12,912 results match your criteria crop improvement

Identification of Resistant Germplasm and Detection of Genes for Resistance to Powdery Mildew and Leaf Rust from 2,978 Wheat Accessions.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Center for Agricultural Resources Research, 286 Huaizhong Rd., Shijiazhuang 050021, China, Shijiazhuang, China, 050021;

Powdery mildew and leaf rust, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) and Puccinia triticina (Pt), respectively, are widespread diseases of wheat worldwide. Read More

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Population-scale peach genome analyses unravel selection patterns and biochemical basis underlying fruit flavor.

Nat Commun 2021 06 14;12(1):3604. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Beijing Agro-Biotechnology Research Center, Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences/Beijing Key Laboratory of Agricultural Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, Beijing, China.

A narrow genetic basis in modern cultivars and strong linkage disequilibrium in peach (Prunus persica) has restricted resolution power for association studies in this model fruit species, thereby limiting our understanding of economically important quality traits including fruit flavor. Here, we present a high-quality genome assembly for a Chinese landrace, Longhua Shui Mi (LHSM), a representative of the Chinese Cling peaches that have been central in global peach genetic improvement. We also map the resequencing data for 564 peach accessions to this LHSM assembly at an average depth of 26. Read More

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Grafting resulting in alleviating tomato plant oxidative damage caused by high levels of ofloxacin.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 14;286:117331. Epub 2021 May 14.

College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, 271018, PR China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Fruit & Vegetable Quality and Efficient Production in Shandong, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops in Huanghuai Region, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Ministry of Agriculture, PR China. Electronic address:

Antibiotic pollution has become a global problem threatening human health. Ofloxacin is one of the more widely used antibiotics, but reports on the reaction of plant to ofloxacin pollution are limited. In this study, using adversity-resistant (R), adversity-sensitive (S) and grafted plant S/R as models, we investigated the biological response of tomato to exogenous ofloxacin residues. Read More

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A novel mutant allele at the Cleistogamy 1 locus in barley.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Crop Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 2-1-2 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8602, Japan.

Key Message: A chasmogamous mutant was induced by exposing a cleistogamous cultivar to sodium azide. The altered cly1 sequence in the mutant was not in the miR172 binding site, as is the case in other known cleistogamous alleles, but rather in a region encoding one of the gene product's two AP2 domains. The genetic basis of cleistogamy (in which pollination occurs before the flower opens) in barley is centered on the Cleistogamy 1 locus (cly1). Read More

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Engineering broad-spectrum resistance to cotton leaf curl disease by CRISPR-Cas9 based multiplex editing in plants.

GM Crops Food 2021 Jun 14:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Multan, Pakistan.

Advances in genome editing technologies have tremendous potential to address the limitations of classical resistance breeding. CRISPR-Cas9 based gene editing has been applied successfully in plants to tolerate virus infections. In this study, we successfully tested CRISPR-Cas9 system to counteract cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) caused by whitefly transmitted cotton leaf curl viruses (CLCuVs). Read More

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Identification and Validation of Major QTLs, Epistatic Interactions, and Candidate Genes for Soybean Seed Shape and Weight Using Two Related RIL Populations.

Front Genet 2021 28;12:666440. Epub 2021 May 28.

National Center for Soybean Improvement, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Soybean (Ministry of Agriculture), State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Understanding the genetic mechanism underlying seed size, shape, and weight is essential for enhancing soybean cultivars. High-density genetic maps of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, LM6 and ZM6, were evaluated across multiple environments to identify and validate M-QTLs as well as identify candidate genes behind major and stable quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A total of 239 and 43 M-QTLs were mapped by composite interval mapping (CIM) and mixed-model-based composite interval mapping (MCIM) approaches, from which 180 and 18, respectively, are novel QTLs. Read More

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Advantage of Nanotechnology-Based Genome Editing System and Its Application in Crop Improvement.

Front Plant Sci 2021 28;12:663849. Epub 2021 May 28.

Graduate School of Biotechnology & Crop Biotech Institute, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, South Korea.

Agriculture is an important source of human food. However, current agricultural practices need modernizing and strengthening to fulfill the increasing food requirements of the growing worldwide population. Genome editing (GE) technology has been used to produce plants with improved yields and nutritional value as well as with higher resilience to herbicides, insects, and diseases. Read More

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Effects of Seaweed Extracts on the Growth, Physiological Activity, Cane Yield and Sucrose Content of Sugarcane in China.

