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O-JMeSH: creating a bilingual English-Japanese controlled vocabulary of MeSH UIDs through machine translation and mutual information.

Genomics Inform 2021 Sep 30;19(3):e26. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Graduate School of Integrative Science and Engineering, Tokyo City University, Tokyo 158-8557, Japan.

Previous approaches to create a controlled vocabulary for Japanese have resorted to existing bilingual dictionary and transformation rules to allow such mappings. However, given the possible new terms introduced due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the emphasis on respiratory and infection-related terms, coverage might not be guaranteed. We propose creating a Japanese bilingual controlled vocabulary based on MeSH terms assigned to COVID-19 related publications in this work. Read More

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September 2021

Regulation of non-conventional therapies in Portugal: lessons learnt for strengthening human resources in health.

Hum Resour Health 2021 09 17;19(1):114. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua da Junqueira, 100, 1359-008, Lisbon, Portugal.

Background: The integration of non-conventional therapies (NCT) into health policies and health services delivery is a worldwide trend and might have a role in achieving Universal Health Coverage. WHO has encouraged countries to integrate NCT into health service delivery and to increase the interest and utilization by consumers. Following two resolutions by the European Parliament and by the Council of Europe, in the late 1990s, recommending the recognition of NCT and calling for EU legislation on non-conventional forms of medicine, Portugal initiated, in 2003, its path towards regulation of NCT. Read More

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September 2021

Factors influencing motivation and job satisfaction of community health workers in Africa and Asia-A multi-country study.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Centre for Maternal and Newborn Health, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.

As key stakeholders continue to affirm the relevance of community health workers (CHWs) in universal health coverage, there is a need for a commensurate focus on their motivation and job satisfaction especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where they play prominent roles. Despite the wealth of literature on motivation and job satisfaction, many studies draw on research conducted in high-income settings. This study explored factors influencing motivation and satisfaction among CHWs in LMICs. Read More

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September 2021

Health reforms in the United States: The outlook after Biden's first 100 days.

Health Policy 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Coordinator of Berlin Hub, European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies and Berlin University of Technology, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

The November 2020 election of Joe Biden, coupled with the election of a Congress controlled by the Democratic Party, has the potential to dramatically alter the direction of health policy in the United States. Donald Trump failed to repeal the Affordable Care Act (ACA) but he managed to whittle down aspects of coverage protection. Historically, the first 100 days of a presidency are a bellwether of accomplishments to come. Read More

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Risk Perception and Willingness to Work Among Doctors and Medical Students of Karachi, Pakistan During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 10;14:3265-3273. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.

Purpose: During the timeline of twenty years, several epidemics and pandemics have occurred. Yet, a consistent feature of these public health crises is the surge in the demand for healthcare services exceeds the availability.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted in the month of June and July 2020 in Karachi, Pakistan. Read More

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Aquaporin-Incorporated Graphene-Oxide Membrane for Pressurized Desalination with Superior Integrity Enabled by Molecular Recognition.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Oct 16;8(20):e2101882. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 04763, Republic of Korea.

Aquaporins (AQPs), the natural water channel, have been actively investigated for overcoming the limitations of conventional desalination membranes. An AQP-based biomimetic high-pressure desalination membrane is designed by tethering AQP-carrying red blood cell membrane (RBCM) vesicles onto graphene oxide (GO). RBCMs with AQPs are incorporated into GO based on the molecular recognition between the integrin of RBCM and Arginine-Glycine-Aspartate (RGD) ligand on the GO surface. Read More

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October 2021

Outcomes of a universal neonatal hearing screening program of 9941 newborns over a one-year period in Campinas, Brazil.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Sep 13;148:110839. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening Program, Hospital Maternidade de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: To characterize the outcomes of a universal neonatal hearing screening program in Brazil.

Methods: Retrospective documentary analysis of the hearing screening of the neonates born in the hospital from August 2019 to July 2020. The universal neonatal hearing screening program performed the examination of TEOAE in newborn without risk factors for hearing loss and TEOAE and aABR in neonates with risk factors for hearing loss. Read More

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September 2021

A bio-inspired localization-free stochastic coverage algorithm with verified reachability.

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 07 29;16(5). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Georgia Institute of Technology, North Ave NW, Atlanta, GA 30332, United States of America.

