7,457 results match your criteria crucial issue


Digitally supported public health interventions through the lens of structural injustice: The case of mobile apps responding to violence against women and girls.

Bioethics 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Institute of Ethics, History and Theory of Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Munich, Germany.

Mobile applications (apps) have gained significant popularity as a new intervention strategy responding to violence against women and girls. Despite their growing relevance, an assessment from the perspective of public health ethics is still lacking. Here, we base our discussion on the understanding of violence against women and girls as a multidimensional, global public health issue on structural, societal and individual levels and situate it within the theoretical framework of structural injustice, including epistemic injustice. Read More

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October 2021

Targeting MEF2D-fusion Oncogenic Transcriptional Circuitries in B-cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Blood Cancer Discov 2020 Jul 10;1(1):82-95. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Pathophysiological Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan.

The cellular context that integrates gene expression, signaling, and metabolism dictates the oncogenic behavior and shapes the treatment responses in distinct cancer types. Although chimeric fusion proteins involving transcription factors (TF) are hallmarks of many types of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), therapeutically targeting the fusion proteins is a challenge. In this work, we characterize the core regulatory circuitry (CRC; interconnected autoregulatory loops of TFs) of B-ALL involving MEF2D-fusions and identify MEF2D-fusion and SREBF1 TFs as crucial CRC components. Read More

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Transfer of passive immunity in dairy calves: the effectiveness of providing a supplementary colostrum meal in addition to nursing from the dam.

Animal 2019 1;13(11):2621-2629. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell'Università 10, 35020 Legnaro, Padova, Italy.

Failed transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) in dairy calves - which is often due to the low amount of colostrum provided within a few hours after birth - remains a crucial issue. Enabling dairy calves to nurse colostrum from their dams could be useful in increasing intake and thus avoiding FTPI, but further potential effects on the health and welfare of both calves and dams should also be considered. In this study, 107 calf-dam pairs from two Italian dairy farms were alternately assigned to one of the following colostrum provision methods (CPMs): 'hand-fed method' (HFM) - the calf was separated from the dam immediately after birth and colostrum was provided by nipple-bottle (n = 50); 'nursing method' (NM) - the calf nursed colostrum from the dam for the first 12 h of life without farmer assistance (n = 30); and 'mixed method' (MM) - the nursing calf received a supplementary colostrum meal by nipple-bottle (n = 27). Read More

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December 2020

Detection of Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification using dried reagents.

J Virol Methods 2021 Oct 14:114336. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa City, Chiba, 277-8562, Japan.

Recently, the widespread occurrence of Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV), genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae, which causes a mosaic disease in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in South-East Asia have, become a serious economic issue. Since cassava is propagated through vegetative cuttings, a rapid virus diagnostic method is crucial for generating virus-free planting materials. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay using six primers was developed and validated for the rapid detection of SLCMV in cassava leaves. Read More

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October 2021

Introduction to the Special Issue "The Brain-Gut Axis".

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Georgetown University Medical Center, SE402 Med/Dent, 3900, Reservoir Road, Washington, DC, 20057, USA.

This special Issue presents comprehensive and state-of-the-art advances in supporting the crucial role of the bidirectional interactions between the Brain-Gut Axis in health and diseases with an emphasis on the microbiome-gut-brain axis and its implications in variety of neurological disorders. There are intimate connections between the brain and the digestive system. Gut microbiota dysbiosis activates the intestinal immune system, enhances intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation, leading to neuroinflammation, epigenetic changes, cerebrovascular alterations, amyloid β formation and α-synuclein protein aggregates. Read More

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October 2021

Uncertainty Learning for Noise Resistant Sketch-Based 3D Shape Retrieval.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 20;30:8632-8643. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Recently, sketch-based 3D shape retrieval has received growing attention in the community of computer graphics and computer vision. Most previous works focus on the problem of how to reduce the large cross-modality difference between 2D sketch and 3D shape data and make significant progress. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to another important problem of how to deal with noise in the sketch data. Read More

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October 2021

Proceedings from the CIH-LMU 2021 Symposium: "Global Health Perspectives: Climate Change & Migration".

BMC Proc 2021 Oct 12;15(Suppl 12):21. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Teaching & Training Unit, Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital, LMU, Munich, Germany.

Climate change shapes human migration through the interaction of environmental changes with political, social, economic, and demographic drivers of mobility. Low-and middle-income countries bear the brunt of the health impacts of climate change and migration, despite their overall low contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. The CIH Symposium 2021 aimed to explore the complex interconnections between climate change, migration and health from diverse global perspectives. Read More

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October 2021

Diagnostic and Treatment Fundamentals for Tardive Dyskinesia.

