392,578 results match your criteria costs


Self-reported reductions in tobacco and nicotine use following medical cannabis initiation: Results from a cross-sectional survey of authorized medical cannabis patients in Canada.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 May 14;130:108481. Epub 2021 May 14.

Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, St. Paul's Hospital 806-1081, Burrard St., Vancouver, BC, Canada; British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, 400-1045 Howe St., Vancouver, BC V6Z 2A9, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Despite decades of campaigns aimed at reducing tobacco/nicotine (T/N) use and the development of many different T/N reduction and cessation strategies, the impacts on international public health remain significant. Some studies have found an association between medical and non-medical cannabis use and T/N use, although the evidence on whether cannabis/cannabinoids increase or decrease the odds of reducing or ceasing T/N use remain contradictory. This paper explores the self-reported use of cannabis and associated changes in T/N use among a Canadian medical cannabis patient population. Read More

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Green non-conventional techniques for the extraction of polyphenols from agricultural food by-products: A review.

J Chromatogr A 2021 May 28;1651:462295. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, Fisciano, (SA) 84084, Italy.

Food processing industry is accompanied with the generation of a great production of wastes and by-products exceptionally rich in bioactive compounds (especially phenolics), with antioxidant activity. The recovery of these health molecules constitutes a key point for the valorization of by-products, with the possibility of creating new ingredients to be used for the formulation of food and cosmetic products. One of the main limitations to reuse by-products is linked to the high cost to obtain bioactive compounds, consequently in order to exploit these resources commercially valuable it is necessary to develop innovative, economic and environmentally friendly extraction strategies. Read More

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Impact of inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment on clinical outcomes of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli: a retrospective cohort study.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Medicine, Clinical Laboratory of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: We aimed to determine the clinical impact of inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment (IEAT) compared with appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment (AEAT) in hospitalised patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli).

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included adult patients with a primary diagnosis of UTI who were treated with empirical antibiotics at a tertiary hospital in southern China over a 2-year period. Read More

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Improving mAb capture productivity on batch and continuous downstream processing using nanofiber PrismA adsorbents.

J Biotechnol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Ology Bioservices, Process Development, 13200 NW Nano Ct., Alachua, FL, 32615, USA. Electronic address:

Improving productivity and decreasing costs for biotherapeutic agents has been a focal driving force in the manufacturing of biologics. Advances in upstream processes have been continuously outpacing the ability for downstream operations to purify biologics, especially monoclonal antibodies. Continuous chromatography has several benefits for biologic purification including automated control, decreased labor, improved productivity, and more consistent product attributes. Read More

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The squirrel monkey model in clinical neuroscience.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Brain Connectivity and Behaviour Laboratory, Sorbonne Universities, Paris, France; Groupe d'Imagerie Neurofonctionnelle, Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives-UMR 5293, CNRS, CEA University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

Clinical neuroscience research relying on animal models brought valuable translational insights into the function and pathologies of the human brain. The anatomical, physiological, and behavioural similarities between humans and mammals have prompted researchers to study cerebral mechanisms at different levels to develop and test new treatments. The vast majority of biomedical research uses rodent models, which are easily manipulable and have a broadly resembling organisation to the human nervous system but cannot satisfactorily mimic some disorders. Read More

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Using an economic evaluation approach to support specialist nursing services for people with Parkinson's in a regional community.

J Adv Nurs 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Charles Sturt University, School of Nursing, Midwifery and Indigenous Health, Orange, New South Wales, Australia.

Aim: This study aims to provide economic evidence of the cost-effectiveness of employing specialist Parkinson's nurses in a regional community in Australia.

Study Design: This retrospective study utilized hospital service usage data to compare outcomes for people with Parkinson's disease before and after the employment of a specialist Parkinson's nurse in a regional community.