Front Plant Sci 2021 26;12:659130. Epub 2021 May 26.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Seaweed extracts (SEs) have been widely used as biostimulants in crop management due to their growth-promoting and stress-resistant effects. To date, there are few reports of the effect of SEs on sucrose content and cane yield. Here, we conducted field experiments for three consecutive growth seasons (2017∼2019) in two areas (Suixi and Wengyuan) of China, to investigate the yield and sugar content of sugarcane in response to SE treatment at different growth stages. Read More

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Identification of Novel Marker-Trait Associations for Lint Yield Contributing Traits in Upland Cotton ( L.) Using SSRs.

Front Plant Sci 2021 26;12:653270. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India.

Improving the yield of lint is the main objective for most of the cotton crop improvement programs throughout the world as it meets the demand of fiber for textile industries. In the current study, 96 genotypes of were used to find novel simple sequence repeat marker-based associations for lint yield contributing traits by linkage disequilibrium. Extensive phenotyping of 96 genotypes for various agronomic traits was done for two consecutive years (2018 and 2019) in early, normal, and late sown environments. Read More

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Engineering Host Microbiome for Crop Improvement and Sustainable Agriculture.

Front Microbiol 2021 28;12:635917. Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Biotechnology, University of Jammu, Jammu, India.

Dynamic consortium of microbial communities (bacteria, fungi, protists, viruses, and nematodes) colonizing multiple tissue types and coevolving conclusively with the host plant is designated as a plant microbiome. The interplay between plant and its microbial mutualists supports several agronomic functions, establishing its crucial role in plant beneficial activities. Deeper functional and mechanistic understanding of plant-microbial ecosystems will render many "ecosystem services" by emulating symbiotic interactions between plants, soil, and microbes for enhanced productivity and sustainability. Read More

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Palmitic acid mediated change of rhizosphere and alleviation of Fusarium wilt disease in watermelon.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jun 18;28(6):3616-3623. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops (Northeast Region), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

Palmitic acid (PA) in root exudates or decaying residues can reduce the incidence of soil-borne diseases and promote the growth of some crop plants. However, the effects of PA on soil-borne pathogens and microbial communities are poorly understood. Here, we investigate the effects of PA on overall watermelon microbial communities and the populations of f. Read More

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BnA1.CER4 and BnC1.CER4 are redundantly involved in branched primary alcohols in the cuticle wax of Brassica napus.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, National Center of Rapeseed Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Key Message: The mutations BnA1.CER4 and BnC1.CER4 produce disordered wax crystals types and alter the composition of epidermal wax, causing increased cuticular permeability and sclerotium resistance. Read More

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Repression of transcription factor AtWRKY47 confers tolerance to boron toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 10;220:112406. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, and Microelement Research Centre, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Boron (B) excess gives rise to a serious agricultural problem. In this study, we identified a B toxicity responsive transcription factor AtWRKY47 in Arabidopsis thaliana. The T-DNA insertion mutants Atwrky47 showed enhanced tolerance to B toxicity with better growth parameters under high B conditions compared to wild-type Col-0 plants. Read More

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On the sustainability of land applications of sewage sludge: How to apply the sewage biosolid in order to improve soil fertility and increase crop yield?

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 7;282:131122. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Nature and Life Sciences, Faculty of Exact Sciences and Nature and Life Sciences, University of Tebessa, Tebessa, 12002, Algeria; Laboratory of Natural Resources and Management of Sensitive Environments 'RNAMS', University of Oum-El-Bouaghi, Oum-El-Bouaghi, 04000, Algeria. Electronic address:

The fertilization using sewage sludge (SS) and/or SS-derived products have been extensively studied and known to increase crop yield as soil nutrients and plant growth are improved. This study aimed to evaluate two SS application methods (i.e. Read More

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De novo genome assembly of a foxtail millet cultivar Huagu11 uncovered the genetic difference to the cultivar Yugu1, and the genetic mechanism of imazethapyr tolerance.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Jun 12;21(1):271. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Genetic, Engineering Research Center, School of Life Sciences, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 401331, China.

Background: Setaria italica is the second-most widely planted species of millets in the world and an important model grain crop for the research of C4 photosynthesis and abiotic stress tolerance. Through three genomes assembly and annotation efforts, all genomes were based on next generation sequencing technology, which limited the genome continuity.

Results: Here we report a high-quality whole-genome of new cultivar Huagu11, using single-molecule real-time sequencing and High-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) mapping technologies. Read More

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Molecular genetic diversity and population structure analyses of rutabaga accessions from Nordic countries as revealed by single nucleotide polymorphism markers.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jun 12;22(1):442. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2P5, Canada.

