15,078 results match your criteria crop breeding


Genetic variation and relationships between Azerbaijani and Turkish olive genetic resources.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Crop and Animal Production, Organic Agriculture Programme, Karacabey Vocational School, Bursa Uludağ University, Bursa, Turkey.

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most economically important crop from east to the west around the world. The aim of this research was to investigate the genetic relationship among 41 olive genotypes, including 11 well-known Turkish cultivars and 30 Azerbaijani olive genotypes using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Read More

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Metabolomics Analyses Provide Insights Into Nutritional Value and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Halophyte .

Front Plant Sci 2021 5;12:703255. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Gansu Provincial Key Lab of Aridland Crop Science/Gansu Key Lab of Crop Improvement and Germplasm Enhancement, Lanzhou, China.

is a succulent annual herbaceous halophyte belonging to the Chenopodiaceae family, has attracted wide attention as a promising candidate for phytoremediation and as an oilseed crop and noodle-improver. More importantly, has important medicinal value in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there are few comprehensive studies on the nutrients, particularly secondary metabolites. Read More

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Dynamic differential evolution schemes of WRKY transcription factors in domesticated and wild rice.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 21;11(1):14887. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV, 89154, USA.

WRKY transcription factors play key roles in stress responses, growth, and development. We previously reported on the evolution of WRKYs from unicellular green algae to land plants. To address recent evolution events, we studied three domesticated and eight wild species in the genus Oryza, an ideal model due to its long history of domestication, economic importance, and central role as a model system. Read More

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Delineating the epigenetic regulation of heat and drought response in plants.

Crit Rev Biotechnol 2021 Jul 21:1-14. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

National Institute of Plant Genome Research, New Delhi, India.

Being sessile in nature, plants cannot overlook the incursion of unfavorable environmental conditions, including heat and drought. Heat and drought severely affect plant growth, development, reproduction and therefore productivity which poses a severe threat to global food security. Plants respond to these hostile environmental circumstances by rearranging their genomic and molecular architecture. Read More

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First report of Fusarium falciforme (FSSC 3+4) causing root rot on chickpea in Mexico.

Plant Dis 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, 27774, Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico.

Chickpea (Cicer aretinium L.) is a legume crop of great importance worldwide. In January 2019, wilting symptoms on chickpea (stunted grow, withered leaves, root rot and wilted plants) were observed in three fields of Culiacan Sinaloa Mexico, with an incidence of 3 to 5%. Read More

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CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing of GmJAGGED1 increased yield in the low latitude soybean variety Huachun 6.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Grassland Science, College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, Guangdong, China.

The number of seeds per pod (NSPP) is one of the critical components that affect soybean yield (Liu et al., 2020). Ln, which encodes GmJAGGED1 (GmJAG1), is a major locus regulating NSPP and leaflet shape in soybean (Fang et al. Read More

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Exploring the diversity of promoter and 5'UTR sequences in ancestral, historic and modern wheat.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Biointeractions and Crop Protection, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts, AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom.

A dataset of promoter and 5'UTR sequences of homoeo-alleles of 495 wheat genes that contribute to agriculturally important traits in 95 ancestral and commercial wheat cultivars is presented here. The high stringency myBaits technology used made individual capture of homoeo-allele promoters possible, which is reported here for the first time. Promoters of most genes are remarkably conserved across the 82 hexaploid cultivars used with <7 haplotypes per promoter and 21% being identical to the reference Chinese Spring. Read More

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Environmental responsiveness of flowering time in cassava genotypes and associated transcriptome changes.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(7):e0253555. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Section of Soil and Crop Sciences, School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.

Cassava is an important food security crop in tropical regions of the world. Cassava improvement by breeding is limited by its delayed and poor production of flowers, such that cassava flowering under field conditions indirectly lengthens the breeding cycle. By studying genotype and environment interaction under two Nigerian field conditions (Ubiaja and Ibadan) and three controlled temperature conditions (22°C/18°C, 28/24°C and 34/30°C (day/night)), we found that while early flowering genotypes flowered at similar times and rates under all growing conditions (unfavorable and favorable field and controlled-temperature environments), late flowering genotypes were environmentally sensitive such that they were substantially delayed in unfavorable environments. Read More

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Study of the genetic and phenotypic variation among wild and cultivated clary sages provides interesting avenues for breeding programs of a perfume, medicinal and aromatic plant.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(7):e0248954. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, CNRS, AgroParisTech, GQE - Le Moulon, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

A road-map of the genetic and phenotypic diversities in both crops and their wild related species can help identifying valuable genetic resources for further crop breeding. The clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), a perfume, medicinal and aromatic plant, is used for sclareol production and ornamental purposes. Read More

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Two NLR immune receptors acquired high-affinity binding to a fungal effector through convergent evolution of their integrated domain.

Elife 2021 Jul 21;10. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

The Sainsbury Laboratory, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, United Kingdom.