Methods: A representative sample was drawn from the target population of people with a diagnosis of Parkinson's admitted to a regional hospital over a 4-year period (2013-2014 and 2016-2017). Read More

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Risk for hepatic and extra-hepatic outcomes in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from the symposium: Non-Alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

J Intern Med 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined by presence of steatosis in more than 5% of liver cells. The gold standard for diagnosis is liver biopsy, but this is seldom achieved due to costs and risk for side-effects, why the diagnosis is mostly made based on a combination of radiology and exclusion of other liver diseases. Disease severity staging can be non-invasively achieved with radiological exams such as elastography, or blood-based markers, that usually have lower sensitivity and specificity. Read More

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Pertussis in Individuals with Co-morbidities: A Systematic Review.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

inScience Communications, Chowley Oak Business Park, Chowley Oak Lane, Tattenhall, Cheshire, UK.

Pertussis is a highly contagious disease of the respiratory tract caused by Bordetella pertussis. Although the burden of pertussis is highest in children, available data suggests that pertussis in the elderly and those with underlying chronic conditions or illnesses can result in significant morbidity, mortality and costs. We undertook a comprehensive review to assess the association between pertussis and chronic conditions/illnesses. Read More

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Generating indicator species for bird monitoring within the humid forests of northeast Central America.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jun 12;193(7):413. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, 01003, USA.

The use of indicator species can simplify bird monitoring by reducing the level of specialized skills needed, which increases the potential pool of participants and reduces training costs and complexity. To facilitate monitoring in the humid forests of northeast Central America, we conducted point count surveys for birds across gradients of disturbance in the Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary, Belize, and analyzed the association of bird species with remotely sensed metrics of forest condition and anthropogenic disturbance using indicator species analysis. Twenty species exhibited significant associations with one or more of these metrics. Read More

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Cost effectiveness and impact of a targeted age- and incidence-based West Nile virus vaccine strategy.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of arboviral disease in the United States and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A previous analysis found that a vaccination program targeting persons aged ≥60 years was more cost effective than universal vaccination, but costs remained high.

Methods: We used a mathematical Markov model to evaluate cost-effectiveness of an age- and incidence-based WNV vaccination program. Read More

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How does artificial intelligence in radiology improve efficiency and health outcomes?

Pediatr Radiol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Medical Imaging, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Since the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) in radiology, the promise has been that it will improve health care and reduce costs. Has AI been able to fulfill that promise? We describe six clinical objectives that can be supported by AI: a more efficient workflow, shortened reading time, a reduction of dose and contrast agents, earlier detection of disease, improved diagnostic accuracy and more personalized diagnostics. We provide examples of use cases including the available scientific evidence for its impact based on a hierarchical model of efficacy. Read More

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Mandatory HPV Vaccination; Opportunity to Save Lives, Improve Readiness and Cut Costs.

Mil Med 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brooke Army Medical Center, Joint Base San Antonio, TX 78234, USA.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the U.S. military and accounts for more healthcare visits than the next two most common STIs combined. Read More

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Identification of damage development in the core of steel cord belts with the diagnostic system.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12349. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Faculty of Electronics, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, 27 Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego st., 50-370, Wrocław, Poland.

Belt conveyors are used for transporting bulk materials over distances. The core of the belt, by transferring the longitudinal stresses and ensuring proper frictional coupling of the belt, enables belt movement and transportation of materials on its surface. As the belt cover and edges are used, the belt becomes abraded, and the core is subject to fatigue. Read More

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Health Education Intervention for Patients Undergoing Placement of Percutaneous Nephrostomy Tube: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Luis Manuel Fernández Cacho, PhD, Department of Radiology, Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital, IDIVAL, School of Nursing, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain Rosa Ayesa Arriola, PhD, Department of Psychiatry, Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital, IDIVAL, School of Medicine, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain; Centro Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the economic impact (cost) of percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) tube care in patients following an educational intervention to no intervention.

Design: A randomized controlled trial.

Subjects And Setting: The sample comprised 178 patients recruited between May 2017 and April 2019. Read More

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Patents for the Plastic Surgeon: A Primer.

Ann Plast Surg 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

From the Division of Plastic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Southmead Hospital, North Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol, United Kingdom Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract: Although innovation and entrepreneurship are complementary in the process of creating new products, plastic surgeons are frequently discouraged by the challenges associated with the regulatory and administrative environments in patent filing. The following primer provides a step-by-step guide for understanding patents and outlines the steps and costs involved in patent filing. To improve opportunities for successful patent filing, we elaborate on some of the common pitfalls in the process, including the timing of public disclosure, conducting a private art search, selecting a patent attorney or agent, determining the level of inventor involvement, and navigating academic and employment contracts. Read More

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Novel drug candidates targeting Alzheimer's disease: ethical challenges with identifying the relevant patient population.