Background: Rutabaga or swede (Brassica napus ssp. napobrassica (L.) Hanelt) varies in root and leaf shape and colour, flesh colour, foliage growth habits, maturity date, seed quality parameters, disease resistance and other traits. Read More

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Dissecting the trade-off of grain number and size in wheat.

Planta 2021 Jun 12;254(1). Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Plant and Crop Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, LE12 5RD, Leicestershire, UK.

Main Conclusion: Principal component and meta-QTL analyses identified genetic loci affecting the trade-off of wheat grain number and size, which could provide opportunities to optimize local breeding strategies for further yield improvement. Grain yield of wheat is complex, and its physiological and genetic bases remain largely unknown. Using the Forno/Oberkulmer recombinant inbred lines, this study validated the negative phenotypic relationships between thousand grain weight (TGW) and grain number components. Read More

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Development and application of the Faba_bean_130K targeted next-generation sequencing SNP genotyping platform based on transcriptome sequencing.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China.

Key Message: Large-scale faba bean transcriptome data are available, and the first genotyping platform based on liquid-phase probe targeted capture technology was developed for genetic and molecular breeding studies. Faba bean (Vicia faba L., 2n = 12) is an important food legume crop that is widely grown for multiple uses worldwide. Read More

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Emamectin benzoate induced enzymatic and transcriptional alternation in detoxification mechanism of predatory beetle Paederus fuscipes (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) at the sublethal concentration.

Ecotoxicology 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Hubei Insect Resources Utilization and Sustainable Pest Management Key Laboratory, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, P.R. China.

In this study, the detoxification enzyme activity and the transcriptional profile changes in the second instar through RNA-sequencing technology due to emamectin benzoate (EB) were assessed. The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) enzyme activity was not altered by EB due to the change in concentration and exposure time in all treatments. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme was not considerably varying in all treatments, while exposure time significantly changed the enzyme activity. Read More

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Biochar induced improvement in root system architecture enhances nutrient assimilation by cotton plant seedlings.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Jun 11;21(1):269. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, 712100, China.

Background: Raising nitrogen use efficiency of crops by improving root system architecture is highly essential not only to reduce costs of agricultural production but also to mitigate climate change. The physiological mechanisms of how biochar affects nitrogen assimilation by crop seedlings have not been well elucidated.

Results: Here, we report changes in root system architecture, activities of the key enzymes involved in nitrogen assimilation, and cytokinin (CTK) at the seedling stage of cotton with reduced urea usage and biochar application at different soil layers (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm). Read More

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DNA demethylases remodel DNA methylation in rice gametes and zygote and are required for reproduction.

Mol Plant 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, 430070 Wuhan China; Institute of Plant Science Paris-Saclay (IPS2), CNRS, INRAE, University Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay, France. Electronic address:

Fertilization constitutes a critical step in the plant life cycle during which the gamete genomes undergo chromatin dynamics in preparation for embryogenesis. In mammals, parental chromatin is extensively reprogrammed through the global erasure of DNA methylation. However, in flowering plants it remains unclear whether and how DNA methylation is remodeled in gametes and after fertilization in zygote. Read More

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Leached starch content and molecular size during sorghum steaming for baijiu production is not determined by starch fine molecular structures.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 9;184:50-56. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Medical Instrument and Food Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, the Ministry of Education of China, Institutes of Agricultural Science and Technology Development of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Sorghum steaming properties are important for both flavor and brewing efficiency of baijiu (Chinese alcohol liquor). However, it is currently unclear with respects to structural factors that affect sorghum steaming properties during baijiu production. In this study, starch fine molecular structures were characterized by size-exclusion chromatography and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis for 8 sorghum varieties used in baijiu production. Read More

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Rubisco substitutions predicted to enhance crop performance through carbon uptake modelling.

J Exp Bot 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, United Kingdom.

Improving the performance of the CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco is among targets for increasing crop yields. Here, Earth system model (ESM) representations of canopy C3 and C4 photosynthesis were combined with species-specific Rubisco parameters to quantify the consequences of bioengineering foreign Rubiscos into C3 and C4 crops under field conditions. The "two big leaf" (sunlit/shaded) model for canopy photosynthesis was used together with species-specific Rubisco kinetics parameters including maximum rate (Kcat), Michaelis-Menten constant for CO2 at ambient atmospheric O2 (Kc 21%O2), specificity for CO2 to O2 (Sc/o), and associated heat activation (Ha) values. Read More

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Genetic diversity and inter-trait relationship of tropical extra-early maturing quality protein maize inbred lines under low soil nitrogen stress.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0252506. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

West Africa Centre for Crop Improvement, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana.