J Clin Psychiatry 2021 Oct 12;82(6). Epub 2021 Oct 12.

New York Medical College, Valhalla.

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) consists of involuntary movements of the tongue, lips, face, trunk, and extremities that occur in patients treated long-term with dopamine antagonist medications. TD can be associated with significant functional impairment and be socially stigmatizing. TD, once established, has proved to be often irreversible and remains a significant treatment issue. Read More

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October 2021

Determinants of smokeless tobacco use and prevalence among Sudanese adolescents.

Arch Public Health 2021 Oct 12;79(1):176. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Smokeless tobacco is a part of social and cultural life in Sudan. The affordability and availability of this kind of tobacco make it a fundamental issue in adolescents. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent of the use of smokeless tobacco in adolescents and its determinants. Read More

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October 2021

Identifying and Characterizing Conveyor Belt Longitudinal Rip by 3D Point Cloud Processing.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Oct 7;21(19). Epub 2021 Oct 7.

School of Mechatronic Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, China.

Real-time and accurate longitudinal rip detection of a conveyor belt is crucial for the safety and efficiency of an industrial haulage system. However, the existing longitudinal detection methods possess drawbacks, often resulting in false alarms caused by tiny scratches on the belt surface. A method of identifying the longitudinal rip through three-dimensional (3D) point cloud processing is proposed to solve this issue. Read More

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October 2021

Denial-of-Service Attack on IEC 61850-Based Substation Automation System: A Crucial Cyber Threat towards Smart Substation Pathways.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Sep 26;21(19). Epub 2021 Sep 26.

School of Electrical Engineering Computing and Mathematical Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA 1987, Australia.

The generation of the mix-based expansion of modern power grids has urged the utilization of digital infrastructures. The introduction of Substation Automation Systems (SAS), advanced networks and communication technologies have drastically increased the complexity of the power system, which could prone the entire power network to hackers. The exploitation of the cyber security vulnerabilities by an attacker may result in devastating consequences and can leave millions of people in severe power outage. Read More

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September 2021

Diabetes, Vascular Aging and Stroke: Old Dogs, New Tricks?

J Clin Med 2021 Oct 8;10(19). Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Diabetes Centre, Second Department of Internal Medicine, Democritus University of Thrace, 68132 Alexandroupolis, Greece.

Background: Stroke remains a leading cause of death and disability throughout the world. It is well established that Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for stroke, while other risk factors include dyslipidaemia and hypertension. Given that the global prevalence of diabetes steadily increases, the need for adequate glycaemic control and prevention of DM-related cardiovascular events remains a challenge for the medical community. Read More

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October 2021

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for the Discontinuation of Long-Term Benzodiazepine Use in Insomnia and Anxiety Disorders.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 28;18(19). Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Association Nationale de Promotion des Connaissances sur Le Sommeil, 69001 Lyon, France.

Benzodiazepines have proven to be highly effective for treating insomnia and anxiety. Although considered safe when taken for a short period of time, a major risk-benefit dilemma arises in the context of long-term use, relating to addiction, withdrawal symptoms, and potential side effects. For these reasons, benzodiazepines are not recommended for treating chronic sleep disorders, anxiety disorders, nor for people over the age of 65, and withdrawal among long-term users is a public health issue. Read More

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September 2021

The Legacy of the Idrija Mine Twenty-Five Years after Closing: Is Mercury in the Water Column of the Gulf of Trieste Still an Environmental Issue?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 28;18(19). Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Dipartimento di Matematica e Geoscienze, Università Degli Studi di Trieste, Via Weiss 2, 34128 Trieste, Italy.

Mercury (Hg) contamination in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) due to mining activity in Idrija (Slovenia) still represents an issue of environmental concern. The Isonzo/Soča River's freshwater inputs have been identified as the main source of Hg into the Gulf, especially following periods of medium-high discharge. This research aims to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of dissolved (DHg) and particulate (PHg) Hg along the water column in the northernmost sector of the Gulf, a shallow and sheltered embayment suitable for the accumulation of fine sediments. Read More

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September 2021

Abscopal Effect and Drug-Induced Xenogenization: A Strategic Alliance in Cancer Treatment?

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Oct 1;22(19). Epub 2021 Oct 1.

School of Medicine, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy.

The current state of cancer treatment is still far from being satisfactory considering the strong impairment of patients' quality of life and the high lethality of malignant diseases. Therefore, it is critical for innovative approaches to be tested in the near future. In view of the crucial role that is played by tumor immunity, the present review provides essential information on the immune-mediated effects potentially generated by the interplay between ionizing radiation and cytotoxic antitumor agents when interacting with target malignant cells. Read More

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October 2021

LitCovid-AGAC: cellular and molecular level annotation data set based on COVID-19.

