18,077 results match your criteria criminal justice

FEATURE The Perils of Child "Protection" for Children of Color: Lessons From History.

Pediatrics 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Criminal Justice, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey.

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Illicit drug profiling practices in Finland: An exploratory study about end users' perceptions.

Forensic Sci Int 2021 May 21;324:110848. Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Criminal Justice, University of Lausanne, Batochime, 1015 Lausanne, Dorigny, Switzerland.

Illicit drug profiling (i.e. chemical and/or physical profiling) to compare and relate illicit drugs samples has been actively used in routine case work at the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) in Finland. Read More

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Intersections of Treatment, Surveillance, and Criminal Law Responses to HIV and COVID-19.

Am J Public Health 2021 Jun 10:e1-e3. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Colin Hastings is with the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Concordia University, Montreal, QC. Alexander McClelland is with the Institute of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON. Adrian Guta is with the School of Social Work, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON. Maureen Owino is with the Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Toronto, ON. Eli Manning is with the School of Social Work, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS. Michael Orsini is with the Institute of Feminist and Gender Studies, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON. Richard Elliott is with the HIV Legal Network, Toronto, ON. Marilou Gagnon is with the School of Nursing, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC. Stephen Molldrem is with the Department of Anthropology, University of California, Irvine.

Public health institutions are playing an increasingly central role in everyday life as part of the response to the COVID-19 pandemic (e.g., through stay-at-home orders, contact tracing, and the enforcement of disease control measures by law enforcement). Read More

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Don't know responding in young maltreated children: The effects of wh- questions type and enhanced interview instructions.

Law Hum Behav 2021 Apr;45(2):124-137

Gould School of Law, University of Southern California.

Objective: Two studies examined 4-7-year-old maltreated children's "I don't know" (IDK) responses to wh- questions after receiving various interview instructions.

Hypotheses: We predicted (H1) children would be less inclined to give IDK responses and more inclined to guess to color/number questions compared to other wh- questions; (H2) IDK instructions would increase children's IDK responding compared to no instructions, with an increase in accuracy; but (H3) instructions would be less effective in reducing guessing for color/number questions than other wh- questions. In Study 1, we predicted that (H4) verbalizing a commitment to answer IDK would be particularly effective. Read More

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COVID-19 exacerbates existing system factors that disadvantage defendants: Findings from a national survey of defense attorneys.

Law Hum Behav 2021 Apr;45(2):81-96

Department of Psychology, Montclair State University.

Objective: COVID-19 has impacted many facets of daily life and the legal system is no exception. Legal scholars have hypothesized that the effects of the pandemic may contribute to more coercive plea bargains (Cannon, 2020; Johnson, 2020). In this study, we explored defense attorneys' perceptions of whether and how the plea process has changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Enhanced adsorption of malathion and phoxim by a three-dimensional magnetic graphene oxide-functionalized citrus peel-derived bio-composite.

Anal Methods 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

College of Pharmacy, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.

By integrating the steps of direct magnetization and one-pot pyrolysis, a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic graphene oxide-functionalized citrus peel-derived bio-composite (mGOBC) was synthesized and characterized successfully, and it was proved to possess a three-dimensional (3D) porous architecture and graphitic structure. Its potential as an enrichment adsorbent was investigated using adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm models to establish an effective analytical method for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in vegetables. The experimental results indicated that the adsorption was better fitted with the pseudo second order model and Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacities for malathion and phoxim were 25. Read More

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The Ontario Forensic Mental Health System: A Population-based Review: Le système ontarien de services psychiatriques médico-légaux: Une étude dans la population.

Can J Psychiatry 2021 Jun 10:7067437211023103. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

228603Forensic Psychiatry Program, St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to increase the understanding of the Canadian forensic psychiatry system by providing a population-based overview of the Ontario forensic mental health system.

Methods: Data were collected on 1,240 accused adults who were subject to the jurisdiction of the Ontario Review Board (ORB) between 2014 and 2015. Archival data were retrieved from annual ORB hearing hospital reports for accused supervised by all nine adult forensic psychiatry facilities across Ontario. Read More

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Factors Associated with Incarceration in Older Adults Experiencing Homelessness: Results from the HOPE HOME Study.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: In the US, the median age of adults experiencing homelessness and incarceration is increasing. Little is known about risk factors for incarceration among older adults experiencing homelessness. To develop targeted interventions, there is a need to understand their risk factors for incarceration. Read More

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Medicinal cannabis and driving: the intersection of health and road safety policy.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 Jun 6;97:103307. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Behaviours and Health Risks Program, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia. National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia.