A subset of plant NLR immune receptors carry unconventional integrated domains in addition to their canonical domain architecture. One example is rice Pik-1 that comprises an integrated heavy metal-associated (HMA) domain. Here, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of Pik-1 and its NLR partner, Pik-2, and tested hypotheses about adaptive evolution of the HMA domain. Read More

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CRISPR-Based Crop Improvements: A Way Forward to Achieve Zero Hunger.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Center for Rice Improvement, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006, China.

Zero hunger is one of the sustainable development goals set by the United Nations in 2015 to achieve global food security by 2030. The current harvest of crops is insufficient; feeding the world's population and meeting the goal of zero hunger by 2030 will require larger and more consistent crop production. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated protein (CRISPR-Cas) technology is widely used for the plant genome editing. Read More

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The application of pangenomics and machine learning in genomic selection in plants.

Plant Genome 2021 Jul 20:e20112. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Agriculture, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.

Genomic selection approaches have increased the speed of plant breeding, leading to growing crop yields over the last decade. However, climate change is impacting current and future yields, resulting in the need to further accelerate breeding efforts to cope with these changing conditions. Here we present approaches to accelerate plant breeding and incorporate nonadditive effects in genomic selection by applying state-of-the-art machine learning approaches. Read More

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Salt tolerance in rice: seedling and reproductive stage QTL mapping come of age.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QG, UK.

Key Message: Reproductive stage salinity tolerance is most critical for rice as it determines the yield under stress. Few studies have been undertaken for this trait as phenotyping was cumbersome, but new methodology outlined in this review seeks to redress this deficiency. Sixty-three meta-QTLs, the most important genomic regions to target for enhancing salinity tolerance, are reported. Read More

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Qualification of Soybean Responses to Flooding Stress Using UAV-Based Imagery and Deep Learning.

Plant Phenomics 2021 28;2021:9892570. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.

Soybean is sensitive to flooding stress that may result in poor seed quality and significant yield reduction. Soybean production under flooding could be sustained by developing flood-tolerant cultivars through breeding programs. Conventionally, soybean tolerance to flooding in field conditions is evaluated by visually rating the shoot injury/damage due to flooding stress, which is labor-intensive and subjective to human error. Read More

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Genetic improvement of nitrogen use efficiency in crops.

Yi Chuan 2021 Jul;43(7):629-641

State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Beijing 100101, China.

Nitrogen (N) is an essential mineral nutrient for plant growth and development. N deficiency is the major factor limiting plant growth and crop production in most natural and agricultural soils. The green revolution of the 1960's boosted crop yields through cultivation of semi-dwarf plant varieties. Read More

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Genome-wide association screening and verification of potential genes associated with root architectural traits in maize (Zea mays L.) at multiple seedling stages.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jul 20;22(1):558. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

College of Agronomy, Plant Biotechnology Center, Jilin Agricultural University, 130118, Changchun, Jilin, China.

Background: Breeding for new maize varieties with propitious root systems has tremendous potential in improving water and nutrients use efficiency and plant adaptation under suboptimal conditions. To date, most of the previously detected root-related trait genes in maize were new without functional verification. In this study, seven seedling root architectural traits were examined at three developmental stages in a recombinant inbred line population (RIL) of 179 RILs and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) panel of 80 elite inbred maize lines through quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and genome-wide association study. Read More

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Shoot potassium content provides a physiological marker to screen cotton genotypes for osmotic and salt tolerance.

Int J Phytoremediation 2021 Jul 20:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Drought and salinity are considered two major abiotic stresses that diminish cotton production worldwide. Studying common morphological and physiological responses in cotton cultivars may help plant biologists to develop and apply standard screening criteria for either of these stresses and for their combination. Therefore, this research aimed to assess the suitability of several physiological parameters as diagnostic to report on osmotic and salinity tolerance in six elite cotton genotypes. Read More

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Unraveling the genetics of tomato fruit weight during crop domestication and diversification.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Center for Applied Genetic Technologies, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Key Message: Six novel fruit weight QTLs were identified in tomato using multiple bi-parental populations developed from ancestral accessions. Beneficial alleles at these loci arose in semi-domesticated subpopulations and were likely left behind. This study paves the way to introgress these alleles into breeding programs. Read More

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Genetic diversity, distribution and domestication history of the neglected GGAA genepool of wheat.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Gatersleben, Germany.

Key Message: We present a comprehensive survey of cytogenetic and genomic diversity of the GGAA genepool of wheat, thereby unlocking these plant genetic resources for wheat improvement. Wheat yields are stagnating around the world and new sources of genes for resistance or tolerances to abiotic traits are required. In this context, the tetraploid wheat wild relatives are among the key candidates for wheat improvement. Read More

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Combinations of Ghd7, Ghd8 and Hd1 determine strong heterosis of commercial rice hybrids in diverse ecological regions.

J Exp Bot 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Heterosis of grain yield is closely associated with heading date in crops. Gene combinations of the major heading date genes Ghd7, Ghd8 and Hd1 play important roles in enhancing grain yield and adaptation to ecological regions in rice. However, the predominant three-gene combinations for a specific ecological region remain unclear in both three-line and two-line hybrids. Read More

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Current population structure and pathogenicity patterns of in Australia.

