14,936 results match your criteria coverage rates

Association of vaccine hesitancy and immunization coverage rates in the European Union.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

University of Exeter, United Kingdom.

While previous studies have validated vaccine hesitancy scales with uptake behavior at the individual level, the conditions under which aggregated survey data are useful are less clear. We show that vaccine public opinion data aggregated at the subnational level can serve as a valid indicator of aggregate vaccine behaviour. We use a public opinion survey (Eurobarometer EB 91. Read More

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State-level trends in sudden unexpected infant death and immunization in the United States: an ecological study.

BMC Pediatr 2021 Jun 11;21(1):274. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) continues to be a major contributor to infant mortality in the United States. The objective was to analyze time trends in SUID and their association with immunization coverage.

Methods: The number of deaths and live births per year and per state (1992-2015) was obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Read More

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Encrusters maintain stable carbonate production despite temperature anomalies among two inshore island reefs of the Pilbara, Western Australia.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Jun 3;169:105386. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley Campus, Perth, WA, Australia.

Encrusting reef organisms such as crustose coralline algae (CCA), serpulid worms, bivalves, bryozoans, and foraminifera (collectively termed encrusters) provide essential ecosystem services and are a critical part of the reef framework. Globally, research into in situ growth and carbonate production of encrusters has focused on clear water fore-reef settings in the Pacific and Caribbean, with limited studies being conducted on marginal reef systems or within the Indian Ocean. Here we examined spatial and temporal variation in CCA coverage (%) and total encruster carbonate production rates (g cm yr) across two inshore turbid island reefs of northern Western Australia. Read More

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Isoprenoid emissions from natural vegetation increased rapidly in eastern China.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 8:111462. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Qingdao, 266237, China.

An accurate local biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission inventory in Shandong Province is crucial for air pollution control in Shandong and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China. We estimated the multi-year isoprenoid emissions from natural vegetation in Shandong Province at a spatial resolution of 4 km × 4 km using the MEGAN2.1 model. Read More

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Inequities in childhood immunisation coverage associated with socioeconomic, geographic, maternal, child, and place of birth characteristics in Kenya.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 11;21(1):553. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: The global Immunisation Agenda 2030 highlights coverage and equity as a strategic priority goal to reach high equitable immunisation coverage at national levels and in all districts. We estimated inequities in full immunisation coverage associated with socioeconomic, geographic, maternal, child, and place of birth characteristics among children aged 12-23 months in Kenya.

Methods: We analysed full immunisation coverage (1-dose BCG, 3-dose DTP-HepB-Hib (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type B), 3-dose polio, 1-dose measles, and 3-dose pneumococcal vaccines) of 3943 children aged 12-23 months from the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. Read More

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HPV Vaccination Trends and Disparities in the United States - Who Is Getting Left Behind?

Sex Transm Dis 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

1California Pacific/Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute 2Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute 3California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute 4University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine 5Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine.

Background: US guidelines recommend human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for males and females up to 26, with more recent extended coverage for those 27-45 years based on discussion with patients' clinician. This study seeks to assess trends and disparities of vaccination in the United States based on demographic characteristics.

Methods: Data was obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2016. Read More

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Fatigue failure and success rate of lithium disilicate table-tops as a function of cement thickness.

J Prosthodont Res 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Section of Prosthodontics, Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Science, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna.

Purpose: Under thin, partial coverage restoration the proper cement thickness to be clinically employed still remains an issue. The aim of this study was to determine the failure and success rates of simplified lithium disilicate occlusal veneers as a function of cement thickness. The null hypothesis was that cement thickness has no effect on the fatigue resistance. Read More

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Confidence interval methods for antimicrobial resistance surveillance data.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2021 Jun 9;10(1):91. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP), Washington, DC, USA.

Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the greatest global health challenges today, but burden assessment is hindered by uncertainty of AMR prevalence estimates. Geographical representation of AMR estimates typically pools data collected from several laboratories; however, these aggregations may introduce bias by not accounting for the heterogeneity of the population that each laboratory represents.