Background: Recent shifting attitudes towards the medical use of cannabis has seen legal access pathways established in many jurisdictions in North America, Europe and Australasia. However, the positioning of cannabis as a legitimate medical product produces some tensions with other regulatory frameworks. A notable example of this is the so-called 'zero tolerance' drug driving legal frameworks, which criminalise the presence of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) in a driver's bodily fluids irrespective of impairment. Read More

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A Systematic Review of the Biological Correlates and Consequences of Childhood Maltreatment and Adverse Childhood Experiences.

Trauma Violence Abuse 2021 Jun 9:15248380211021613. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Criminal Justice, 2514University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Childhood maltreatment (CM) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are two primary forms of interpersonal victimization that have been associated with a host of deleterious health outcomes. Studies over the past decade have begun to use a range of biologically informed methods to better understand the role biology plays in the relationship between CM, ACEs, and later life outcomes. This line of research has shown that both forms of victimization occur at sensitive periods of development, which can increase the likelihood of "getting under the skin" and influence health and behavior across the life course. Read More

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The prevalence of mental disorders among offenders admitted at health facilities in Bizzah Makhate Correctional Service Centre, Kroonstand, South Africa.

Psychiatr Psychol Law 2020 May 20;27(6):963-972. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Psychiatry, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mental disorders among offenders admitted at the health establishments in Bizzah Makhathe Correctional Centre, South Africa. Structured psychiatric interviews were conducted to elicit the information. The majority of the participants were young male Africans with low educational levels and poor socio-economic status. Read More

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Demographic, clinical and forensic characteristics of alleged offenders referred to West End Specialised Hospital, Kimberley, South Africa.

Psychiatr Psychol Law 2020 May 5;27(6):925-938. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Psychiatry, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

The study investigated demographic, clinical and forensic characteristics of alleged offenders referred for forensic assessment. A data collection form was used to gather information from 155 offenders' clinical records. The subjects were mainly young males, aged between 18 and 35 years, with low educational levels and high unemployment rate. Read More

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Georgian Med News 2021 Apr(313):186-192

¹Khmelnitsky Cooperative Trade and Economic Institute, Ukraine; ²Ukrainian Bar Association.

The purpose of the article is, on the basis of a comparative legal study of the general and distinctive features of the norms of the criminal procedure legislation of Ukraine and Georgia regarding the possible participation of a doctor during the interrogation of a minor, to determine the expediency and necessity of the mandatory participation of a doctor during the interrogation of a child. Objective - on the basis of the analysis of the norms of the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine and the Criminal Procedure Code of Georgia, as well as taking into account the vulnerability and originality of the development of the psyche of a minor, the specifics of the implementation of pediatric methods in overcoming barriers to communication with a child, outline ways to improve the norms of criminal law in both countries in this domain. It has been established that the constitutional provision of the right to human health (in particular of a child) in Ukraine and Georgia is contained not only in the codes and medical legislation of both states, but also in a number of international legal acts that have been ratified by their parliaments. Read More

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Georgian Med News 2021 Apr(313):113-117

4Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies named after S. Gzhytskyi, Ukraine.

The aim of the article is scientific conceptualization of the problem of mental derangement as a mandatory medical criterion of limited sanity according to criminal legislation by experience of Ukraine and some foreign countries and development of new approaches to such status assessment. Empirical study base of the problem consists of judgments of conviction taken from Unified State Register of Court Rulings of Ukraine and carried out on persons who commit crimes in the state of limited sanity from March 1st, 2014, till August 1st, 2020. Results of some foreign researchers' studies of the problem in question have been used as well. Read More

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"I Was Worried I Wouldn't Be Believed": Sexual Assault Victims' Perceptions of the Police in the Decision to Not Report.

Violence Vict 2021 Jun;36(3):455-476

Department of Sociology & Social Work, Calvin University, Grand Rapids, MI.

Most sexual assault victims make the conscious decision to report to the police. Concerns about the police appear to be prominent in victims' decision-making, but we do not know specifically what these concerns entail, and therefore cannot address them. A qualitative inquiry is needed to understand perceptions of the police in reporting decisions, from the voices of victims themselves. Read More

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Predicting Violent Victimization Using Social Network Analysis From Police Data.