Microb Genom 2021 Jul;7(7)

Centre for Planetary Health and Food Security, School of Environment and Science, Griffith University, QLD 4111, Australia.

Ascochyta blight disease, caused by the necrotrophic fungus , is a major biotic constraint to chickpea production in Australia and worldwide. Detailed knowledge of the structure of the pathogen population and its potential to adapt to our farming practices is key to informing optimal management of the disease. This includes understanding the molecular diversity among isolates and the frequency and distribution of the isolates that have adapted to overcome host resistance across agroecologically distinct regions. Read More

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Genetic trends in Fusarium head blight resistance due to 20 years of winter wheat breeding and cooperative testing in the Northern US.

Plant Dis 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 14589, Crop and Soil Sciences, Urbana, Illinois, United States;

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of wheat and barley. In the US, a significant long-term investment in breeding FHB resistant cultivars began after the 1990s. However, to this date, no study has been performed to understand and monitor the rate of genetic progress in FHB resistance as a result of this investment. Read More

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First Report of Maize Ear Rot Caused by Exserohilum rostratum in Hainan Province in Southern China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Plant Protection Institute of Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Dongguan street NO.437, Baoding, Hebei, China, +8613930861039.

Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of three major grain crops in China, with production reaching 261 million tons in 2019(NBS, 2020). Some fungi cause maize ear rot which lead to significant yield and quality losses. Read More

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Genetic estimation of grain yield and its attributes in three wheat ( L.) crosses using six parameter model.

J Genet 2021 ;100

Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Jammu 180 009, India.

Grain yield is a complex polygenic trait representing a multiplicative end product of contributing yield attributes governed by simple to complex gene interactions. Deciphering the genetics and inheritance of traits/genes influencing yield is a prerequisite to harness the yield potential in any crop species. The objective of the present investigation was to estimate genetic variance components and type of gene action controlling yield and its component traits using six populations (P, P, F, F, BC and BC) of the three bread wheat crosses. Read More

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January 2021

Eighty years of gene-for-gene relationship and its applications in identification and utilization of genes.

J Genet 2021 ;100

Depatment of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 004, India.

The gene-for-gene relationship of host-pathogen interaction explained by H. H. Flor in mid of the 20th century set a milestone in understanding the biochemical and genetic basis of plant diseases and several components involved in plant-pathogen interactions. Read More

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January 2021

MaMADS36 plays a central role in regulating banana fruit ripening.

J Exp Bot 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Crop Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture; Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, 4 Xueyuan Road, 571101 Haikou, China.

Bananas are model fruits for studying starch conversion and climactericity. Starch degradation and ripening are two important biological processes that occur concomitantly in banana fruit. Ethylene biosynthesis, and postharvest fruit ripening processes, i. Read More

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Citric Acid-Mediated Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 5;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530, Japan.

Several recent studies have shown that citric acid/citrate (CA) can confer abiotic stress tolerance to plants. Exogenous CA application leads to improved growth and yield in crop plants under various abiotic stress conditions. Improved physiological outcomes are associated with higher photosynthetic rates, reduced reactive oxygen species, and better osmoregulation. Read More

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Single Copy Oligonucleotide Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Probe Design Platforms: Development, Application and Evaluation.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 1;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics of the Ministry of Education, Agricultural College of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China.

Oligonucleotides fluorescence in situ hybridization (Oligo-FISH) is an emerging technology and is an important tool in research areas such as detection of chromosome variation, identification of allopolyploid, and deciphering of three-dimensional (3D) genome structures. Based on the demand for highly efficient oligo probes for oligo-FISH experiments, increasing numbers of tools have been developed for probe design in recent years. Obsolete oligonucleotide design tools have been adapted for oligo-FISH probe design because of their similar considerations. Read More

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Deciphering the Epigenetic Alphabet Involved in Transgenerational Stress Memory in Crops.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 1;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Biology, University of Florence, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.

Although epigenetic modifications have been intensely investigated over the last decade due to their role in crop adaptation to rapid climate change, it is unclear which epigenetic changes are heritable and therefore transmitted to their progeny. The identification of epigenetic marks that are transmitted to the next generations is of primary importance for their use in breeding and for the development of new cultivars with a broad-spectrum of tolerance/resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this review, we discuss general aspects of plant responses to environmental stresses and provide an overview of recent findings on the role of transgenerational epigenetic modifications in crops. Read More

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Effectiveness of different alpha lattice designs in the evaluation of maize ( L.) genotypes in a rainforest agro-ecology.

Heliyon 2021 Jul 25;7(7):e07414. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Crop Production and Protection, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Plant breeding experiments require the use of appropriate experimental designs that will efficiently block variation due to wide heterogeneity nature of tropical soils. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of eight different alpha-lattice designs relative to randomized complete block design for evaluating 108 genotypes of maize under rainforest agro-ecology. The maize genotypes were field-tested using three replications at two locations. Read More

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