Methods: We used AMR data from up to 381 laboratories in the United States from The Surveillance Network to evaluate methods for estimating uncertainty of AMR prevalence estimates. Read More

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Comparative study of vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling and vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane flap covering in idiopathic macular hole treatment: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May;10(5):5474-5482

The Second Clinical Medical College of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China; Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background: To compare the therapeutic effects of vitrectomy (PPV) combined with the internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap coverage and PPV in combination with ILM peeling on the idiopathic large macular hole (MH), in order to better guide the treatment of large MH.

Methods: Searching was conducted within PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CNKI, and Wanfang databases, and relevant pieces of literature between 2010 and 2020 published in English or Chinese were included.

Results: A total of 11 studies including 667 patients and 667 affected eyes were included; the effective rate of hole closure between the 2 groups were compared in 11 studies. Read More

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Bio-inspired fractal textile device for rapid sweat collection and monitoring.

Lab Chip 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. and Advanced Research Center for Green Materials Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

In this study, a new design concept in sweat collection was developed to achieve rapid and intact sweat sampling for analytical purposes. Textiles with fast water wicking properties were first selected and laser engraved into tree-like bifurcating channels for sweat collection. The fractal framework of the bifurcating textile channels was theoretically derived to minimize the flow resistance for fast sweat absorption. Read More

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Portuguese parental beliefs and attitudes towards vaccination.

Health Psychol Behav Med 2021 May 6;9(1):422-435. Epub 2021 May 6.

Faculdade de Psicologia, Universidade de Lisboa, Alameda da Universidade, Lisboa, Portugal.

Introduction: Portugal has one of the highest vaccine coverage rates among European countries, associated with excellent vaccine convenience and confidence levels. Considering both the high rate of pediatric vaccination in Portugal and the excellent indicators of vaccine convenience established, an analysis of confidence and complacency indicators could help understand this positive example. This study aimed to characterize parental beliefs according to the intention to vaccinate a next child and identify cognitive and demographic predictors of that intention in a Portuguese sample. Read More

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Does National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program Represent Good Value for Money? Results from a Return-on-Investment Model in Vietnam.

Health Serv Insights 2021 24;14:11786329211017418. Epub 2021 May 24.

Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.

To provide important evidence for the resource allocation process in Vietnam, this research was conducted to explore the return on investment (ROI) of the national colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program. A decision tree model was designed to estimate the cost and cost savings of a national screening program (ie, providing annual fecal occult blood test [FOBT], following with colonoscopy in case of FOBT positive for the medium-risk group over 50 years old) compared to no screening scenario. This was the first attempt in estimating the ROI of a public health program in Vietnam. Read More

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Child health and the implementation of Community and District-management Empowerment for Scale-up (CODES) in Uganda: a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Jun;6(6)

Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, Makerere University School of Public Health, Kampala, Uganda.

Introduction: Uganda's district-level administrative units buttress the public healthcare system. In many districts, however, local capacity is incommensurate with that required to plan and implement quality health interventions. This study investigates how a district management strategy informed by local data and community dialogue influences health services. Read More

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The Association Between Hemoglobin A1c Levels and Inflatable Penile Prosthesis Infection: Analysis of US Insurance Claims Data.

J Sex Med 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Urology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Background: The association between elevated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and the risk of postoperative infection after penile prosthesis surgery remains controversial.

Aim: To examine the association between HbA1c levels and penile implant infections in men undergoing inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) surgery for erectile dysfunction using a large insurance claims database.