Dependence on constant availability to an external localization service is often unreliable and infeasible in mobile robots. In this paper, we take inspiration from a continuous fish motion model, the persistent turning Walker (PTW), to devise a strategy which is able to achieve 2D and 3D coverage in an unknown environment in the absence of a localization service, such as a global positioning system (GPS). This is achieved by converting the continuous-time dynamical system into a discrete-time Markov chain which is then shown to exhibit strongly connected properties that are verifiable through numerical methods. Read More

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Did the ACA's "guaranteed issue" provision cause adverse selection into nongroup insurance? Analysis using a copula-based hurdle model.

Health Econ 2021 Sep 2;30(9):2246-2263. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Economics, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, USA.

Prior to the Affordable Care Act (ACA), insurance companies could charge higher premiums, or outright deny coverage, to people with preexisting health problems. But the ACA's "guaranteed issue" provision forbids such price discrimination and denials of coverage. This paper seeks to determine whether, after implementation of the ACA, nongroup private insurance plans have experienced adverse selection. Read More

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September 2021

A Comparative Analysis of Health News in Indigenous and Mainstream Media.

Health Commun 2021 Jun 30:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Scripps School of Journalism, Ohio University.

It is important to evaluate the media's health coverage of Indigenous communities both because these communities have been hit very hard by health inequities, and because misinformation can negatively affect the future health of Indian Country. This study takes the unique angle of examining both Indigenous and non-Indigenous ("mainstream") news publications to evaluate information gaps in health, health policy, and health efficacy coverage. The Indigenous media examined, which covered 14 times more health stories than mainstream media, highlighted health issues in Indian Country through the lens of resilience by using framing to emphasize unequal power, while at the same time providing depth and specificity. Read More

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Paid family leave on local television news in the United States: Setting the agenda for policy reform.

SSM Popul Health 2021 Jun 15;14:100821. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Health Policy and Management, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, D305 Mayo Building, MMC 729 420 Delaware St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA.

Access to paid family and medical leave ("paid leave") has bipartisan support among lawmakers in the United States, but the issue remains stalled on the public policy agenda. The U.S. Read More

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High-dose hypofractionated pencil beam scanning carbon ion radiotherapy for lung tumors: Dosimetric impact of different spot sizes and robustness to interfractional uncertainties.

Phys Med 2021 May 10;85:79-86. Epub 2021 May 10.

CNAO, National Center for Oncological Hadrontherapy, Strada Campeggi 53, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.

Purpose: The robustness against setup and motion uncertainties of gated four-dimensional restricted robust optimization (4DRRO) was investigated for hypofractionated carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) of lung tumors.

Methods: CIRT plans of 9 patients were optimized using 4DRRO strategy with 3 mm setup errors, 3% density errors and 3 breathing phases related to the gate window. The prescription was 60 Gy(RBE) in 4 fractions. Read More

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FINDER: an automated software package to annotate eukaryotic genes from RNA-Seq data and associated protein sequences.

BMC Bioinformatics 2021 Apr 20;22(1):205. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Corn Insects and Crop Genetics Research Unit, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA, 50011, USA.

Background: Gene annotation in eukaryotes is a non-trivial task that requires meticulous analysis of accumulated transcript data. Challenges include transcriptionally active regions of the genome that contain overlapping genes, genes that produce numerous transcripts, transposable elements and numerous diverse sequence repeats. Currently available gene annotation software applications depend on pre-constructed full-length gene sequence assemblies which are not guaranteed to be error-free. Read More

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Conformalized Survival Analysis.

ArXiv 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Existing survival analysis techniques heavily rely on strong modelling assumptions and are, therefore, prone to model misspecification errors. In this paper, we develop an inferential method based on ideas from conformal prediction, which can wrap around any survival prediction algorithm to produce calibrated, covariate-dependent lower predictive bounds on survival times. In the Type I right-censoring setting, when the censoring times are completely exogenous, the lower predictive bounds have guaranteed coverage in finite samples without any assumptions other than that of operating on independent and identically distributed data points. Read More

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Dual derivatization strategy for the comprehensive quantification and double bond location characterization of fatty acids by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Feb 23;1639:461939. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100020, PR China. Electronic address:

Comprehensive analysis of fatty acids (FAs) has long been challenging due to their poor ionization efficiency, lack of characteristic fragment ions and difficulty of identifying C=C bond locations. In this study, a high coverage ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was established for the quantification and C=C bond location characterization of FAs using two structural analogues, 2-hydrazinyl-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine (DMP) and 2-hydrazinylpyrimidine (DP), as dual derivatization reagents. DP-labeled FA standards were used as internal standards to reduced matrix effects, which guaranteed the accurate quantification of FAs. Read More

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February 2021

Mental Illness Inequalities by Multimorbidity, Use of Health Resources and Socio-Economic Status in an Aging Society.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 8;18(2). Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Health Unit, Deusto Business School, University of Deusto, 48007 Bilbao, Spain.