Information on the genetic diversity, population structure, and trait associations of germplasm resources is crucial for predicting hybrid performance. The objective of this study was to dissect the genetic diversity and population structure of extra-early yellow and orange quality protein maize (QPM) inbred lines and identify secondary traits for indirect selection for enhanced grain yield under low-soil nitrogen (LN). One hundred and ten inbred lines were assessed under LN (30 kg ha -1) and assayed for tryptophan content. Read More

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Plant Hormones and Volatiles Response to Temperature Stress in Sweet Corn ( L.) Seedlings.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

This work aims to emphasize on disclosing the regulative mechanism of sweet corn seedlings response to extreme temperature stress; transcriptomics and metabolomics for volatiles and plant hormones were integrated in this study. Results showed that low-temperature stress significantly impressed 20 volatiles; abscisic acid and salicylic acid accumulated, while auxin and jasmonic acid decreased. The regulatory patterns of and for abscisic acid accumulation and signal transduction were elucidated in low-temperature stress. Read More

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Analysis of expression characteristics of soybean leaf and root tissue-specific promoters in Arabidopsis and soybean.

Transgenic Res 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology, Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 130033, Changchun, China.

The characterization of tissue-specific promoters is critical for studying the functions of genes in a given tissue/organ. To study tissue-specific promoters in soybean, we screened tissue-specific expressed genes using published soybean RNA-Seq-based transcriptome data coupled with RT-PCR analysis. We cloned the promoters of three genes, GmADR1, GmBTP1, and GmGER1, and constructed their corresponding β-Glucuronidase (GUS) promoter-GUS reporter vectors. Read More

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Multiplex CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of the FAD2 gene in rice: a model genome editing system for oil palm.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2021 Jun 11;19(1):86. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Advanced Biotechnology and Breeding Centre (ABBC) Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB), 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Genome editing employing the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been widely used and has become a promising tool for plant gene functional studies and crop improvement. However, most of the applied CRISPR/Cas9 systems targeting one locus using a sgRNA resulted in low genome editing efficiency.

Results: Here, we demonstrate the modification of the FAD2 gene in rice using a multiplex sgRNA-CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system. Read More

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Transcriptome Profile Analysis of Reveals the Drought Stress-Induced Long Non-coding RNAs Associated With Photosynthesis, Chlorophyll Synthesis, Fatty Acid Synthesis and Degradation.

Front Plant Sci 2021 25;12:643182. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in the response of plants to drought stress. The previous studies have reported that overexpression of and could enhance drought tolerance and improve the oil content in and , and most of the efforts have been invested in the gene function analysis, there is little understanding of how genes that involved in these important pathways are regulated. In the present study, the transcriptomic results of and over-expressed (OE) lines were compared with the RNAi lines, mutant lines and control lines under long-term and short-term drought treatment, a series of differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified, and their regulation patterns in mRNA were also investigated in above mentioned materials. Read More

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Identification of Resistance Sources and Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Septoria Tritici Blotch Resistance in Spring Bread Wheat Germplasm of ICARDA.

Front Plant Sci 2021 25;12:600176. Epub 2021 May 25.

Biodiversity and Crop Improvement Program, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Rabat, Morocco.

Septoria tritici blotch (STB) of wheat, caused by the ascomycete (formerly ), is one of the most important foliar diseases of wheat. In Morocco, STB is a devastating disease in temperate wheat-growing regions, and the yield losses can exceed up to 50% under favorable conditions. The aims of this study were to identify sources of resistance to STB in Septoria Association Mapping Panel (SAMP), which is composed of 377 advanced breeding lines (ABLs) from spring bread wheat breeding program of ICARDA, and to identify loci associated with resistance to STB at seedling (SRT) as well as at the adult plant (APS) stages using genome-wide association mapping (GWAM). Read More

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Identification of herbicide resistance OsACC1 mutations via in planta prime-editing-library screening in rice.

Nat Plants 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Key Laboratory of Rice Genetics & Breeding, Institute of Rice Research, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Science, Hefei, China.

Base-editing-library-induced high density nucleotide substitutions have been applied to screen functional mutations in plants. However, due to limitations in the scope and conversion specificity of base editors, many desired mutations at pivotal protein sites may be overlooked. Here, we developed a prime-editing-library-mediated saturation mutagenesis (PLSM) method to substantially increase the diversity of amino acid substitutions at target sites for in planta screening. Read More

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