226,922 results match your criteria critical role

Developmental effects of early-life stress on dopamine D2 receptor and proteins involved in noncanonical D2 dopamine receptor signaling pathway in the prefrontal cortex of male rats.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Neurophysiology Research Center, Cellular and Molecular Medicine Institute, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

Objectives: Dopamine neurotransmission is implicated in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, most strikingly in Parkinson's disease, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. In addition to canonical pathway, D2-receptor (D2R) exerts some of its biological actions through regulating the activity of Akt and GSK3, which in turn were found to be altered in several psychiatric illnesses. The present study examined the impacts of maternal separation, an early-life stress model which has been associated with disturbed neurodevelopment and appearance of many psychiatric disorders, on developmental changes in dopamine concentration and the expression of D2Rs, Akt and GSK-3β in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC; a key target of stress) in adolescent and young adult male rats. Read More

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The stochastic association of nanoparticles with algae at the cellular level: Effects of NOM, particle size and particle shape.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 4;218:112280. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA Leiden, the Netherlands; National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Center for Safety of Substances and Products, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

Association of nanoparticles (NPs) with algae likely plays a critical role in their transfer in aquatic food chains. Although our understanding of the ecotoxicity and fate of NPs in the environment is increasing, it is still unclear how the physicochemical properties of NPs influence their interaction with algae at cellular levels and how this is reflected at a population level. This is due to the limitation in the existing analytical techniques to quantify the association of NPs with cells. Read More

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Exploring Theatre of the Oppressed and Forum Theatre as pedagogies in nursing education.

Nurse Educ Today 2021 Apr 26;103:104940. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Faculty of Education, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Concepts such as racism, oppression and social justice are critical curricular inclusions in nursing education. However, traditional approaches to nursing education often fail to produce the desired reflection and change amongst students. There is an urgent need to develop nursing educators that can step outside the rigidity of the curricular status quo and engage students with pedagogies that support critical reflection, analysis and action. Read More

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Sestrin proteins protect against lipotoxicity-induced oxidative stress in the liver via suppression of c-Jun N-terminal kinases: Short title: Sestrins ameliorate hepatic lipotoxicity.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Sestrin 1/2/3 (Sesn1/2/3) belong to a small family of proteins that have been implicated in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis and oxidative stress. However, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. The aim of this work was to illustrate the collective function of Sesn1/2/3 in the protection against hepatic lipotoxicity. Read More

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The insulin-like growth factors: ligands, binding proteins and receptors.

Mol Metab 2021 May 4:101245. Epub 2021 May 4.

The insulin-like growth factor family of ligands (IGF-I, IGF-II and insulin), receptors (IGF-IR, M6P/IGF-IIR and the insulin receptor, IR) as well as the IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-1-6) play critical roles in normal human physiology and disease states. Insulin and the insulin receptors are the focus of other chapters in this series and will therefore not be discussed further. IGF-I has effects via the circulation and locally within tissues to regulate cellular growth, differentiation and survival thereby controlling overall body growth. Read More

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Mitochondrial dysfunction: a potential target for Alzheimer's disease intervention and treatment.

Drug Discov Today 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Wuya College of Innovation, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative brain disorder which manifests as a progressive decline in cognitive function. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the early stages of AD, and increases the incidence {AuQ: Increases the incidence or advances the progression?} of this age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Therefore, it can be a potential target for interventions to treat AD. Read More

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Reduction-responsive Dehydroepiandrosterone Prodrug Nanoparticles Loaded with Camptothecin for Cancer Therapy by Enhancing Oxidation Therapy and Cell Replication Inhibition.

Int J Pharm 2021 May 4:120671. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) plays a critical role by providing ribulose-5-phosphate (Ru5P) and NADPH for nucleotide synthesis and reduction energy, respectively. Accordingly, blocking the PPP process may be an effective strategy for enhancing oxidation therapy and inhibiting cell replication. Here, we designed a novel reduction-responsive PEGylated prodrug and constructed nanoparticles PsD@CPT to simultaneously deliver a PPP blocker, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and chemotherapeutic camptothecin (CPT) to integrate amplification of oxidation therapy and enhance cell replication inhibition. Read More

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Role of innate immunity in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

Neurosci Lett 2021 May 4:135941. Epub 2021 May 4.

