12,995 results match your criteria cortical thickness


Strain-specific alterations in the skeletal response to adenine-induced chronic kidney disease are associated with differences in parathyroid hormone levels.

Bone 2021 Apr 17:115963. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology & Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States; Department of Medicine - Division of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University Purdue University of Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, United States; Roudebush Veterans Administration Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN, United States. Electronic address:

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to loss of cortical bone through cortical thinning and the development of cortical porosity. The goal of this current study was to assess cortical bone alterations to adenine-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) in two strains of mice with known genetic differences in cortical thickness. We hypothesized that C3H mice with thicker cortices and baseline levels of intracortical remodeling would have greater cortical porosity in response to adenine-induced CKD compared to B6 animals. Read More

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In Silico Analysis of Elastomer-Coated Cerclage for Reducing Sternal Cut-Through in High-Risk Patients.

J Biomech Eng 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Manufacturing and Automation Research Center, Koc University, Istanbul 34450, Turkey.

Background: AISI 316L stainless steel wire cerclage routinely used in sternotomy closure causes lateral cut-through damage and fracture, especially in cases of high-risk patients, which leads to post-operative complications. A biocompatible elastomer (Pellethane®) coating on the standard wire is proposed to mitigate the cut-through effect.

Methods: Simplified peri-sternal and trans-sternal, sternum-cerclage contact models are created and statically analyzed in a finite element (FE) software to characterize the stress-reduction effect of the polymer coating for thicknesses between 0. Read More

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CELLULAR PACKETS, CELL DIVISION AND MORPHOGENESIS IN THE PRIMARY ROOT MERISTEM OF ZEA MAYS L.

Authors:
Peter W Barlow

New Phytol 1987 Jan;105(1):27-56

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bristol, Long Ashton Research Station, Long Ashton, Bristol BS18 9AF, UK.

Dormant meristematic cells of the unemerged radicle contained within the caryopsis of Zea mays L. are arrested in either the G or G phase of the mitotic cycle. Following germination and the resumption of root growth, each of these cells divides repeatedly to form multicellular groups, or 'packets'. Read More

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January 1987

Anti-seizure medication correlated changes of cortical morphology in childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Mar 23;173:106621. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, The First School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Nanjing, 210002, China; Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, 210002, China; State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China; Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 Thirteenth Street, Suite 2301, Charlestown, MA, 02129, USA. Electronic address:

To investigate the morphological changes of cerebral cortex correlating with anti-seizure medication in Childhood Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes (CECTS), and their relationships with seizure control. This study included a total of 188 children, including 62 patients with CECTS taking anti-seizure drugs, 56 patients with drug-naive, and 70 healthy controls. A portion of cases were also followed-up for longitudinal analysis. Read More

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The Prenatal Morphomechanic Impact of Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum on Human Brain Structure and Asymmetry.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Genetic, molecular, and physical forces together impact brain morphogenesis. The early impact of deficient midline crossing in agenesis of the Corpus Callosum (ACC) on prenatal human brain development and architecture is widely unknown. Here we analyze the changes of brain structure in 46 fetuses with ACC in vivo to identify their deviations from normal development. Read More

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Impaired bone microarchitecture in premenopausal women with acromegaly: the possible role of Wnt signaling.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Neuroendocrine Unit, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hospital das Clinicas, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil.

Context: Acromegaly can impair bone integrity, increasing the risk of vertebral fractures (VF).

Objective: To evaluate the impact of isolated GH/IGF-I hypersecretion on bone turnover markers,Wnt inhibitors, BMD, microarchitecture, bone strength and vertebral fractures in female patients with acromegaly (Acro), compared to healthy control group (HC).

Design, Setting, And Patients: Cross-sectional study including 83 premenopausal women without any pituitary deficiency:18 acromegaly in remission (AcroR), 12 in group with active acromegaly (AcroA) and 53 HC. Read More

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Cortical Volume, Thickness, and Surface Area in the Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Departments of Medicine Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Background: The motoric cognitive risk (MCR) syndrome is a pre-clinical stage of dementia characterized by slow gait and cognitive complaint. Yet, the brain substrates of MCR are not well established.