Methods: This was a retrospective review using Optum's de-identified Clinformatics Data Mart Database. Read More

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Opportunities of super high-density olive orchard to improve soil quality: Management guidelines for application of pruning residues.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 5;293:112785. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

ETSIAM, University of Cordoba, Spain. Electronic address:

Applying pruning residues in the lanes of olive groves has become a popular practice because it is economical and accrues benefits for soil and water management. This study presents an analysis of the impact of different rates of pruning residue on soil properties, in particular related with soil quality. Over 4 annual campaigns, chopped pruning residues used as a mulch were analyzed in terms of composition, coverage and moisture content to evaluate their effects on the amount of soil organic carbon (-10 cm and -20 cm) and CO emissions, temperature and moisture. Read More

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Microdroplet Mass Spectrometry Enables Extremely Accelerated Pepsin Digestion of Proteins.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Institute of Organic Chemistry and Center for Molecular Biosciences (CMBI), Leopold-Franzens University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

In microdroplets, rates of chemical or biomolecular reactions can exceed those in the bulk phase by more than a million times. As electrospray ionization-based mass spectrometry (MS) involves the formation of charged microdroplets, reaction acceleration and online MS monitoring of reaction products can readily be performed at the same time. We investigated accelerated enzymatic reactions in microdroplets and focused on the proteolytic enzyme pepsin. Read More

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Physical and biological performance evaluation of disinfection systems for transportation vehicles against AI virus.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea.

In order to prevent the outbreak of infectious diseases that cause huge losses economically and socially, domestic livestock farms and related facilities have introduced automatic and semiautomatic disinfectant solution spraying system for vehicle. However, the facilities standards and specifications are different for each manufacturer, and there is no scientific performance evaluation. The puropose of this study is to develop physical and biological evaluation methods. Read More

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Bridging the gap: aligning economic research with disease burden.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Jun;6(6)

Center for the Evaluation of Value and Risk in Health, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Introduction: Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is critical for identifying high-value interventions that address significant unmet need. This study examines whether CEA study volume is proportionate to the burden associated with 21 major disease categories.

Methods: We searched the Tufts Medical Center CEA and Global Health CEA Registries for studies published between 2010 and 2019 that measured cost per quality-adjusted life-year or cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY). Read More

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What has comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge got to do with HIV testing among men in Kenya and Mozambique? Evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys.

J Biosoc Sci 2021 Jun 8:1-14. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Australia.

People living with undiagnosed HIV are big contributors to the transmission of the virus. Although measures have been made to scale up HIV prevention and voluntary counselling and testing in sub-Saharan Africa, testing coverage remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries, including Mozambique and Kenya, where most people live with HIV/AIDS. Studies have shown that, in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, men are less likely to test for HIV compared with women. Read More

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Analysis of epidemiological serosurvey of hepatitis B virus among people under 29 years of age in Jiangsu Province, China.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Jun 7:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Expanded Program on Immunization, Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

: The purpose of this paper was to analyze the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and hepatitis B core anti-body (anti-HBc)in1-29 years old living in the most populous eastern province of China,22 years after introduction of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) vaccination of infants and provide provincial baseline data for developping a better prevention and control plan for hepatitis B virus (HBV)in Jiangsu Province, China: The incidence rates of HBV in Jiangsu province from 2004 to 2014 were obtained from the National Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NNDRS). A stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select 3,002 participants aged 1-29 years across 13 HBV monitoring points throughout the province, which had been classified as either urban or rural. HBV serological markers were measured by Abbott microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) kits (Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, Illinois). Read More

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Ageism in COVID-Related Newspaper Coverage: The First Month of a Pandemic.

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

University of Kansas, School of Social Welfare.

Objectives: Media sources have consistently described older adults as a medically vulnerable population during the COVID-19 pandemic, yet a lack of concern over their health and safety has resulted in dismissal and devaluation. This unprecedented situation highlights ongoing societal ageism and its manifestations in public discourse. This analysis asks how national news sources performed explicit and implicit ageism during the first month of the pandemic. Read More

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Association of Lower Socioeconomic Status and SARS-CoV-2 Positivity in Los Angeles, California.

J Prev Med Public Health 2021 May 13;54(3):161-165. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Objectives: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads heterogeneously, disproportionately impacting poor and minority communities. The relationship between poverty and race is complex, with a diverse set of structural and systemic factors driving higher rates of poverty among minority populations. The factors that specifically contribute to the disproportionate rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection, however, are not clearly understood. Read More

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Ipsilateral Carotid Bypass Outcomes in Hostile Neck Anatomy.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Feinberg Northwestern School of Medicine, Division of Vascular Surgery, Surgery Department.