Genomics Inform 2021 Sep 30;19(3):e23. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Hubei Key Lab of Agricultural Bioinformatics, College of Informatics, Huazhong Agricultural University, 430070 Wuhan, China.

Currently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) literature has been increasing dramatically, and the increased text amount make it possible to perform large scale text mining and knowledge discovery. Therefore, curation of these texts becomes a crucial issue for Bio-medical Natural Language Processing (BioNLP) community, so as to retrieve the important information about the mechanism of COVID-19. PubAnnotation is an aligned annotation system which provides an efficient platform for biological curators to upload their annotations or merge other external annotations. Read More

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September 2021

Novel methods to detect ROS in viable spermatozoa of native semen samples.

Reprod Toxicol 2021 Oct 9;106:51-60. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences "Mario Serio", University of Florence, Viale G. Pieraccini 6, Florence, Italy. Electronic address:

A crucial issue in male infertility work-up is to have reliable methods to detect oxidative stress in native semen samples. Here, we explored flow cytometric detection of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in viable spermatozoa using native semen samples. To this aim, we challenged three fluorescent probes: CM-H2DCFDA, CellROX Green and MitoSOX Red. Read More

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October 2021

Early Prediction of Acute Biliary Pancreatitis Using Clinical and Abdominal CT Features.

Radiology 2021 Oct 12:210607. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

From the Department of Radiology (T.Z., P.C., S.A., E.D.), EA 4662 Nanomedicine Laboratory, Imagery and Therapeutics (P.C., S.A., E.D.), and Department of Gastroenterology (S.K., L.V.), University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, CHRU Besançon, 3 boulevard Alexandre Fleming, 25030 Besançon, France.

Background Assessment of the biliary origin of acute pancreatitis (AP) is crucial because it affects patient treatment to avoid recurrence. Although CT is systematically performed to determine severity in AP, its usefulness in assessing AP biliary origin has not been evaluated. Purpose To assess abdominal CT features associated with acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) and to evaluate the predictive value of a combination of CT and clinical data for determining a biliary origin in a first episode of AP. Read More

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October 2021

Allocation of carbon emission allowance based on DLA-GA model: a case study in China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

School of Economics and Finance, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 74, Yanta West Road, Xi'an, 710061, People's Republic of China.

To achieve China's determined contributions by 2030 and establish nationwide carbon emission trading system (ETS) which main participants are sectors, appropriated carbon emission allowance (CEA) allocation among sectors is crucial. In CEA distribution, fairness is primary; and sectoral efficiency is another significant factor. Nevertheless, considering fairness and efficiency while covering various sectors is a challengeable issue. Read More

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October 2021

Thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytopathology: a constant challenge in everyday practice. The effectiveness of clinical decisions using diagnostic tools available in Poland.

Pol Arch Intern Med 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Introduction: A crucial issue in the management of thyroid nodules is to estimate, as accurately as possible, the malignancy risk in thyroid lesions. The key tool for risk stratification is fine needle aspiration biopsy. Unfortunately, approximately 20 % of biopsy results are indeterminate. Read More

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October 2021

What do we know about perioperative hypersensitivity reactions and what can we do to improve perioperative safety?

Ann Med 2021 Dec;53(1):1772-1778

Department of Gynecology and Gynecological Oncology, Medical University of Bialystok, Białystok, Poland.

Hypersensitivity reactions are an important aspect of perioperative care and are a crucial interdisciplinary issue in anaesthesiological practice, as well as allergological and laboratory diagnostics. This phenomenon was observed as early as the 1980s and 1990s in Western European countries, and knowledge on this subject has grown significantly over time. Although hypersensitivity reactions are not frequent events (the incidence of perioperative hypersensitivity reactions ranges from 1:386 to 1:13 000 procedures, with higher frequency - 1 per 6500 general anaesthesias with neuromuscular blocking agents administrations), their courses are unfortunately serious and life-threatening. Read More

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December 2021

Predicting and Comparing the Performance of Array Management Libraries.

Proc IPDPS (Conf) 2020 May 14;2020:906-915. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

The Ohio State University.

Many applications are increasingly becoming I/O-bound. To improve scalability, analytical models of parallel I/O performance are often consulted to determine possible I/O optimizations. However, I/O performance modeling has predominantly focused on applications that directly issue I/O requests to a parallel file system or a local storage device. Read More

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On Neurorights.

Authors:
Marcello Ienca

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 24;15:701258. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

College of Humanities, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland.