Objective: To examine cortical thickness, volume, and surface area associated with MCR in the MCR-Neuroimaging Consortium, which harmonizes image processing/analysis of multiple cohorts. Read More

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Hemodynamic and structural brain measures in high and low sedentary older adults.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 Apr 17:271678X211009382. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Due to its cardiovascular effects sedentary behaviour might impact cerebrovascular function in the long term, affecting cerebrovascular regulatory mechanisms and perfusion levels. Consequently this could underly potential structural brain abnormalities associated with cognitive decline. We therefore assessed the association between sedentary behaviour and brain measures of cerebrovascular perfusion and structural abnormalities in community-dwelling older adults. Read More

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Association between cortical thickness and distinct vascular cognitive impairment and dementia in patients with white matter lesions.

Exp Physiol 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

New Findings: Previous studies have suggested WML is a brain disease characterized by altered brain structural and functional connectivity. However, findings have shown an inconsistent pattern. One of the reasons may be due to the potential subtypes of WML manifestation and related brain structural abnormalities. Read More

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Cortical Networks Underpinning Compensation of Verbal Fluency in Normal Aging.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Psychobiology and Methodology, Faculty of Health Science, Section of Psychology and Speech Therapy, University of La Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife 38 200, Spain.

Elucidating compensatory mechanisms underpinning phonemic fluency (PF) may help to minimize its decline due to normal aging or neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated cortical brain networks potentially underpinning compensation of age-related differences in PF. Using graph theory, we constructed networks from measures of thickness for PF, semantic, and executive-visuospatial cortical networks. Read More

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Qualitative and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of bone tissue Vaso-occlusive events in patients with sickle cell disease.

Bone 2021 Apr 16:115961. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Ribeirão Preto Medical School, USP Ribeirão Preto, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo, Campus Universitário s/n - Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.; Ribeirão Preto Medical School Musculoskeletal Imaging Research Laboratory; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Missouri Health Care, Columbia, MO, United States of America.

Objective: To evaluate the association between bone changes due to vaso-occlusive events in sickle cell disease (SCD) revealed by conventional MRI sequences and the fat fraction obtained using a 6-point DIXON technique (FFdix), in an attempt to use quantitative data as a biomarker for bone complications.

Methods: Cross-sectional study, with 48 SCD patients, 26-homozygous (HbSS), and 22-compound heterozygous (HbSC). Forty-eight healthy individuals paired by age, weight, and sex with SCD patients. Read More

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Relationships between preoperative cortical thickness, postoperative electroencephalogram slowing, and postoperative delirium.

Br J Anaesth 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia; Department of Anaesthetics, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW, Australia; Institute of Academic Surgery, Camperdown, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: It is unclear how preoperative neurodegeneration and postoperative changes in EEG delta power relate to postoperative delirium severity. We sought to understand the relative relationships between neurodegeneration and delta power as predictors of delirium severity.

Methods: We undertook a prospective cohort study of high-risk surgical patients (>65 yr old) to identify predictors of peak delirium severity (Delirium Rating Scale-98) with twice-daily delirium assessments (NCT03124303). Read More

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Response to targeted cognitive training may be neuroprotective in patients with early schizophrenia.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2021 Apr 7;312:111285. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

University of California, San Francisco, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, USA; San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, USA.

Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit widespread cortical thinning associated with illness severity and deficits in cognition. However, intact cortical thickness (CTh) may serve as a protective factor. The current study sought to examine changes in CTh in response to auditory targeted cognitive training (TCT) in individuals with recent onset schizophrenia. Read More

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Evaluation of bone dose arising from skin cancer brachytherapy: A comparison between Ir and Co sources through Monte Carlo simulations.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Apr 8;205:106089. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Medical Physics and Radiology, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran. Electronic address:

Purpose: This study aimed to calculate and compare absorbed dose to bone following exposure to Ir and Co sources in high dose rate (HDR) skin brachytherapy. Moreover, effects of the bone thickness and soft tissue thickness before the bone on absorbed dose to the bone are evaluated .

Materials And Methods: Ir and Co sources inserted in Leipzig applicators with internal diameters of 1, 2 and 3 cm with/without their optimal flattening filters were simulated by MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Read More

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Multimodal brain predictors of current weight and weight gain in children enrolled in the ABCD study ®.

Dev Cogn Neurosci 2021 Mar 30;49:100948. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA; Department of Psychological Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA.