Background: Mental illness, multi-morbidity, and socio-economic inequalities are some of the main challenges for the public health system nowadays, and are further aggravated by the process of population aging. Therefore, it is widely accepted that health systems need to focus their strategies for confronting such concerns. With guaranteed access to health care services under universal coverage in many health systems, it is expected that all services be provided equally to patients with the same level of need. Read More

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January 2021

Autonomy, Coercion, and Public Healthcare Guarantees: The Uptake of Sofosbuvir in Germany.

Authors:
Afschin Gandjour

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2021 01;30(1):90-102

Health insurance coverage for incarcerated citizens is generally acceptable by Western standards. However, it creates internal tensions with the prevailing justifications for public healthcare. In particular, a conceptualization of medical care as a source of autonomy enhancement does not align with the decreased autonomy of incarceration and the needs-based conceptualization of medical care in cases of imprisonment; and rejecting responsibility as a criterion for assigning medical care conflicts with the use of responsibility as a criterion for assigning punishment. Read More

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January 2021

Schizophrenia Treatment Coverage Provided by the Public and Private Health Systems of Chile.

Psychiatr Serv 2021 04 18;72(4):478-481. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Program of Mental Health, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Minoletti, Soto-Brandt, Toro, Zanga, Alvarado); Department of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, and Millenium Institute for Research in Depression and Personality, Santiago, Chile (Irarrázaval). Kathleen M. Pike, Ph.D., and Pamela Scorza, Sc.D., M.P.H., are editors of this column.

Since health care delivery in Chile was comprehensively reformed in 2005, treating schizophrenia for its populace has been guaranteed, regardless of individuals' type of health insurance coverage. The implementation of this national schizophrenia treatment program has facilitated timely access to care for Chileans with a first episode of schizophrenia, particularly for publicly insured individuals. Although this reform has benefited 98% of the population, significant challenges remain. Read More

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Interns' perceptions about the medical internship suspension during the COVID-19 quarantine.

Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 2020 Dec;37(3):504-509

 Universidad Científica del Sur, Lima, Perú.

The objective of the study was to describe the medical interns' (MI) perceptions about the internship suspension during the COVID-19 quarantine in Peru. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by means of a virtual survey regarding the perception of the internship suspension, return conditions and academic activities during quarantine. A total of 353 MIs participated in the study; 54. Read More

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December 2020

Confidence intervals for difference in proportions for matched pairs compatible with exact McNemar's or sign tests.

Stat Med 2021 02 1;40(5):1147-1159. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, Maryland, USA.

For testing with paired data (eg, twins randomized between two treatments), a simple test is the sign test, where we test if the distribution of the sign of the differences in responses between the two treatments within pairs is more often positive (favoring one treatment) or negative (favoring the other). When the responses are binary, this reduces to a McNemar-type test, and the calculations are the same. Although it is easy to calculate an exact P-value by conditioning on the total number of discordant pairs, the accompanying confidence interval on a parameter of interest (proportion positive minus proportion negative) is not straightforward. Read More

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February 2021

Branch vessel occlusion in aneurysm treatment with flow diverter stent.

Acta Biomed 2020 09 23;91(10-S):e2020003. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Operative Unit of Neuoradiology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico di Milano, Milan, Italy. Via Francesco Sforza 35, 20122, Milano, Italy.

Flow diverter placement for treatment of intracranial aneurysms gained growing consensus in the past years. A major concern among professionals is the side branch coverage which leads in some cases to vessel occlusion. However, the lost vessel patency only infrequently is accompanied by a new onset of neurological deficits secondary to ischaemic lesions. Read More

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September 2020

Born on U.S. Soil: Access to Healthcare for Neonates of Non-Citizens.

Matern Child Health J 2021 Jan 17;25(1):9-14. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Health Sciences Research Building W417, 1760 Haygood Drive NE, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

Introduction: The 14th amendment of the United States (US) Constitution guarantees citizenship to infants born in the US. With documentation of citizenship, typically through a birth certificate, neonates gain official identity and the opportunity to qualify for services like healthcare. Most guidance on caring for immigrant children assumes that access to health care is guaranteed for babies born in the US. Read More

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January 2021

When a Ventilator Takes Autonomous Decisions without Seeking Approbation nor Warning Clinicians: A Case Series.