In recent years, philosophical-legal studies on neuroscience (mainly in the fields of neuroethics and neurolaw) have given increasing prominence to a normative analysis of the ethical-legal challenges in the mind and brain sciences in terms of rights, freedoms, entitlements and associated obligations. This way of analyzing the ethical and legal implications of neuroscience has come to be known as "neurorights." Neurorights can be defined as the ethical, legal, social, or natural principles of freedom or entitlement related to a person's cerebral and mental domain; that is, the fundamental normative rules for the protection and preservation of the human brain and mind. Read More

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September 2021

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Medical, Pharmacy, and Nursing Students Towards Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting at University of Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Adv Med Educ Pract 2021 2;12:1129-1139. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: The adequate knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of pharmacovigilance and ADRs reporting is crucial for health care students.

Objective: This study aimed at assessing the KAP of final-year medical, pharmacy, and nursing (MPN) students towards pharmacovigilance and ADRs reporting at the University of Gondar, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Northwest Ethiopia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 296 final-year MPN students at the University of Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences from November 1, 2020 to January 30, 2021. Read More

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October 2021

Parkinsonism in viral, paraneoplastic, and autoimmune diseases.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Oct 1:120014. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Truong Neuroscience Institute, Orange Coast Memorial Medical Center, Fountain Valley, CA, USA; Department of Neurosciences, UC Riverside, Riverside, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Secondary parkinsonism, namely parkinsonism due to causes other than idiopathic neurodegeneration, may have multiple etiologies. Common secondary etiologies of parkinsonism such as drug-induced or vascular etiologies are well documented. Other secondary causes of parkinsonism such as infectious (mainly viral and prion-like diseases), autoimmune (systemic/drug-induced) and paraneoplastic etiologies are rare but are a topic of increasing interest. Read More

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October 2021

Influence of Br/S site-exchange on Li diffusion mechanism in LiPSBr: a computational study.

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 2021 Nov 11;379(2211):20190458. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Technical University of Darmstadt, Institute of Materials Science, Otto-Berndt-Straße 3, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany.

We investigate how low degrees of [Formula: see text] site-exchange influence the [Formula: see text] diffusion in the argyrodite-type solid electrolyte [Formula: see text] by molecular dynamics simulations. Based on the atomic trajectories of the defect-free material, a new mechanism for the internal [Formula: see text] reorganization within the [Formula: see text] cages around the [Formula: see text] sites is identified. This reorganization mechanism is highly concerted and cannot be described by just one rotation axis. Read More

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November 2021

On the usefulness of four in vitro methods in assessing the intraluminal performance of poorly soluble, ionisable compounds in the fasted state.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Oct 7;168:106034. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Zografou, Greece. Electronic address:

A small-scale two-stage biphasic system, a small-scale two-stage dissolution-permeation system, the Erweka mini-paddle apparatus, and the BioGIT system were evaluated for their usefulness in assessing the intraluminal performance of two low solubility drugs in the fasted state, one with weakly acidic properties (tested in a salt form, diclofenac potassium) and one with weakly alkaline properties [ritonavir, tested as an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulation]. In all in vitro methods, an immediate-release tablet and a powder formulation of diclofenac potassium were both rapidly dissolved in Level II biorelevant media simulating the conditions in the upper small intestine. Physiologically based biopharmaceutics (PBB) modelling for the tablet formulation resulted in a successful simulation of the average plasma profile in adults, whereas for the powder formulation modelling indicated that gastric emptying and transport through the intestinal epithelium limit the absorption rates. Read More

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October 2021

Prognostic impact of sarcopenia in children with cancer: a focus on the psoas muscle area (PMA) imaging in the clinical practice.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 Oct 7. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

UOSD di Oncologia Pediatrica, Dipartimento di scienze della salute della donna, del bambino e di sanità pubblica, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168, Rome, Italy.

Skeletal muscle plays a crucial part in the metabolic and inflammatory response. "Sarcopenia", defined as a pathological condition of reduced strength, quantity and quality of skeletal muscle mass, may often develop in the young age as the secondary consequence of a systemic inflammatory illness, like cancer. In children with cancer, sarcopenia is a common finding, playing a negative role in their prognosis. Read More

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October 2021

Considering socio-political framings when analyzing coastal climate change effects can prevent maldevelopment on small islands.

Nat Commun 2021 10 7;12(1):5882. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Ludwig-Franzius-Institute for Hydraulics, Estuarine and Coastal Engineering, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Nienburger Straße 4, 30167, Hanover, Germany.

Adapting to climate change and sea level rise is challenging on small islands. False adaptation can lead to adverse impacts on natural and societal dynamics. Therefore, an interdisciplinary perspective on the interaction of natural dynamics, societal demands, and political decisions is crucial. Read More

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October 2021