The Department of Pain Medicine Research, The Division of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, United States. Electronic address:

It has become increasingly clear that the innate immune system plays an essential role in the generation of many types of neuropathic pain including that which accompanies cancer treatment. In this article we review current findings of the role of the innate immune system in contributing to cancer treatment pain at the distal endings of peripheral nerve, in the nerve trunk, in the dorsal root ganglion and in the spinal dorsal horn. Read More

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Effect of wheat gluten on improved thermal cross-linking and osteogenesis of hydroxyapatite-gelatin composite scaffolds.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Amrita Centre for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala 682024, India. Electronic address:

Promising strategies to stabilize gelatin or collagen include glutaraldehyde-based chemical cross-linking or dehydrothermal treatment at different temperatures (120-180 °C). However, these procedures require 24-48 h for complete cross-linking to occur. The present study aims to evaluate the role of wheat gluten in enhancing thermal cross-linking of silica-nanohydroxyapatite (nanoHA)-gelatin composite scaffolds, within a shorter period (2 h). Read More

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Digital Microfluidics: Magnetic Transportation and Coalescence of Sessile Droplets on Hydrophobic Surfaces.

Langmuir 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 400 W. 13th Street, Rolla, Missouri 65409, United States.

Magnetic digital microfluidics is advantageous over other existing droplet manipulation methods, which exploits magnetic forces for actuation and offers the flexibility of implementation in resource-limited point-of-care applications. This article discusses the dynamic behavior of a pair of sessile droplets on a hydrophobic surface under the presence of a permanent magnetic field. A phase field method-based solver is employed in a two-dimensional computational domain to numerically capture the dynamic evolution of the droplet interfaces, which again simultaneously solves the magnetic and flow fields. Read More

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Using Rotenone to Model Parkinson's Disease in Mice: A Review of the Role of Pharmacokinetics.

Chem Res Toxicol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, Ravila 19, University of Tartu, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.

Rotenone is a naturally occurring toxin that inhibits complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Several epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in individuals exposed chronically to rotenone, and it has received great attention for its ability to reproduce many critical features of PD in animal models. Laboratory studies of rotenone have repeatedly shown that it induces in vivo substantia nigra dopaminergic cell loss, a hallmark of PD neuropathology. Read More

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Light Promotes Neural Correlates of Fear Memory via Enhancing Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Expression in the Prelimbic Cortex.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guiyang 550001, China.

Exposure to light has been shown to enhance vigilance and improve working memory, possibly due to changes in prefrontal function. Ample evidence supports the critical role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in fear memory performance. However, the effects of light on memory processing and its potential mechanisms remain unclear. Read More

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Environmental Factors Affecting Early Mobilization and Physical Disability Post-Intensive Care: An Integrative Review Through the Lens of the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health.

Dimens Crit Care Nurs 2021 Mar-Apr 01;40(2):92-117

Background: Early mobilization (EM) is one of few potential protective factors associated with reduced physical disability post-intensive care (PD PIC). However, only 45% of intensive care units (ICUs) in the United States routinely practice EM despite its recognized benefits.

Objectives: To analyze the evidence on the relationship between critical care EM, PD PIC, and environmental factors, using the theoretical lens of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Read More

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Cell Surface Area to Volume Relationship During Apoptosis and Apoptotic Body Formation.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2021 May;55(S1):161-170

Institute of Biomedical Research of Salamanca (IBSAL), Salamanca, Spain,

Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death culminating in packing cell content and corpse dismantling into membrane sealed vesicles called apoptotic bodies (ABs). Apoptotic bodies are engulfed and disposed by neighboring and immune system cells without eliciting a noxious inflammatory response, thus preventing sterile tissue damage. AB formation requires a total surface area larger than the apparent, initial cell's surface area. Read More

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The Role of the Contextual Cohort to Resolve Some Challenges and Limitations of Comparisons in Pharmacoepidemiology.

Drug Saf 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Drug Safety Research Unit, Bursledon Hall, Blundell Lane, Southampton, SO31 1AA, UK.