Int Med Case Rep J 2020 15;13:521-529. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Medical and Surgical Intensive Care Unit, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Louis Mourier, 92700 Colombes, France.

Background: Complexity and functions of automated medical devices used to support life (eg, ventilators, dialysis machines, monitors, insulin pump with continuous blood glucose monitoring system, etc.) increase over time. Until recently, devices were partially automated by very simple feedback loops, with no or few software dependence (such as the simplest home thermostat). Read More

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October 2020

Daring to be differential: metabarcoding analysis of soil and plant-related microbial communities using amplicon sequence variants and operational taxonomical units.

BMC Genomics 2020 Oct 22;21(1):733. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (ILVO), Plant Sciences Unit, Burgemeester Van Gansberghelaan 92, 9820, Merelbeke, Belgium.

Background: Microorganisms are not only indispensable to ecosystem functioning, they are also keystones for emerging technologies. In the last 15 years, the number of studies on environmental microbial communities has increased exponentially due to advances in sequencing technologies, but the large amount of data generated remains difficult to analyze and interpret. Recently, metabarcoding analysis has shifted from clustering reads using Operational Taxonomical Units (OTUs) to Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs). Read More

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October 2020

Evaluation of OAR dose sparing and plan robustness of beam-specific PTV in lung cancer IMRT treatment.

Radiat Oncol 2020 Oct 17;15(1):241. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China.

Purpose: Margins are employed in radiotherapy treatment planning to mitigate the dosimetric effects of geometric uncertainties for the clinical target volume (CTV). Here, we proposed a margin concept that takes into consideration the beam direction, thereby generating a beam-specific planning target volume (BSPTV) on a beam entrance view. The total merged BSPTV was considered a target for optimization. Read More

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October 2020

The periosteal-cutaneous chimeric medial femoral condyle free flap for subtotal ear reconstruction: A case report.

Microsurgery 2020 Oct 22;40(7):814-817. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV), University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

When costal graft is contraindicated or refused by the patient, autologous total/subtotal auricular reconstruction represent a real challenge as limited surgical options has been described. Aim of present report is to offer a novel possible autologous reconstruction of the ear frame using a chimeric free medial femoral condyle (MFC) flap. We present a case of a 29 years old patient who had total loss of the upper 2/3 of the right ear after bombing in Somalia and secondary infected condritis (considered a relative contraindication for costal cartilage graft). Read More

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October 2020

Energy-Efficient UAVs Deployment for QoS-Guaranteed VoWiFi Service.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Aug 10;20(16). Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Department of Telematics Engineering, Universidad de Sevilla, 41092 Seville, Spain.

This paper formulates a new problem for the optimal placement of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) geared towards wireless coverage provision for Voice over WiFi (VoWiFi) service to a set of ground users confined in an open area. Our objective function is constrained by coverage and by VoIP speech quality and minimizes the ratio between the number of UAVs deployed and energy efficiency in UAVs, hence providing the layout that requires fewer UAVs per hour of service. Solutions provide the number and position of UAVs to be deployed, and are found using well-known heuristic search methods such as genetic algorithms (used for the initial deployment of UAVs), or particle swarm optimization (used for the periodical update of the positions). Read More

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Differential evolution-based optimal power allocation scheme for NOMA-VLC systems.

Opt Express 2020 Jul;28(15):21627-21640

This paper investigates a downlink power allocation scheme for application of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) in visible light communication (VLC) systems. Aiming to achieve a flexible tradeoff between sum rate and user fairness depending on administrators' subjective setting and acquire the optimal solution for any setting, we formulate two optimization problems, which are closely aligned with the practical application. Specifically, one is user fairness-guaranteed sum rate maximization, the other is sum rate-guaranteed user fairness maximization. Read More

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"Sell an Ox" - The Price of Cure for Hepatitis C in Two Countries.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2020 06 1;9(6):229-232. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Public Health & Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, associated with severe liver disease and cancer, affects 70 million people worldwide. New treatments with direct-acting-antivirals offer cure for about 95% of affected individuals; however, treatment costs may be prohibitive in both the poorest and richest nations. Opting for cure may require sacrificing essential household assets. Read More

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Economics of COVID-19: challenges and the way forward for health policy and the pandemic.

Indian J Public Health 2020 Jun;64(Supplement):S231-S233

Formerly Professor and Head, Centre for Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

The emergence of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic provides unique challenges for health system. While on the one hand, the government has to struggle with the strategies for control of COVID-19, on the other hand, other routine health services also need to be managed. Second, the infrastructure needs to be augmented to meet the potential epidemic surge of cases. Read More

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