis and meningoencephalitis mainly in immunocompromised individuals. Read More

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October 2019

Recent progress in the strategic incorporation of fluorine into medicinally active compounds.

J Fluor Chem 2019 Jan 3;217:29-40. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University-State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-3400, U. S. A.

This account exemplifies our recent progress on the strategic incorporation of fluorine and organofluorine groups to (i) taxoid anticancer agents, (ii) acylhydrazone-based antifungal agents and (iii) inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) for medicinal chemistry and chemical biology studies. In the case study (i), a series of next-generation fluorotaxoids, bearing -OCF or -OCFH group in the C2-benzoate moiety was designed, synthesized and examined for their potencies. A number of these fluorotaxoids possess two orders of magnitude greater potency in different drug-resistant cancer cell lines as compared to paclitaxel. Read More

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January 2019

Pulmonary nodules: An unusual onset of HIV infection belatedly diagnosed.

Rev Iberoam Micol 2019 Jul - Sep;36(3):151-154. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; Departamento de Ciencias Clínicas, Área de Microbiología, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.

Background: Cryptococcosis is a generally systemic and potentially lethal fungal infection. Although HIV infection is a predisposing condition, especially if the CD lymphocyte count is less than 100cells/mm, other forms of immunosuppression may be associated with this opportunistic fungal condition, such as prolonged steroid therapy or solid organ transplantation. Pulmonary presentation must be included in the differential diagnosis of pneumonia or pulmonary neoplasia in the immunosuppressed patient. Read More

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Two cases of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV patients treated with thalidomide.

Int J STD AIDS 2019 10 19;30(11):1131-1135. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

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October 2019

Intranasal Inoculation of Cryptococcus neoformans in Mice Produces Nasal Infection with Rapid Brain Dissemination.

mSphere 2019 08 7;4(4). Epub 2019 Aug 7.

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

is an important fungal pathogen, causing life-threatening pneumonia and meningoencephalitis. Brain dissemination of is thought to be a consequence of an active infection in the lung which then extravasates to other sites. Brain invasion results from dissemination via either transport by free yeast cells in the bloodstream or Trojan horse transport within mononuclear phagocytes. Read More

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