Multimodal neuroimaging assessments were utilized to identify generalizable brain correlates of current body mass index (BMI) and predictors of pathological weight gain (i.e., beyond normative development) one year later. Read More

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Etanercept prevents TNF-α mediated mandibular bone loss in FcγRIIb-/- lupus model.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(4):e0250215. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Skeletal Disorders Research Unit, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are at increased risk for alveolar bone loss due to periodontitis possibly as a result of a pathogenic immune response to oral bacteria and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an anti-TNF-α antagonist could prevent mandibular bone loss in the FcγRIIb-/- mouse model of lupus. Mice lacking FcγRIIb had decreased cancellous and cortical bone volume at 6 months of age. Read More

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Variations in structural MRI quality significantly impact commonly used measures of brain anatomy.

Brain Inform 2021 Apr 15;8(1). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Learning Research & Development Center, University of Pittsburgh, 3939 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA, 15260, USA.

Subject motion can introduce noise into neuroimaging data and result in biased estimations of brain structure. In-scanner motion can compromise data quality in a number of ways and varies widely across developmental and clinical populations. However, quantification of structural image quality is often limited to proxy or indirect measures gathered from functional scans; this may be missing true differences related to these potential artifacts. Read More

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Longitudinal structural brain changes in Friedreich ataxia depend on disease severity: the IMAGE-FRDA study.

J Neurol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Psychological Sciences and Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, Monash University, Clayton Campus, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia.

Background: Friedreich ataxia is an inherited neurodegenerative disease, with cerebral and cerebellar pathology evident. Despite an increased understanding of its neuropathology, disease progression in this disease remains poorly understood. This study aimed to characterise longitudinal change in brain structure using a multi-modal approach across cerebral and cerebellar grey and white matter. Read More

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Severe Bone Microarchitecture Impairment in Women With Pregnancy and Lactation-Associated Osteoporosis.

J Endocr Soc 2021 May 26;5(5):bvab031. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Instituto de Diagnóstico e Investigaciones Metabólicas (IDIM), Universidad del Salvador, ZC 1012 Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Context: Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare condition characterized by fragility fractures, mostly vertebral, during the third trimester of pregnancy or the early postpartum period.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate bone microarchitecture in women with PLO to better understand the pathophysiology of this disease.

Methods: In this retrospective study, we included women with PLO referred to our bone center between November 2007 and July 2012. Read More

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Effect of citalopram on hippocampal volume in first-episode schizophrenia: Structural MRI results from the DECIFER trial.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2021 Apr 7;312:111286. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Psychiatry, NYU Langone Health, 1 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016, United States of America; Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, 140 Old Orangeburg Road, Orangeburg, NY 10962, United States of America. Electronic address:

Hippocampal volume loss is prominent in first episode schizophrenia (FES) and has been associated with poor clinical outcomes and with BDNF genotype; antidepressants are believed to reverse hippocampal volume loss via release of BDNF. In a 12-month, placebo-controlled add-on trial of the antidepressant, citalopram, during the maintenance phase of FES, negative symptoms were improved with citalopram. We now report results of structural brain imaging at baseline and 6 months in 63 FES patients (34 in citalopram group) from the trial to assess whether protection against hippocampal volume loss contributed to improved negative symptoms with citalopram. Read More

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Separating the influences of late talking and dyslexia on brain structure.

J Abnorm Psychol 2021 Apr;130(3):286-296

Laboratory of Language Neurobiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences.

Being a late talker constitutes a risk factor for later neurodevelopmental disorders; however, its neurobiological basis remains unexplored. We aimed to determine the unique and mutual correlates of late talking and developmental dyslexia on brain structure and behavioral outcomes in a large sample of 8- to 10-year-old children in a between-groups design ( = 120). Brain structure was examined using voxel-based morphometry (to measure gray matter volume) and surface-based morphometry (to measure gray matter volume, cortical thickness, surface area, and curvature of the cortex). Read More

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Tibial Macrostructure and Microarchitecture Adaptations in Women During 44 Weeks of Arduous Military Training.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Army Health and Performance Research, Army Headquarters, Andover, UK.

Bone adapts to unaccustomed, high-impact loading but loses mechanosensitivity quickly. Short periods of military training (≤12 weeks) increase the density and size of the tibia in women. The effect of longer periods of military training, where the incidence of stress fracture is high, on tibial macrostructure and microarchitecture in women is unknown. Read More

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A pilot study comparing daily teriparatide with monthly cycles of teriparatide and raloxifene.

Arch Osteoporos 2021 04 15;16(1):70. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Osteoporosis Clinical Research Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2870 University Ave, Suite 100, Madison, WI, 53705, USA.