J Med Ethics 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Stockholm Centre of Healthcare Ethics, LIME, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Intensive research is carried out to develop a disease-modifying drug for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The development of drug candidates that reduce Aß or tau in the brain seems particularly promising. However, these drugs target people at risk for AD, who must be identified before they have any, or only moderate, symptoms associated with the disease. Read More

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Cost-effectiveness analysis of resorbable biosynthetic mesh in contaminated ventral hernia repair.

J Visc Surg 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Clinical Investigation Center, INSERM, CIC1432, Dijon University Hospital; INSERM, LNC UMR1231, University Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon, France.

Background: The aim of this study was to compare, in terms of cost and serious complications, the use of biosynthetic resorbable parietal mesh with biologic mesh in patients undergoing contaminated ventral hernia repair (modified Ventral Hernia Working Group grade 3). Poly-4-hydroxy-butyrate (P4HB) biosynthetic mesh has rarely been the subject of comparative studies in the context of contamination. Data are required to confirm the effects of a transition from biological mesh to biosynthetic resorbable mesh. Read More

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Don't forget about the future: The impact of including future costs on the cost-effectiveness of adult pneumococcal conjugate vaccination with PCV13 in the Netherlands.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Erasmus School of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: When vaccines increase longevity, vaccinated people may experience costs and benefits during added life-years. These future benefits and costs may include increased productivity as well as medical and non-medical costs. Such impacts should be considered in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) of vaccines but are often omitted. Read More

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Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) use for the management of instrumented, infected, and fragility non-unions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of healing proportions.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Jun 11;22(1):532. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

Background: Non-union occurs in approximately 5 to 10% of fracture patients, with certain bones at greater risk of failing to heal. Non-unions have a significant impact on socioeconomic costs and the patients short and long-term quality of life. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a non-invasive therapy for non-union treatment that can improve the long-term outcome. Read More

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Biochar induced improvement in root system architecture enhances nutrient assimilation by cotton plant seedlings.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Jun 11;21(1):269. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, 712100, China.

Background: Raising nitrogen use efficiency of crops by improving root system architecture is highly essential not only to reduce costs of agricultural production but also to mitigate climate change. The physiological mechanisms of how biochar affects nitrogen assimilation by crop seedlings have not been well elucidated.

Results: Here, we report changes in root system architecture, activities of the key enzymes involved in nitrogen assimilation, and cytokinin (CTK) at the seedling stage of cotton with reduced urea usage and biochar application at different soil layers (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm). Read More

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Effectiveness of a Teleophthalmology Vision Center in Treating Corneal Disorders and Its Associated Economic Benefits.

Cornea 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Cornea and Refractive Surgery, Aravind Eye Care System, Madurai, India; Department of Cataract, S.V. Aravind Eye Hospital, Aravind Eye Care System, Tirupati, India.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to study the clinical and economic impact of a teleophthalmology-based vision center (VC) in the management of corneal diseases in rural south India.

Methods: Data of patients with corneal disorders who visited the VC in the year 2019 were analyzed for the total number of outpatient visits, the proportion of corneal cases that were treated at the VC, those referred to the base hospital (BH), and the costs of treatment.

Results: In 2019, 1131 (10%) of 10,850 patients who visited the VC were diagnosed with corneal disorders. Read More

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A Fast-track Pathway for Emergency General Surgery at an Academic Medical Center.

J Surg Res 2021 Jun 8;267:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Background: Fast Track Pathways (FTP) directed at reducing length of stay (LOS) and overall costs are being increasingly implemented for emergency surgeries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate implementation of a FTP for Emergency General Surgery (EGS) at an academic medical center (AMC).

Methods: The study included 165 patients at an AMC between 2016 and 2018 who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy (LA), laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), or laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair (LI). Read More

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The causal role of DLPFC top-down control on the acquisition and the automatic expression of implicit learning: State of the art.