Objective: To determine differences in outcomes among patients undergoing ipsilateral carotid bypass with hostile or normal neck anatomy.

Methods: Single-center retrospective review of all ipsilateral extra-cranial carotid bypasses performed between 1998 and 2018.

Results: Forty-eight patients underwent ipsilateral carotid bypass from the common carotid artery to either the internal carotid artery or carotid bifurcation during the study period. Read More

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Incidence of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2000-2015: The Interplay Between Social Determinants and Behavioral Risk Factors.

AIDS Behav 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle, WA, USA.

HIV incidence in sub-Saharan Africa declined substantially between 2000 and 2015. In this analysis, we consider the relative associations of nine structural and individual determinants with this decline. A linear mixed effects model of logged HIV incidence rates versus determinants was used. Read More

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Individual and community-level determinants of poor tetanus toxoid immunization among pregnant women in Ethiopia using data from 2016 Ethiopian demographic and health survey; multilevel analysis.

Arch Public Health 2021 Jun 4;79(1):92. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of midwifery, school of nursing and midwifery, college of medicine and health sciences, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia.

Background: Tetanus is a vaccine-preventable disease that can occur in all populations, with neonates and pregnant women being at the most risk. Ethiopia has the highest maternal and neonatal tetanus morbidity and mortality rates. Besides, only 49% of mothers get vaccinated with adequate tetanus toxoid in Ethiopia which is below the world health organization recommendation. Read More

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Trends in the rates of health-care providers' recommendation for HPV vaccine from 2012 to 2018: a multi-round cross-sectional analysis of the health information national trends survey.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Jun 4:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

The 2012 report of the President's Cancer Panel highlighted the overriding contribution of missed clinical opportunities to suboptimal HPV vaccination coverage. Since then, it remains unknown whether the rates of provider recommendations for the HPV vaccine in the US population have increased. We conducted an analysis of four rounds of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a household survey of civilian US residents aged 18 y or older. Read More

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A Web-Based Digital Contact Tracing Strategy Addresses Stigma Concerns Among Individuals Evaluated for COVID-19.

Telemed J E Health 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Emergency Medicine, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.

Conventional contact tracing approaches have not kept pace with the scale of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the highly anticipated smartphone applications for digital contact tracing efforts are plagued by low adoption rates attributed to privacy concerns; therefore, innovation is needed in this public health capability. This study involved a cross-sectional, nonrepresentative, online survey in the United States of individuals tested for COVID-19. Testing survey items measured the performance of conventional contact tracing programs, quantified the stigma related to the notification of COVID-19 close contacts, and assessed the acceptability of a website service for digital contact tracing. Read More

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Salp fecal pellets release more bioavailable iron to Southern Ocean phytoplankton than krill fecal pellets.

Curr Biol 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Marine Botany, University of Bremen, Bibliothekstraße 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany; Ecological Chemistry, Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany.

Over the last decades, it has been reported that the habitat of the Southern Ocean (SO) key species Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has contracted to high latitudes, putatively due to reduced winter sea ice coverage, while salps as Salpa thompsoni have extended their dispersal to the former krill habitats. To date, the potential implications of this population shift on the biogeochemical cycling of the limiting micronutrient iron (Fe) and its bioavailability to SO phytoplankton has never been tested. Based on uptake of fecal pellet (FP)-released Fe by SO phytoplankton, this study highlights how efficiently krill and salps recycle Fe. Read More

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The Affordable Care Act and Health Care Access and Utilization Among White, Asian, and Latino Immigrants in California.

Med Care 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD Department of Health Management and Policy, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA Department of Health Policy and Management, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine changes in health care access and utilization for White, Asian, and Latino immigrants associated with the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in California.

Study Design: Using the 2011-2013 and 2015-2017 California Health Interview Survey, we examined changes in 2 health care access and 2 utilization measures among 3 immigrant racial/ethnic groups. We estimated the unadjusted and adjusted percentage point changes in the pre-ACA and post-ACA periods. Read More

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