This 6-month pilot study in osteoporotic postmenopausal women evaluated cyclic TPD/RLX compared to daily subcutaneous TPD with the concept of optimizing bone formation. Compared to daily subcutaneous TPD, cyclic therapy showed comparable increase in spine BMD and favorable effects on total proximal femur BMD and cortical thickness.

Purpose: There is no cure for osteoporosis; better medications or different approaches with current agents are needed. Read More

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Longitudinal analysis of T1w/T2w ratio in patients with multiple sclerosis from first clinical presentation.

Mult Scler 2021 Apr 15:13524585211003479. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany/ NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany/Einstein Center for Neurosciences, Berlin, Germany/Department of Neurology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Cross-sectional studies suggest normal appearing white matter (NAWM) integrity loss may lead to cortical atrophy in late-stage relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS).

Objective: To investigate the relationship between NAWM integrity and cortical thickness from first clinical presentation longitudinally.

Methods: NAWM integrity and cortical thickness were assessed with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 102 patients with clinically isolated syndrome or early MS (33. Read More

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Evaluation of total bone and cortical bone thickness of the palate for temporary anchorage device insertion.

J Dent Sci 2021 Mar 21;16(2):636-642. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Medical Device Innovation Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

Background/purpose: The palate has become a popular site for the placement of temporary anchorage devices (TADs) owing to its bone quantity and quality. This study aimed to investigate total and cortical bone thicknesses in the whole palate as well as palatal width using a standard grid system and cone-bean computed tomography (CBCT) images.

Materials And Methods: The CBCT images of 43 samples were selected. Read More

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Deciphering Myostatin's Regulatory, Metabolic, and Developmental Influence in Skeletal Diseases.

Front Genet 2021 29;12:662908. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, United States.

Current research findings in humans and other mammalian and non-mammalian species support the potent regulatory role of myostatin in the morphology and function of muscle as well as cellular differentiation and metabolism, with real-life implications in agricultural meat production and human disease. Myostatin null mice ( ) exhibit skeletal muscle fiber hyperplasia and hypertrophy whereas myostatin deficiency in larger mammals like sheep and pigs engender muscle fiber hyperplasia. Myostatin's impact extends beyond muscles, with alterations in myostatin present in the pathophysiology of myocardial infarctions, inflammation, insulin resistance, diabetes, aging, cancer cachexia, and musculoskeletal disease. Read More

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Delayed orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson's disease.

NPJ Parkinsons Dis 2021 Apr 14;7(1):37. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is relatively common in the early stage of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is divided into delayed OH and classical OH. Classical OH in PD has been investigated widely, however, the clinical implications of delayed OH in PD have seldom been studied. Read More

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Association of Neighborhood Context, Cognitive Decline, and Cortical Change in an Unimpaired Cohort.

Neurology 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI

Objective: To test the hypothesis that neighborhood-level disadvantage is associated with longitudinal measures of neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in an unimpaired cohort.

Methods: Longitudinal MRI and cognitive testing data were collected from 601 cognitively unimpaired participants in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention study and the Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center clinical cohort. Area Deprivation Index was geospatially determined based on participant residence geocode and ranked relative to state of residence. Read More

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Grey matter microstructural alterations in schizophrenia patients with treatment-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Mar 25;138:130-138. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Psychiatry Department, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica-Sant Pau (IIB-SANT PAU), Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, Barcelona, Spain; Biomedical Research Networking Centre in Mental Health (CIBERSAM), Spain.

Treatment-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations (TRAVH) are a relatively prevalent and devastating symptom in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). Even though their pathological mechanisms are poorly understood, they seem to differ from those underlying non-hallucinating SCZ. In this study, we characterise structural brain changes in SCZ patients with TRAVH. Read More

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Influence of anthopometric variables on the mechanical properties of human rib cortical bone.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Eduard Maristany, 14, Barcelona, Catalunya, 08034, SPAIN.

Objective: The mechanical properties of ribs from a large number of post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) were analyzed to search for variation according to age, sex or BMI in the sample. A large sample of specimens from different donors (N = 64) with a very wide range of ages and anthropometric characteristics was tested.

Methods: Uniaxial tensile tests were used for a sample of coupons machined from cortical bone tissue in order to isolate the purely mechanical properties from the geometrically influenced properties of the rib. Read More

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