In pharmacoepidemiology, comparison studies can provide a useful estimate of the level of increased or decreased risk of specific events with a medication (through a measure of effect). A key focus of pharmacoepidemiological studies is the safety and effectiveness of medicines in their real-world use, and adequate comparisons of effect estimates are critical. However, consideration of guidelines, pharmacoeconomic assessments, and policies for reimbursement have made comparisons in pharmacoepidemiological studies far more difficult to conduct in recent years. Read More

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The Ste20-like kinase - a Jack of all trades?

J Cell Sci 2021 May 7;134(9). Epub 2021 May 7.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Cancer Therapeutics, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8L1, Canada.

Over the past 20 years, the Ste20-like kinase (SLK; also known as STK2) has emerged as a central regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics. Reorganization of the cytoskeleton is necessary for a plethora of biological processes including apoptosis, proliferation, migration, tissue repair and signaling. Several studies have also uncovered a role for SLK in disease progression and cancer. Read More

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Attitudes towards and impact of letters of recommendation for anesthesiology residency applicants.

Med Educ Online 2021 Dec;26(1):1924599

Department of Anesthesiology, New York Medical College, Westchester Medical Center, NY, New York.

This survey aims to identify the relative value and the critical components of anesthesiology letters of recommendation(LORs) from the perspective of Program Directors (PDs) and Associate/Assistant Program Directors (APDs). Knowledge and insights originating from this survey might add to the understanding of the anesthesiology residency selection process and mitigate unintended linguistic biases.: Anonymous online surveys were sent to anesthesiology PDs/APDs from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited anesthesiology residency Programs in the USA (US), as listed on the ACGME website and the American Medical Association Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database (AMA FREIDA) Residency Program Database. Read More

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December 2021

The lipolytic activity of LipJ, a stress-induced enzyme, is regulated by its C-terminal adenylate cyclase domain.

Future Microbiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biotechnology, BMS Block-1, South Campus, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

The confirmation of lipolytic activity and role of Rv1900c in the mycobacterium physiology /N-terminus domain () were cloned in pET28a/, purified by affinity chromatography and characterized. A zone of clearance on tributyrin-agar and activity with NP-decanoate confirmed the lipolytic activity of Rv1900c. The Rv1900NT demonstrated higher enzyme specific activity, V and , but Rv1900c was more thermostable. Read More

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The role of imaging in pelvic exenteration for gynecological cancers.

Br J Radiol 2021 May 7:20201460. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Pelvic exenteration (PE) is one of the most challenging gynecologic oncologic surgeries and is an overriding term for different procedures that entail radical en bloc resection of the female reproductive organs and removal of additional adjacent affected pelvic organs (bladder, rectum, anus, etc.) with concomitant surgical reconstruction to restore bodily functions. Multimodality cross-sectional imaging with MRI, PET/CT, and CT plays an integral part in treatment decision-making, not only for the appropriate patient selection but also for surveillance after surgery. Read More

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A series of COVID-19 autopsies with clinical and pathologic comparisons to both seasonal and pandemic influenza.

J Pathol Clin Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pathology, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

Autopsies of patients who have died from COVID-19 have been crucial in delineating patterns of injury associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Despite their utility, comprehensive autopsy studies are somewhat lacking relative to the global burden of disease, and very few comprehensive studies contextualize the findings to other fatal viral infections. We developed a novel autopsy protocol in order to perform postmortem examinations on victims of COVID-19 and herein describe detailed clinical information, gross findings, and histologic features observed in the first 16 complete COVID-19 autopsies. Read More

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To hum or not to hum: Neural transcriptome signature of male courtship vocalization in a teleost fish.

Genes Brain Behav 2021 May 7:e12740. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States.

For many animal species, vocal communication is a critical social behavior and often a necessary component of reproductive success. Additionally, vocalizations are often demanding motor acts. Wanting to know whether a specific molecular toolkit might be required for vocalization, we used RNA-sequencing to investigate neural gene expression underlying the performance of an extreme vocal behavior, the courtship hum of the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus). Read More

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Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase aggravates oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in asthma by suppressing the Nrf2 pathway.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Asthma is a chronic airway disease that causes excessive inflammation, oxidative stress, mucus production and bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fbp1) is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in gluconeogenesis and plays a critical role in several cancers. However, its role in inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, is unclear. Read More

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Intrapulmonary distal airway stem cell transplantation repairs lung injury in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Cell Prolif 2021 May 7:e13046. Epub 2021 May 7.

East Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible lung tissue damage including chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which could further develop into respiratory failure. Many studies have revealed a potential regenerative function of the distal airway stem/progenitor cells (DASCs) after lung injury.

Materials And Methods: Mouse and human DASCs were expanded, analysed, and engrafted into injured mouse lungs. Read More

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CircSLC7A2 protects against osteoarthritis through inhibition of the miR-4498/TIMP3 axis.

Cell Prolif 2021 May 7:e13047. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Objectives: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that compete against other endogenous RNA species, such as microRNAs, and have been implicated in many diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of a new circRNA (circSLC7A2) in osteoarthritis (OA).

Materials And Methods: The relative expression of circSLC7A2 was significantly lower in OA tissues than it was in matched controls, as shown by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Read More

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Characterization of the Structural Determinants of the Ubiquitin-Dependent Proteasomal Degradation of Human Hepatic Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase.

Biochem J 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

University of California San Francisco Center for the Health Professions, San Francisco, California, United States.

Human hepatic tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (hTDO) is a homotetrameric hemoprotein. It is one of the most rapidly degraded liver proteins with a half-life (t1/2) of ~2.3 h, relative to an average t1/2 of ~2-3 days for total liver protein. Read More

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Dendritic cell PIK3C3/VPS34 controls the pathogenicity of CNS autoimmunity independently of LC3-associated phagocytosis.

Autophagy 2021 May 7:1-10. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.

PIK3C3/VPS34 is a key player in macroautophagy/autophagy and MAP1LC3/LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), which play critical roles in dendritic cell (DC) function. In this study, we assessed the contribution of PIK3C3 to DC function during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). We found that -deficient DCs exhibit attenuated capacity to reactivate encephalitogenic T cells in the central nervous system, leading to reduced incidence and severity of EAE in DC-specific -deficient mice. Read More

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Type III secreted effectors that target mitochondria.

Cell Microbiol 2021 May 6:e13352. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, Safra Campus Givat Ram, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

A type III secretion system (T3SS) is used by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens to secrete and translocate a battery of proteins, termed effectors, from the bacteria directly into the host cells. These effectors, which are thought to play a key role in bacterial virulence, hijack and modify the activity of diverse host cell organelles, including mitochondria. Mitochondria - the energy powerhouse of the cell - are important cell organelles that play role in numerous critical cellular processes, including the initiation of apoptosis and the induction of innate immunity. Read More

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The IDIP framework for assessing protein function and its application to the prion protein.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Theoretical and Philosophical Biology, Department of Philosophy, University College London, Bloomsbury, London, WC1E 6BT, U.K.

The quest to determine the function of a protein can represent a profound challenge. Although this task is the mandate of countless research groups, a general framework for how it can be approached is conspicuously lacking. Moreover, even expectations for when the function of a protein can be considered to be 'known' are not well defined. Read More

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Authentic leadership, nurse-assessed adverse patient events, and quality of care: the mediating role of nurses' safety actions.

J Nurs Manag 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Adult Health and Critical Care Department, College of Nursing, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman.

Background: Authentic leadership has been consistently cited as a strong precursor of sustained job performance and work effectiveness in nurses; however, studies linking authentic leadership with nurses' safety actions, nurse-assessed adverse patient events, and nursing care quality are scarce.

Aim: To examine whether nurses' safety actions mediate the relationship between authentic leadership, nurse-assessed adverse events, and nursing care quality.

Methods: A multi-centre, cross-sectional study involving 1,608 nurses employed in acute care facilities in Oman. Read More

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The cell cycle regulatory gene polymorphisms TP53 (rs1042522) and MDM2 (rs2279744) in lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii 2020 Nov;24(7):777-784

L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Institute of Cell Biology and Biotechnology, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.

Lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the world. Although the mechanism of lung cancer is still unknown, a large number of studies have found a link between gene polymorphisms and the risk of lung cancer. The tumor suppressor p53 plays a crucial role in maintaining genomic stability and tumor prevention. Read More

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November 2020