Cortex 2021 May 12;141:293-310. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Experimental Psychology and Mind, Brain and Behaviour Research Center, University of Granada, Spain. Electronic address:

Implicit learning refers to the incidental acquisition and expression of knowledge that is not accompanied by full awareness of its contents. Implicit sequence learning (ISL) represents one of the most useful paradigms to investigate these processes. In this paradigm, participants are usually instructed to respond to the location of a target that moves regularly through a set of possible locations. Read More

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Functional Somatic Syndromes are Associated with Suboptimal Outcomes and High Cost after Shoulder Arthroplasty.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New England Baptist Hospital, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: The presence of functional somatic syndromes (chronic physical symptoms with no identifiable organic cause) in patients undergoing elective joint arthroplasty may affect the recovery experience. We explored the prevalence of functional somatic syndromes among shoulder arthroplasty patients, and their association with postoperative outcomes and costs.

Methods: We identified 480 patients undergoing elective total shoulder arthroplasty (anatomic or reverse) between 2015-2018 in our institutional registry with minimum 2-year follow-up. Read More

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Cassava starch-processing residue utilization for packaging development.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Laboratory of Packaging Technology and Membrane Development, LATEM, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Street Ramiro Barcellos, 2777 Anexo I, ZC: 90035-007 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

The starch-based film development has been extensively studied since, in general, it is possible to obtain transparent, non-toxic, odorless, good gas barrier, biodegradable, and tasteless samples. However, world hunger-related problems are a reality and the use of starches, a recognized carbohydrate source, in the packaging industry should be avoided. Thus, the use of different residual starchy can minimize the costs of production, promoting the development of innovative biomaterials, eliminating the competition with the food chain. Read More

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Evolving Cost-Quality Relationship in Pediatric Heart Surgery.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Background: For the >40,000 US children undergoing congenital heart surgery annually, the relationship between hospital quality and costs remains unclear. Prior studies report conflicting results and clinical outcomes have continued to improve over time. We examined a large contemporary cohort, aiming to better inform ongoing initiatives seeking to optimize healthcare value in this population. Read More

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Low back pain.

Lancet 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; Neurology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Anesthesiology, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Low back pain covers a spectrum of different types of pain (eg, nociceptive, neuropathic and nociplastic, or non-specific) that frequently overlap. The elements comprising the lumbar spine (eg, soft tissue, vertebrae, zygapophyseal and sacroiliac joints, intervertebral discs, and neurovascular structures) are prone to different stressors, and each of these, alone or in combination, can contribute to low back pain. Due to numerous factors related to low back pain, and the low specificity of imaging and diagnostic injections, diagnostic methods for this condition continue to be a subject of controversy. Read More

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Disentangling the energetic costs of step time asymmetry and step length asymmetry in human walking.

J Exp Biol 2021 Jun 11;224(12). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

The metabolic cost of walking in healthy individuals increases with spatiotemporal gait asymmetries. Pathological gait, such as post-stroke, often has asymmetry in step length and step time which may contribute to an increased energy cost. But paradoxically, enforcing step length symmetry does not reduce metabolic cost of post-stroke walking. Read More

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The p16/ki-67 assay is a safe, effective and rapid approach to triage women with mild cervical lesions.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0253045. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, "Alexandra" Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and efficiency of p16/ki-67 dual stain in the identification of CIN2+ lesions, in Greek women with ASCUS or LSIL cytology.

Methods: A total of 200 women, 20 to 60 years old, were enrolled in the study. All samples were cytologically evaluated and performed for p16/ki-67 and high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) test. Read More

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Cost of illness for severe and non-severe diarrhea borne by households in a low-income urban community of Bangladesh: A cross-sectional study.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 11;15(6):e0009439. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The illness cost borne by households, known as out-of-pocket expenditure, was 74% of the total health expenditure in Bangladesh in 2017. Calculating economic burden of diarrhea of low-income urban community is important to identify potential cost savings strategies and prioritize policy decision to improve the quality of life of this population. This study aimed to estimate cost of illness and monthly percent expenditure borne by households due diarrhea in a low-income urban settlement of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Read More

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