Violence Vict 2021 Jun;36(3):436-454

Department of Criminology, California State University, Fresno, CA.

Extant research suggests that membership in crime networks explains vulnerability to violent crime victimization. Consequently, identifying deviant social networks and understanding their structure and individual members' role in them could provide insight into victimization risk. Identifying social networks may help tailor crime prevention strategies to mitigate victimization risks and dismantle deviant networks. Read More

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Seeking Help From Formal Sources Among Teen Dating Violence Victims: Exploring the Role of Incident and Victim Characteristics.

Violence Vict 2021 Jun;36(3):401-423

Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of West Florida, University Pkwy, Pensacola, Florida.

Most teen dating violence (TDV) victims do not seek help after their victimization experience. While research has identified that victims are more likely to turn to informal versus formal sources, there is a lack of knowledge about what factors are predictive of help-seeking from formal sources. The current study explored the impact of incident and victim characteristics on help-seeking from formal sources among middle and high school TDV victims ( = 2,174). Read More

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Recollections of Maternal and Paternal Punitive Discipline in Childhood and Violent Attitudes and Behaviors in Adulthood: A Mediation Model.

Violence Vict 2021 Jun;36(3):381-400

Department of Social Work and Quality of Life Lab, University Research Centre `Institute of AgriFood and Life Sciences' Hellenic Mediterannean University Heraklion, Greece.

This cross-sectional retrospective study on a convenience sample of 973 Greek undergraduate students examined whether the violent socialization in childhood and the criminal history in adolescence would be mediators between parents' harsh discipline and young adults' violent attitudes and behaviors (VA/B). Structural Equation Modelling indicated that both the mothers' and fathers' punitive discipline at age 10 have an indirect impact, through the mediators, on young adults' VA/B. A direct effect was also found from mothers' and fathers' punitive discipline to violence approval and from fathers' punitive discipline to antisocial personality symptoms, and corporal punishment law attitude. Read More

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Patient Characteristics and Subsequent Health Care Use by Location of SARS-CoV-2 Testing Initiation in a Safety-Net Health System.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 06 1;4(6):e2112857. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Health, Homelessness, and Criminal Justice Lab, Hennepin Healthcare Research Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

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Interventions to Prevent Drugged Driving: A Systematic Review.

Am J Prev Med 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Division of Cardiology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Context: Literature suggests that cannabis legalization may increase fatal motor vehicle collisions. However, evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent drugged driving is limited.

Evidence Acquisition: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Embase, SafetyLit, Criminal Justice Database, Transport Research International Documentation, bibliographies, and relevant gray literature were searched systematically through May 2020. Read More

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Health care and social justice implications of incarceration for pregnant people who use drugs.

Int Rev Psychiatry 2021 Jun 7:1-15. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

The experiences of and care for pregnant, incarcerated people with substance use disorders represent a convergence of numerous clinical, historical, racialized, legal, and gendered factors. Understanding how these forces shape how they became enmeshed in the criminal legal system as well as the context of the care they do or do not receive while in custody is essential for promoting equitable maternal health care. In this review, we describe the prevalence of SUD among pregnant people behind bars, the health care landscape of incarceration, access to treatment for opioid use disorder for incarcerated pregnant and postpartum people, and nuances of providing such treatment in an inherently coercive setting. Read More

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A Dual-Process Approach to Moral Panic and Public Support for Sex Offender Management Policies.

J Interpers Violence 2021 Jun 7:8862605211023490. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Rutgers University, School of Criminal Justice, New Jersey, United States.

The current study explores if and how dual-process thinking styles (System I/experiential and System II/rational processing) predict and explain the degree to which members of the public express moral panic toward and support for existing sex offender management policies (registration, notification, residence restrictions), regardless of their efficacy or effects on recidivism rates, for different types of individuals who commit sex offenses (sex offender, juvenile sex offender, cybersex offender, female sex offender, rapist, child molester). Online experimental methods were used with a lay sample ( = 324). Results show that the extent to which participants exhibited a reliance on System I processing significantly predicted their feelings of moral panic (concern, hostility, and volatility) toward individuals classified as child molesters. Read More

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Community perspectives on supervised consumption sites: Insights from four U.S. counties deeply affected by opioids.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Apr 20;131:108397. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Drug Policy Research Center, RAND Corporation, 1776 Main St., Santa Monica, CA 90407, United States of America.

Background: To address the overdose crisis in the United States, expert groups have been nearly unanimous in calls for increasing access to evidence-based treatment and overdose reversal drugs. In some places there have also been calls for implementing supervised consumption sites (SCSs). Some cities-primarily in coastal urban areas-have explored the feasibility and acceptability of introducing them. Read More

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Exploring first responders' perceptions of medication for addiction treatment: Does stigma influence attitudes?

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 May 21;131:108485. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Criminal Justice, Penn State Altoona, 3000 Ivyside Park, Cypress Building, Room 101E, Altoona, PA 16601, USA. Electronic address:

Researchers have suggested that provider-based stigma of persons who suffer from opioid use disorder (OUD) in the criminal justice system serves as a barrier to fully implementing harm reduction strategies, such as the use of naloxone and medication for addiction treatment (MAT). While scholars have begun to explore the relationships between stigma and first responders' attitudes toward naloxone, little work has been done to assess first responders' attitudes toward other forms of harm reduction, including MAT. The goal of the current exploratory study was to help fill this gap in the literature by assessing first responders' (N = 282) attitudes toward MAT, as well as the correlates of these attitudes. Read More

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Employing the Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model and predicting successful completion in an alternative drug court program: Preliminary findings from the Orleans Parish Drug Court.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Apr 30;131:108453. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University School of Medicine, 1440 Canal St., #8448, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. Electronic address:

Drug courts have been in operation for decades to provide treatment alternatives to individuals whose substance use and related behaviors have brought them into contact with the criminal justice system. As research on drug courts have evolved, it has been demonstrated that different types of offenders have different mental health and substance use treatment needs. One way of approaching treatment in court-mandated substance use treatment is by the application of the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model (Andrews, Zinger et al. Read More

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Life after incarceration: The impact of stability on formerly imprisoned Oxford House residents.

J Prev Interv Community 2021 Jun 7:1-14. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Center for Community Research, DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, roughly 65% of the US prison population is diagnosed with a substance use disorder (SUD) and over 600,000 individuals are released from incarceration yearly. Thus, it is important to better understand the factors that allow individuals recovering from SUD to reintegrate into communities after incarceration. This study sought to understand the relationship between a personality mediator (stability) and quality of life (QOL) and belonging support (BS), as well as the relationship between this mediator and QOL and psychological sense of community (PSOC) for 131 individuals living in Oxford House (OH) recovery homes. Read More

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The strength of our stories: a qualitative analysis of a multi-institutional GME storytelling event.

Med Educ Online 2021 Dec;26(1):1929798

Departments of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Center for the Art of Medicine, University of Minnesota, USA.

: Storytelling is a powerful tool for encouraging reflection and connection among both speakers and listeners. While growing in popularity, studying the benefits of formal oral storytelling events within graduate medical education remains rare. Our research question was: could an oral storytelling event for GME trainees and faculty be an effective approach for promoting well-being and resilience among participants?: We used multiple approaches to gather perspectives from physician participants (storytellers and audience members) at an annual oral storytelling event for residents, fellows, and faculty from seven academic health systems in Minnesota. Read More

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December 2021

Care, not incarceration: exploring the carcerality of fisheries enforcement and potential decolonial futures in Hawai'i.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 30;7(4):e06916. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, 1910 East-West Road, Sherman Laboratory 101, Honolulu, HI 96822, United States.

Current U.S. environmental management paradigms default to enforcement mechanisms that feed into the prison industrial complex, such as fines and jailing. Read More

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Shift work and overtime across a career in law enforcement: a 15-year study.

Policing 2021 Apr;44(2):200-212

Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA.

Purpose –: To characterize changes in work hours across a career in law enforcement.

Design/methodology/approach –: = 113 police officers enrolled in the BCOPS cohort were studied. The police officers started their careers in law enforcement between 1994 and 2001 at a mid-sized, unionized police department in northwestern New York and continued to work at this police department for at least 15 years. Read More

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Cultural awareness training for dental students.

J Dent Educ 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

The Percy Ellis Sutton SEEK Department, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York, School of Social Work, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the impact of a full-day workshop on increasing cultural awareness among incoming first-year (DDS-I) and post-doctoral (PGY-I) dental students at the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine.

Methods: The workshop focused on developing students' cultural awareness regarding dimensions of identity, recognition of power and privilege, importance of cross-cultural understanding and communication, and the role of self-reflection through direct teaching, interactive discussions, and reflective writing. A convenience sample of 83 DDS-I and 30 PGY-I students from the 2019 enrollment class were recruited. Read More

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